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Christina Rossetti: Poems “A Birthday” (1861) Summary and Analysis
bts resume exercices de rsum. A Birthday Christina Rossetti? Le rsum de texte n'a pas tout fait disparu des rfrentiels de BTS. Moral Essay? Il constitue en effet un exercice dont les comptences restent majeures dans l'analyse et la matrise du texte argumentatif . A Birthday Rossetti Analysis? Celui-ci est rgi d'abord par une progression logique qu'on pourra s'employer reprer voire reformuler sous la forme d'un exercice spcifique de type rsum. Essay The Calling Of The? Voici un mode de prsentation d'une structure argumentative : nous avons dcoup le texte selon ses principales units de sens partir des paragraphes et des mots de liaison (la colonne Structure les schmatise). Dans la colonne de droite, les expressions-clefs commandent les tapes ncessaires reformuler dans un exercice de type rsum : © ditions Grasset, 1987.
Nous entrons dans la barbarie. A Birthday? Certes ce n'est pas la premire fois que l'humanit plonge dans la nuit. Problems Teachers Essay? On peut mme penser que cette aventure amre lui est arrive bien des fois et c'est la gorge serre que l'historien relve les traces d'une civilisation disparue. Christina? Mais une autre toujours prenait la suite. Teachers Essay? Sur les ruines des sanctuaires anciens s'lvent de nouveaux temples, plus puissants ou plus raffins. Les campagnes que les systmes d'irrigation l'abandon ont transformes en marcages sont un jour ou l'autre draines et assches de nouveau, une agriculture plus prospre s'y installe. A Birthday Rossetti Analysis? Ainsi pouvait-on se reprsenter l'histoire sous une forme cyclique. Moral Essay? A chaque phase d'expansion succde celle du dclin mais, l ou ailleurs, un nouvel essor se produit, portant plus loin le dveloppement de la vie. Christina? Celui-ci apparat global. Essay About Calling? C'est conjointement que, s'appuyant l'une sur l'autre et s'exaltant l'une l'autre, les forces sises en l'homme se dploient : activit conomique, artisanale, artistique, intellectuelle, religieuse vont ensemble et, quelle que soit celle que privilgie l'interprte, il constate cette closion simultane des savoirs pratique, technique et thorique dont le rsultat s'appelle Sumer, Assur, la Perse, l'gypte, la Grce, Rome, Byzance, le Moyen Age, la Renaissance.
L, dans ces « espaces » privilgis, c'tait chaque fois la totalit des valeurs qui font l'humanit qui s'panouissaient en mme temps. Ce qui se passe sous nos yeux est bien diffrent. A Birthday Christina Analysis? Nous assistons depuis le dbut de l're moderne un dveloppement sans prcdent des savoirs qui forment la « science » et revendiquent d'ailleurs hautement ce titre. Canadian Technology? Par l on a birthday christina analysis, entend une connaissance rigoureuse, objective, incontestable, vraie. Problems Teachers Teaching Adolescents Essay? De toutes les formes approximatives, voire douteuses, de connaissances, ou de croyances, ou de superstitions qui l'avaient prcde, celle-ci se distingue en effet par la puissance de ses vidences et de ses dmonstrations, de ses preuves, en mme temps que par les rsultats extraordinaires auxquels elle a abouti et qui bouleversent la face de la terre. A Birthday Christina Rossetti? Un tel bouleversement, malheureusement, est aussi celui de l'homme lui-mme. Central Asia? Si la connaissance de plus en plus comprhensive de l'univers est incontestablement un bien, pourquoi va-t-elle de pair avec l'effondrement de toutes les autres valeurs, effondrement si grave qu'il met en cause notre existence mme ? Car ce n'est pas seulement la face de la terre qui est change; en effet, devenant si affreuse, la vie n'y est plus supportable. A Birthday Christina Analysis? Parce que c'est la vie mme qui est atteinte, ce sont toutes ses valeurs qui chancellent, non seulement l'esthtique mais aussi l'thique, le sacr et avec eux la possibilit de vivre chaque jour. Canadian Technology? La crise de la culture, qu'il n'est gure possible de dissimuler aujourd'hui, a fait l'objet d'analyses.
L' « explication » la plus gnralement admise est celle-ci : avec la science moderne le savoir a fait d'immenses progrs; cette fin, il a d se fragmenter en une prolifration de recherches ayant chacune ses mthodologies, ses appareils conceptuels, ses objets. Christina? Il n'est plus possible personne dsormais de les matriser toutes, ni mme quelques-unes, ni mme une seule. Questionnaire? C'est l'unit du savoir qui est en cause et avec elle la mise jour d'un principe assurant la concordance et ainsi la validit des conduites, des apprciations dans tous les domaines, des penses elles-mmes. Notre comportement quotidien est significatif cet gard devant chaque problme particulier, faire appel au spcialiste. A Birthday Analysis? Mais si cette pratique se rvle efficace pour un mal de dent ou la rparation d'une machine, elle ne fournit aucune vue d'ensemble sur l'existence humaine et sa destination, vue dans laquelle il est impossible de dcider de ce qu'il faut faire dans chaque cas, pour autant que celui-ci concerne justement notre existence, et non pas une chose.
Ainsi , l'hyperdveloppement d'un hypersavoir, dont les moyens thoriques et pratiques marquent une rupture complte avec les connaissances traditionnelles de l'humanit, a-t-il pour effet d'abattre non seulement ces connaissances donnes comme autant d'illusions, mais l'humanit elle-mme. Moral Essay? Tandis que , semblables la houle de l'ocan, toutes les productions des civilisations du pass montaient et descendaient ensemble, comme d'un commun accord et sans se disjoindre - le savoir produisant le bien, qui produisait le beau, tandis que le sacr illuminait toute chose -, voici devant nous ce qu'on n'avait en effet jamais vu : l'explosion scientifique et la ruine de l'homme. Christina? Voici la nouvelle barbarie dont il n'est pas sr cette fois qu'elle puisse tre surmonte. About The Of The? Pourquoi et comment un certain type de savoir, apparu l'poque de Galile et considr depuis comme le seul savoir, produit-il, selon les voies d'une ncessit reprable et pleinement intelligible, la subversion de toutes les autres valeurs, et ainsi de la culture, et ainsi de l'humanit de l'homme, c'est ce qu'il est parfaitement possible de comprendre - pour peu que l'on dispose d'une thorie de l'essence de tout savoir possible et de son ultime fondement. Rossetti? Car ce fondement est aussi celui des valeurs, de la culture, de l'humanit, de tous ses accomplissements. Problems Teachers Face Teaching Adolescents? Et c'est parce que, de faon extraordinaire, ce fondement est cart par la science moderne, que celle-ci, sans le savoir, prcipite notre monde dans l'abme. Rossetti Analysis? La barbarie o nous entrons n'est certes pas nouvelle, mais, autrefois, une civilisation succdait une autre dans le grand cycle de l'Histoire. C'est dans un mme lan que la vie humaine se manifeste et qu'elle fait s'panouir tous les savoirs. Happiness Questionnaire? Mais aujourd'hui la science se prvaut de rsultats fulgurants au nom du seul rationalisme. Rossetti Analysis? L'homme, hlas, en fait les frais et toutes les valeurs qui font la vie sont menaces.
On explique couramment cette crise par la fragmentation des connaissances et la spcialisation qui en est la consquence. Central Republics? Celle-ci ne fournit en effet aucune vue d'ensemble sur la vie humaine. A Birthday Christina Analysis? Ainsi la science menace l'humanit en empchant l'closion simultane de toutes les productions humaines. Essay The Of The Ocean? Il n'est pas sr que nous en rchappions. A Birthday Christina Rossetti Analysis? Seule une rflexion sur la finalit du savoir permettra de comprendre ce renversement, car c'est en l'cartant que la science moderne nous voue notre perte. Inventions? [162 mots] ( Le Figaro Magazine, novembre 1991). Analysis? Vous rsumerez ce texte en 17O mots (un cart de 10 % en plus ou en moins est admis). The Calling Ocean? Vous indiquerez le nombre de mots que comporte votre rsum.
La rflexion sur la biothique ne peut tre la proprit de quelques experts : il en va du corps humain, donc de la personne humaine elle-mme. A Birthday Christina Rossetti? Le dbat qui concerne les manipulations sur l'embryon est le plus significatif. Republics? Deux thses s'y affrontent. Christina Rossetti? D'une part se manifestent les tenants de la logique absolue du progrs scientifique. Questionnaire? Cette tendance est reprsente en France par des chercheurs comme Daniel Cohen ou par l'ancien grand matre de la Grande Loge de France, Pierre Simon. A Birthday Rossetti? « Je suis un rationaliste convaincu, crit Daniel Cohen, et je crois aux progrs illimits de la connaissance. About The Ocean? » On n'arrte pas le progrs : tel est le postulat de cette thse de type scientiste. La gntique nous ouvre des espoirs fantastiques. A Birthday? La cartographie du gnome humain vitera quantit de drames individuels : nous pourrons stopper des maladies comme la mucoviscidose ou la myopathie, et surtout nous permettrons aux hommes et aux femmes de vieillir dans des conditions heureuses. Canadian Inventions? Mieux encore, on a birthday rossetti analysis, en viendra des thrapies gniques, c'est--dire des interventions directes sur les gnes malades d'un bb. The Calling? De curative et prventive qu'elle tait, la mdecine pourra devenir prdictive. A Birthday Rossetti Analysis? Tous ces progrs cumuls, continuent les tenants de la premire thse, dboucheront sur une vritable amlioration de l'espce humaine, qui n'aura rien voir avec les dlires du nazisme.
Si eugnisme il y a, il s'agit d'un eugnisme « ngatif », qui consiste « viter les naissances d'enfants dont on central republics, sait qu'ils seront gravement malades et douloureusement handicaps. A Birthday Rossetti Analysis? » Enfin, dernier argument : les comptes de la Scurit sociale. Moral Essay? Par « l'eugnisme ngatif », notre systme de sant pourra se passer de soins longs et coteux. A Birthday Christina Analysis? Comment alors s'opposer des travaux dont les rsultats aboutiront dlivrer l'humanit de la cruaut du hasard gntique et rduire les cots de la sant publique ? Ceux que ces projets laissent rticents ne sont-ils que des « oiseaux de malheur » aux ides prconues ? Car voici une deuxime cole. Central Asia Republics? En France elle est principalement reprsente par Jacques Testart, par le philosophe Michel Serres, et par les autorits spirituelles, notamment l'glise catholique. A Birthday? Tous ceux-ci rtorquent que l'eugnisme, ft-il ngatif, ouvre les portes de dangereuses drives. Leur critique s'taie sur l'histoire de l'eugnisme. Polytheistic Religions? Celui-ci correspond sans doute un rve trs ancien, qui ne se rduit pas ce qu'en fit un rgime barbare, mais aujourd'hui la rencontre de la procration assiste et du reprage des gnes donne des moyens indits sa ralisation. Christina? Le nouvel eugnisme est arriv c'est--dire que l'on pourra dsormais procder des tris d'embryons. Moral Essay? Il suffit de recueillir plusieurs embryons, de les mettre en concurrence et de retenir le meilleur avant rimplantation.
Accept par tous, l'eugnisme « doux » serait donc moralement plus inquitant qu'un eugnisme impos, car il serait bien difficile de s'y soustraire, expliquent ses opposants. Sans doute commencera-t-on par quelques tris sur des cas trs pathologiques, mais trs vite on christina analysis, proposera d'autres choix slectifs (cela a dj t fait sur la dtermination du sexe) et, d'ailleurs, aucun pays n'a encore russi se mettre d'accord sur une liste des maladies concernes. Polytheistic? Comment ragiront des parents s'ils peuvent viter, pour leur futur enfant, l'asthme ou une taille trop petite ? Et jusqu'o ira-t-on, dans cette conception d'un enfant « command la carte » ? D'autre part, il s'agit de savoir au nom de quel critre on christina analysis, pourra dcider que telle maladie, telle infirmit sont incompatibles avec la nature humaine : aprs tout, c'est avec leur souffrance voire leur invalidit que beaucoup d'hommes se sont hisss vers des sommets d'humanit. Moral Essay? Il suffit de faire dfiler la longue liste des artistes chez qui le gnie a pris naissance dans l'exprience, mme cruelle, de leur diffrence. A Birthday Christina Rossetti? La position critique insiste enfin sur la notion de responsabilit. Teachers Face Essay? Jacques Testart aime reprendre le mot de Woody Allen : « La vie est une maladie sexuellement transmissible ». Christina Rossetti Analysis? Il considre que la procration doit assumer un certain risque et que des parents ne peuvent s'en remettre entirement aux dcisions d'experts patents qui travaillent sur un embryon rduit au statut d'objet. La biothique concerne tout le monde, comme le montre la qui confronte deux . Canadian Technology? Pour la , compose de et de , le progrs scientifique ne saurait tre . A Birthday Christina Analysis? La recherche entranera l' des maladies et permettra mme de les . Oxford Happiness Questionnaire? On en viendra un eugnisme qui amliorera l'espce humaine et les dpenses de la publique seront allges. Christina? Comment alors ces travaux ? La cole, que reprsentent des philosophes ou des , affirme ses craintes en ce qui concerne la pratique d'un eugnisme : il permettra la slection des embryons et ouvrira de plus en plus largement ses critres de choix des exigences non . Moral Essay? On ne peut dterminer nettement quelles sont inconciliables avec l' , puisque certains individus en ont fait l'origine mme de leur . A Birthday Analysis? , pour ces moralistes, il faut que les parents acceptent les de la procration et restent matres de leur dcision. Problems Teachers Teaching Adolescents Essay? Placez dans ce rsum chacun des termes proposs ci-dessous : limit - condamner - polmique - ecclsiastiques - seconde - contrl - pathologiques - rationalistes - tares - humain - alas - prvoir - gntiques - Enfin - chercheurs - gnie - efficace - d'autre part - radication - coles - premire - Sant - scientifique. A Birthday Rossetti Analysis? Vous rsumerez ce texte en 18O mots (un cart de 10 % en plus ou en moins est admis). Technology? Vous indiquerez le nombre de mots que comporte votre rsum.
Il faut reconnatre qu' la confiance et la foi un peu naves de nos pres dans le progrs, a succd une inquitude qui tourne parfois l'angoisse. A Birthday Christina Analysis? Certes, dans le domaine de l'avancement des connaissances et de la science, le bilan est extrmement positif ; on oxford happiness questionnaire, sait, de nos jours, infiniment plus de choses, et on a birthday christina analysis, les sait mieux qu'il y a un sicle. The Of The? Paralllement, les frontires du monde connatre s'loignent sans cesse, de sorte que personne n'espre ou ne redoute plus « la mort de la science ». Rossetti Analysis? En mme temps, les applications des connaissances peuvent donner en principe l'homme, vis--vis de la nature, une indpendance, une scurit chaque jour plus grandes. Happiness? Mais ds qu'on passe du domaine de la science celui de son utilisation et plus encore celui du destin collectif de l'humanit, le tableau s'obscurcit dramatiquement. A Birthday Rossetti? Mme les applications pratiques des dcouvertes et des connaissances crent souvent des difficults imprvues : le moteur qui doit librer asservit en fait dans bien des cas ; la mdecine gurit, mais l'allongement de l'esprance de vie pose des problmes srieux la socit ; l'urbanisation arrache les hommes aux rythmes et aux maldictions millnaires de la nature, mais elle scrte des nvroses individuelles et sociales qui assombrissent ses avantages. Enfin et surtout, notre temps a vu s'accomplir les plus grands massacres collectifs qu'on ait jamais connus, l'arbitraire et l'oppression n'ont jamais t aussi redoutables aux mains d'oligarchies ou de pouvoirs qui disposent de moyens techniques colossalement multiplis. Problems Teachers Adolescents Essay? Sans parler de l'explosion dmographique mondiale, en face de ressources insuffisantes et, au surplus, trop souvent mal rparties et mal utilises. A Birthday? Ce monde, caractris par l'expansion vertigineuse des sciences et des techniques, est si diffrent de celui o nous avons puis nos rgles de pense, que l'angoisse nous saisit parfois.
Un monde sans paysans sera-t-il un monde meilleur ? La conqute de l'espace, quand tout reste faire sur terre, est-elle « raisonnable » ? Le perfectionnement toujours plus pouss et n'importe quel prix, des engins de destruction massive, est-il vraiment un progrs ? Ces questions sont tellement lgitimes qu'il ne faut pas s'tonner si des formes de pense non rationnelles, des eschatologies religieuses ou autres prosprent plus que jamais et continuent de hanter un grand nombre de nos contemporains, parfois parmi les jeunes. Essay About Calling Of The Ocean? Faut-il donc dresser un bilan de faillite ? Je ne le crois pas. Christina? Il faut ragir contre les tentations du dcouragement. Face Teaching? Sans doute attendions-nous trop, sinon du futur, du moins du prsent, et c'est pourquoi nous sommes dus. A Birthday Rossetti? Mais, pour faire nos comparaisons, ne surestimons pas le pass de l'humanit.
Ses priodes les plus brillantes et le plus polices ne cachaient-elles pas des arrire-plans de misre, d'oppressions et d'injustices cruelles grce auxquelles seulement certaines russites taient possibles ? Nous situons trop facilement l'ge d'or derrire nous : mais les bergeries de Versailles ne doivent pas faire oublier qu'au XVIIIme sicle encore, les paysans franais mouraient #8212; au sens propre #8212; de faim. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire? Et les massacres contemporains les plus horribles ne sauraient faire pardonner ceux d'hier. A Birthday Christina Rossetti? En fin de compte, un bilan tout fait honnte montre que le progrs dans l'organisation sociale se manifeste malgr tout, mme si c'est avec lenteur et difficult, sur des rythmes trs diffrents ici et l, avec des arrts, voire des reculs temporaires. The Calling? De forces profondes se sont mises en mouvement et elles se rvlent irrsistibles. Christina Rossetti? Les masses, autrefois rsignes, exercent une pression contre laquelle rien ne peut prvaloir ; les jeunes, tourns vers l'avenir, les chercheurs, les intellectuels apportent leur concours. Polytheistic Religions? La dmocratie politique ouvre les voies.
L'histoire se faisait autrefois dans le bruit des bottes, des fusillades, des massacres, dans les cris souvent implacablement touffs des victimes. A Birthday? Convenons-en, c'est tout autrement que s'oprent aujourd'hui mutations et rformes de structure. Moral Essay? Mais la raison fondamentale qui nous pousse rejeter le pessimisme, c'est qu'hier encore, toutes les misres taient ressenties comme des fatalits contre lesquelles il tait vain de s'insurger ; l'inverse, la socit de demain, si elle porte encore en elle des formes d'alination inacceptables, refusera les horreurs qui nous taient devenues familires et ses futurs artisans s'emploient ds maintenant les prvenir. Rossetti? Mme si l'avenir « meilleur pour tous » n'est pas aussi prochain que nous le voudrions, un nombre croissant d'hommes savent que leur sort peut s'amliorer et, du coup, ils cessent d'tre rsigns. Ils veulent se battre pour plus de justice et d'humanit. Oxford Questionnaire? Et, tout compte fait, c'est cela le progrs.
Le progrs suscite la mfiance. A Birthday? notre savoir s'est considrablement largi et l'homme y a gagn une certaine l'gard de la nature. Canadian Technology? , sur le plan pratique, la science est responsable de ou de . A Birthday Christina? Elle a donn aux tyrans de toutes sortes une redoutable qui a ensanglant l'histoire rcente et cr un grave des peuples devant les ressources. Religions? Ces donnes nouvelles nous et nous font douter du progrs ou chercher, comme chez les jeunes, des solutions . A Birthday Christina Rossetti Analysis? Doit-on dsesprer ? A mon avis, nullement. Canadian Inventions? Notre espoir est du, sans doute, mais ne croyons pas que le pass tait plus enviable, avec ses et ses . A Birthday Rossetti Analysis? , la socit s'est peu peu et des nouvelles sont en route grce l'effort de l'intelligence et de la raison. Oxford Questionnaire? notre raison d'esprer, nous la trouvons dans la nouvelle des peuples prendre leur destin en main pour plus de justice. A Birthday Christina Rossetti? Et ceci est le vrai . Technology? Placez dans ce rsum chacun des termes proposs ci-dessous : dsorientent - Au total - forces - organise - donc - mancipation - Mais - barbaries - Certes - irrationnelles - puissance - dsormais - dpendances - d'abord - famines - surtout - stress - progrs - dsquilibre - cependant - dtermination. A Birthday Rossetti? (La Croix, 4 avril 1984). Canadian Inventions? Vous rsumerez ce texte en 18O mots (un cart de 10 % en plus ou en moins est admis). A Birthday Rossetti Analysis? Vous indiquerez le nombre de mots que comporte votre rsum. Canadian Inventions? L'avenir de nos relations sociales est inscrit dans le dveloppement acclr des techniques de communication qui marient de plus en plus le tlphone, l'cran et l'ordinateur. Comme l'apparition du tlphone et de la T.S.F., il y a un sicle, cette volution va changer non seulement la forme des relations entre les hommes, mais aussi leurs fondements. A Birthday Christina Analysis? [. Technology? ] Il est naturel qu' l'aube de cette nouvelle rvolution, chacun s'inquite et s'interroge sur ses consquences l'chelle humaine. A Birthday Analysis? La communication, tymologiquement, c'est la mise en commun, la mise en relation des hommes ou des collectivits. Essay Calling Of The Ocean? La route, la poste, le chemin de fer, le tlgraphe ont dvelopp des solidarits nouvelles. A Birthday Analysis? La radio, le cinma, la tlvision ont largi le champ culturel de cette communication dmultiplie, jusqu' tisser un rseau de relations sociales aussi serr que le systme nerveux dans le corps humain.
En raccourcissant les distances, en acclrant les contacts, en multipliant les sources d'information (locales, trangres), les nouvelles formes de communication ont pour premier effet de rapprocher les hommes. Asia Republics? Nul ne peut ignorer aujourd'hui un tremblement de terre en Turquie, une rvolution en Pologne, une menace nuclaire sur l'Europe. A Birthday Christina? Nul ne peut rester l'cart de la monte de la faim dans le monde, des nouvelles formes de pauvret en France, des risques cologiques qui psent sur nos socits. Religions? Qui peut contester que cela soit un progrs ? Ce qui modifie ces donnes, c'est la gnralisation de l'cran, symbole de cet avenir impalpable. A Birthday Christina Analysis? Tous les moyens de transmission venir (les ondes hertziennes, relayes au sol ou provenant de l'espace, ou la fibre optique, vhiculant des textes ou des images) aboutiront des postes de tlvision, des consoles, des cadrans portatifs, des murs d'images - des crans. Polytheistic? Or, l'tymologie, l aussi, tient lieu de rvlateur : un cran, l'origine, est un objet qui dissimule ou qui protge. L'image elle-mme, si elle frappe l'esprit, si elle stimule l'imaginaire, reste une abstraction. A Birthday? Installez un chien devant la tlvision, l'image d'un autre chien le laissera de glace. Technology Inventions? L'image informe, comme un texte, mais c'est le cerveau du tlspectateur qui fonctionne, qui lui donne son sens, par rapport sa propre connaissance du monde. Christina? Et c'est encore sa propre exprience, son acquis personnel, qui lui font reconnatre le vrai du faux, la ralit de la fiction : sans cette exprience pralable, l'homme ne « voit » pas de diffrence entre un reportage sur la guerre Irak-Iran et un western sur la conqute de l'Ouest, qui ont la mme force motionnelle.
Laquelle, au rythme de la prolifration des images, va en se banalisant. Face Adolescents? Le danger se situe dans la rduction de l'exprience propre chaque individu de sa perception « humaine » des images qui prolifrent. Rossetti? L'individu qui se contenterait de ces donnes abstraites ressemblerait peu peu au chien de tout l'heure, absorbant passivement des informations dsincarnes. Polytheistic? Or ce risque point l'horizon. A Birthday? Demain, l'on pourra remplir la majorit des activits quotidiennes sans avoir besoin de se dplacer : dmarches administratives, achats, remise de documents professionnels, alarme, information gnrale ou locale; les ngociations syndicales, les runions de conseils d'administration pourront se tenir en multiplex par visiophone; l'enseignement, la sant mme suivront le mouvement.
Que restera-t-il des contacts humains devenus dsuets, comme l'accolade, la poigne de main, le coup de tlphone, la lettre manuscrite ? Quelle part auront le toucher, la voix, l'criture, dans ce qui fait l'essentiel de l'exprience humaine ? La monte de l'individualisme, la tendance croissante au repli sur soi (sa famille, sa communaut) vont de pair avec ce phnomne de dshumanisation des relations sociales qui se profile l'horizon. Moral Essay? En se gardant de tout mlanger, en se gardant aussi de condamner a priori une volution d'ailleurs inluctable, il importe d'y rflchir. A Birthday Christina Rossetti Analysis? L'homme statique n'est pas pour demain, et son instinct le poussera inventer les formes nouvelles d'une communication sociale chaleureuse, affective, plus conforme sa nature profonde. Problems Teachers Face Teaching Adolescents? Encore faut-il entretenir et dvelopper dans la conscience des gnrations futures ce qui temprera l'invasion des images, et qui fait la dignit de l'homme : le sens de l'autre. Rossetti? Il parat lgitime de se demander quelles seront sur le plan de la les de l'volution rapide des techniques. Les ont prodigieusement resserr le tissu des relations humaines en transportant des qui, devenues , concernent chacun d'entre nous. Canadian Technology Inventions? On ne saurait s'en plaindre, mais le de cette transmission reste l' , qui, par nature, de la ralit. Analysis? Les images n'informent que selon le degr de dont chacun dispose et l'aptitude reprer leur . Central Republics? Faute de cela, les images semblent toutes charges de la mme qu'use aussi leur . Analysis? Ce risque d'ingurgiter des informations est nos portes. Polytheistic? Qu'adviendra-t-il demain de la vritable relation humaine, alors que chacun pourra accomplir ses sans jamais se ? L' accompagne de plus en plus cette du contact. Christina Rossetti Analysis? Il convient donc d'examiner la situation, sans exagr. Essay? L'homme de demain saura bien renouveler les formes d'une communication si on a birthday, veille fortifier en lui l'intrt pour . Canadian? Placez dans ce rsum chacun des termes proposs ci-dessous : rgression - tches - culture - prolifration - dshumanises - informations - mdias - autrui - rpercussions - motion - plantaires - communication - dplacer - vecteur - authentique - cran - gocentrisme - distancie - pessimisme - mensonge.
( Le Romantisme europen , 1972). A Birthday Christina? Il est dans les lettres et les arts des coles qui ne survivent gure aux gnrations qui leur ont donn naissance - faute, sans doute, d'une universalit, d'une profondeur humaine qui les auraient mises l'abri du temps : ainsi le symbolisme en France, l'expressionnisme en Allemagne, qui, pourtant, ont eu leur moment de vogue europenne. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire? Aucun de ces mouvements ne s'est impos comme ferment de renouvellement travers les mutations priodiques de l'esprit europen. A Birthday Christina Analysis? Le romantisme, par contre, n'a cess d'agir au cours des poques qui l'ont suivi comme provocation ou repoussoir sur ceux qui cherchaient, dans les arts et les lettres, frayer la voie vers des horizons nouveaux. Oxford Questionnaire? Nagure, on a birthday christina, affublait ironiquement de l'tiquette romantique toute attitude contraire au souci primordial de ralisme et de raison pratique. Aujourd'hui, la jeunesse se rclame volontiers d'une sorte de noromantisme. Canadian Technology? La critique incisive du progrs technique, de ses objectifs strictement utilitaires et la peur de se trouver asservi une civilisation industrielle mondiale, avec ses rechutes dans la barbarie et son insouciance du bonheur et de la vie de l'me, tout cela a ramen l'attention vers les aspirations de l'ge romantique.
Non pas, certes, pour les restaurer dans leurs formes historiques; rien n'est plus prim aujourd'hui que les mivreries sentimentales de 1830; mais certaines attitudes d'esprit typiques du romantisme resurgissent actuellement chez nos contemporains. A Birthday Christina Analysis? Il y a d'abord ce refus de se laisser encadrer par les traditions philosophiques et sociales d'hier. Religions? L'adolescent d'aujourd'hui, c'est d'abord quelqu'un qui dit « non », j'entends qui se refuse ouvrir aux institutions et aux m#339;urs en cours ce crdit de confiance, jusqu' preuve de leur lgitimit, que ses ans consentaient plus libralement : « non » un peu fou, un peu trop romantique peut-tre, qui fait hocher la tte aux gens raisonnables, mais mise en question salutaire, susceptible de dbloquer bien des structures fossilises. A Birthday Analysis? Autre rsurgence romantique : le retour la nature. Problems Teachers Face Teaching? Jamais, sans doute, les jeunes qui pensent n'ont t plus sensibles aux menaces d'une rupture du contact entre l'homme et la nature. A Birthday? L'humanit moderne, ils le voient de plus en plus clairement, « se dveloppe dans la nature [. Moral Essay? ] comme une sorte d'artifice universel » . Christina Rossetti Analysis? L'homme, pris dans l'univers technique, se coupe de son milieu naturel, que, d'ailleurs, il ravale au rang de matriau. Face Adolescents? Nos contemporains, par raction, prouvent le besoin de rester lis, dans leur travail et leurs loisirs, avec la verdure et la lumire, la montagne et la mer, dussent-ils y perdre quelques raffinements ou commodits de la socit d'abondance. A Birthday Christina? Tout donne penser que, ce comportement, le proche avenir le dveloppera. Enfin, la rfrence dlibre au « moi » comme principe de valeur revient au premier plan. Moral Essay? Elle entrane le refus croissant des critres d'efficacit pratique, de russite sociale, de rendement financier.
Un certain affairisme l'amricaine priclite sous nos yeux. Christina? Les jeunes s'inquitent du bnfice moral, des satisfactions de l'esprit et du c#339;ur que leur vaudront leur travail et leur effort. Religions? C'est dire que la considration de l'homme intrieur se trouve revalorise et que l'esprit, qui tendait n'tre plus que l'instrument d'une exploitation technique du monde, redevient intressant par lui-mme, comme le vrai problme rsoudre, le vrai mystre scruter. A Birthday? C'est l un autre symptme de cette remonte des priorits romantiques en ce dernier tiers du xx° sicle. Central Asia Republics? Bien des artistiques et littraires restent , faute d'avoir trouv une audience assez large ou d'avoir su leur temps. Le lui, s'est toujours impos comme rfrence auprs de tous les . A Birthday Rossetti Analysis? Tranant autrefois des connotations en raison de son , il est revendiqu aujourd'hui par la qui y reconnat, dans des formes , son refus du et son souci des valeurs . Technology? On reconnat la volont salubre sous ses allures de ne pas se laisser dans les valeurs des ans.
C'est le souci de le contact par la technique entre l'homme et la et cette ne fera que se confirmer. A Birthday Christina? C'est l'affirmation du qui rejette les priorits sociales, la ou le et raffirme la souverainet de l'esprit sur la . Canadian Technology Inventions? Placez dans ce rsum chacun des termes proposs ci-dessous : dtrior - enfin - matire - courants - pjoratives - excessives - carririsme - aussi - phmres - romantisme - nature - rentabilit - irralisme - modifier - rtablir - moi - novateurs - jeunesse - tendance - nouvelles - matrialisme - d'abord - spirituelles - embrigader - figes.
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A Birthday - Imagery, symbolism and themes » Christina Rossetti
Religion and Life: A Personal and Public Essay. T he 16th century English chancellor and later Catholic saint Thomas Moore was, in the words of dramatist Robert Bolt, “a man for all seasons.” Religion itself is an ever-present “topic for a birthday christina analysis, all seasons,” but in a presidential election year it seems more so than ever. Oxford? Remember the Rev. Jeremiah Wright controversy in 2008? Some of Republican Rick Santorum’s religious statements earlier this year? And for the next several months we’ll continue to hear more about Mitt Romney’s Mormonism. But religion is analysis not only a fit subject for public discourse, but also a very personal matter.
Just recently, two writers have demonstrated this. One is Bill Keller of The New York Times, and Teachers Face Teaching, the other is christina rossetti physicist and canadian inventions, former Oberlin College president Robert Fuller in a series of essays that are appearing on a birthday rossetti analysis the LA Progressive. Central Asia Republics? In their essays, as in many others on religion, the personal and public aspects intersect. And so they shall in this present essay. Let’s start with the personal.
I was raised Catholic. From grade school up through graduate school at Georgetown University, I attended Catholic schools. Rossetti? Then, my first teaching job (1967-1970) was at central asia republics, the Jesuit-run Wheeling College (now Wheeling Jesuit University). But then for rossetti analysis, the next four decades I taught at a public university, Eastern Michigan U., where my main responsibility was teaching Russian and polytheistic religions, twentieth-century global history. Meanwhile, the Catholic Church was changing, mainly due to christina analysis the leadership of moral essay, Pope John XXIII, who was elected pope in 1958 and died in 1963, a year after calling together the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). Like many liberal Catholics, I was delighted with the changes he introduced into christina analysis Catholic life, such as a more ecumenical spirit and masses in one’s native language instead of polytheistic, Latin.
One of the highlights of my six months in Europe with the U.S. Army was a trip to Rome and being part of a large group audience with John XXIII. A Birthday? With the Catholic John Kennedy as president (1961-1963) and Essay Calling, imbibing the liberal Catholic spirit of analysis, Georgetown as a graduate student from 1962 to 1967, it was a good time to be a Catholic. When it came time to Problems Teachers Essay choose a Ph.D. Analysis? dissertation subject, I decided to republics write on the ecumenical religious and philosophic Russian thinker, Vladimir Soloviev (1853-1900), who was also a vigorous opponent of nationalism and rossetti, the strongest Russian critic of anti-Semitism (see here for my 1970 article on him and Russia’s Jews). During my three years at Wheeling College, I knew many good Catholic priests and happiness, laypersons, and in general the christina college took part in the ecumenical spirit of the times. Our curriculum committee, of which I was a member, decided that theology, being an academic discipline and not indoctrination, should be broadened. To that end, our college invited a local rabbi to teach a course on Judaism. Although still considering myself a good Catholic, I rejected what I considered certain anti-rational aspects of the church. Several hours into a weekend cursillo (an intense type of spiritual retreat), I walked out about The when I became convinced its structure reflected a not-too-sophisticated attempt at brainwashing. After a priest friend (but not a Jesuit) who taught theology announced his intention to marry a woman he had fallen in love with, the college’s president, Fr.
Frank Haig, fired him—Haig’s brother Alexander later served as Richard Nixon’s Chief of Staff. Christina? In protest, I proclaimed I would also leave the college. Thus, I moved to liberal Ann Arbor, Michigan and began teaching at nearby Eastern Michigan U. For a while, my wife, Nancy, and I continued to be church-going Catholics, and all three of our children were baptized into the church, but our liberal thinking seemed increasingly at odds with a church whose progressive spirit declined after John XXIII’s death. Because of republics, a departmental need in the late 1970s, for a few years I taught a course in a birthday rossetti analysis comparative religions. Central Asia? Like some other earlier liberal Catholics, especially monk Thomas Merton (1915-1968), I came to admire many of the insights of Eastern religions, especially Zen Buddhism. In the final week or two of the course I introduced students to the critical views of religion offered by atheists and christina, agnostics. My general approach was to tell students that their first job was to try to understand all the belief systems we talked about (including atheism, which I also regard as a “belief”). I maintained that students should try to respect others’ beliefs because no one has a lock on truth. When any students attempted to argue that their religion was better than others, I discouraged such an approach. By the central asia early 1980s, by which time I no longer taught the course, I considered myself an agnostic: maybe there is a God, and maybe not.
But I leaned, and still do, more to the likelihood that there is christina some sort of divine force. It seems more rational to me and Face Adolescents Essay, a lesser leap of a birthday rossetti analysis, faith than believing that all the wondrous and canadian, powerful forces of the universe, including the mind-blowing complexity of the cosmos, with its million of galaxies and billions of stars, just spontaneously occurred. Such a leaning brings me close to the thinking of christina analysis, such Enlightenment figures as Thomas Jefferson and moral essay, Ben Franklin, not bad intellectual company to keep. But I no longer have the consolation that belonging to a church community brings to millions of analysis, people. And just because my divine-tilting agnosticism has felt right for Problems Face Adolescents, me for some three decades, I’m no proselytizer for a birthday, it. Where one comes down regarding religious belief is a very individual matter. As Chekhov once wrote, “Between ‘there is a God’ and ‘there is no God’ lies a whole vast tract, which the moral essay really wise man crosses with great effort.” What’s right for one person is often not right for another. All of this brings me to the more public facets of this essay. How does and should religion affect our social and public life? What follows are some of the conclusions my admittedly fallible mind has arrived at:
One of the various things that most religions offer is a strong emphasis on ethics, and an emphasis on ethics is important, both individually and socially. Although most religions teach love of neighbor, how they interpret such love often varies. A Birthday Rossetti Analysis? For example, throughout the centuries many of them justified wars in certain circumstances, e.g. the Crusades, while others like the Quakers have been more pacifistic. If one rejects religious-based ethics, then he/she has a strong obligation to arrive at a non-religious-based moral code. One of the about The Calling of the downsides to such an approach, however, is that many people do not consciously develop one, and we cannot depend on our predominant consumer culture to rossetti analysis provide it to us.
I fear that there is much truth in the following observations, and they apply not only to television but also to asia republics much of the wider media. U. Christina? S. humorist Dave Barry once said that a “possible source of guidance for teenagers is television, but television’s message has always been that the need for truth, wisdom and world peace pales by comparison with the need for a toothpaste that offers whiter teeth and fresher breath.” And Zbigniew Brzezinski, former National Security Adviser to U. S. President Jimmy Carter, wrote in 1993 that television had “become prominent in shaping the [U. Calling Of The? S.] national culture and its basic beliefs,” and that it helped produce “a mass culture, driven by profiteers who exploit the hunger for vulgarity, pornography, and even barbarism.” Although I understand what some people mean when they say, “We should not mix religion and politics,” I think it naive. Many political questions, such as debates about abortion, war, and capital punishment are also ethical questions, thus both political and religious. If right-wing politicians like Rick Santorum often let their religious beliefs affect their political stances, so too have left-wing leaders like Rev. Martin Luther King and rossetti, all the civil rights and antiwar activists among people of the clergy. As I write this, a group of Catholic nuns are in the midst of a nine-state bus tour protesting proposed Republican federal budget cuts that will hurt low-income families. When I was a Catholic one of the virtues I heard most praised was humility, and I have often regretted how little of it is oxford questionnaire evidenced by religious and christina rossetti analysis, political leaders.
One of the reasons we use “faith” as a synonym for Problems Teachers Face Teaching Adolescents, religion (as in “she is of the a birthday christina analysis Hindu faith”) is that religion is based primarily on beliefs or faith and not reason. Every time in recent decades when I have heard a priest or minister assure us during a funeral service that the deceased is now in heaven with God, I have felt like saying, “How do you know that?” As Kierkegaard correctly perceived, religion is not about moral essay, assurance, but a “leap of faith.” When someone close to us dies we may hope or believe he or she is with God, but we can’t be sure. In 2005 Rep. David Price (Dem., NC) wrote, “Humility is out of christina analysis, fashion these days. Political leaders, advocates, and pundits often display an moral essay in-your-face assertiveness, seeming to equate uncertainty or even reflectiveness with weakness and a lack of moral fiber. Much of our nation and its leadership are in christina rossetti analysis no mood to canadian technology inventions doubt their own righteousness.” With humility should come tolerance. If none of rossetti analysis, us really has “the answer” to central asia ultimate questions—as humorist Art Buchwald wrote soon before his death, “When people ask me if there’s an afterlife, I answer, ‘If I knew, I would tell you’”—shouldn’t we all be more tolerant of rossetti, others’ views?
The same goes for many political issues. Neither liberals nor conservatives are always correct, and are both sometimes guilty of polytheistic, falling back on ideology rather than thinking afresh on difficult and complex questions. What to do in Afghanistan or how to fix our scandalous health care system were and are such questions, and they do not lend themselves to simplistic bumper stickers like “Repeal Obamacare.” If more humility and tolerance existed in Washington, Congress would operate in a more bipartisan and pragmatic fashion. To those who criticize religion as a “crutch,” I would reply that we all use various crutches to get through life, and there is nothing wrong with that. As Robert Fuller (see above) has written, science and religion are not incompatible: “Developments in both science and analysis, religion have laid the foundation for a new synthesis. Ending centuries of moral essay, fruitless squabbling and a birthday christina rossetti analysis, initiating a beautiful friendship is at last possible.” Thinkers whom I respect such as Thomas Merton and Problems Teaching, economist and a birthday rossetti, environmentalist E. Central Republics? F. Schumacher (1911-1977) have emphasized that “truth is one” and that there can be no contradiction between scientific truth and religious truth. Fuller adds that “parts of religion that are counterfactual or unproven could either be dropped—as science jettisons theories that don’t hold up to scrutiny—or retained as speculation, metaphor, or personal preference.
After all, anyone is free to believe anything, and most of us, including scientists, discreetly exercise that right in one area or another.” My own thinking is that one can arrive at truth through different methods and a birthday rossetti, not just the technology rational, scientific one. But if a religious conviction, such as belief in a literal rendering of creation as told in a birthday christina analysis the Book of central republics, Genesis, contradicts scientific evidence then that conviction should be dropped. Since Darwin proposed his theory of evolution, many religious believers have reconciled themselves to evolution, without abandoning any fundamental religious belief. In keeping with this approach, I distrust any religious teaching, e.g., the Catholic papacy’s position on contraception, which seems contrary to reason. Wise and good people can be found in various cultures at various times and a birthday christina, among both religious believers and non-believers. Among such people I have written long essays on are two converts to oxford Catholicism, Schumacher and a birthday christina rossetti, American helper-of-the-poor Dorothy Day. Technology? Two others, the Russians Chekhov and a birthday christina analysis, physicist and humanist Andrei Sakharov, were non-believers.
A fifth, the Essay about The Calling poet and rossetti analysis, Lincoln biographer Carl Sandburg, once said: “I am a Christian, a Quaker, a Moslem, a Buddhist, a Shintoist, a Confucian, and maybe a Catholic pantheist or a Joan of Arc who hears voices. I am all of these and more. Definitely I have more religions than I have time or zeal to practice in true faith.” Although I no longer consider myself an adherent of any specific religion, I still feel the need for a guiding principle in central asia republics my life, and it has become the concept of wisdom. A Birthday Christina Analysis? I seek to become wiser and have my actions be as wise as I can make them. The Oxford English Dictionary (2d ed., 1989) defines wisdom as “the capacity for judging rightly in matters relating to life and Problems Face Teaching Adolescents Essay, conduct; soundness of a birthday, judgment in the choice of means and ends.” A leading wisdom scholar, Robert Sternberg, states that “wisdom is not just about maximizing one’s own or someone else’s self-interest, but about balancing various self-interests (intrapersonal) with the interests of others (interpersonal) and of other aspects of the context in canadian inventions which one lives (extrapersonal), such as one’s city or country or environment or even God.” Another wisdom scholar, in an essay on “The Centrality of Wisdom,” wrote that “values are at christina rossetti analysis, the heart of the matter,” and he recommended wisdom-associated values such as empathy, justice, and compassion. Since I have dealt extensively with various types of wisdom, including political wisdom, in republics other writings, I will merely paraphrase here what I have written earlier concerning E. A Birthday Christina Analysis? F. Schumacher’s thoughts on wisdom:
It can be found amidst the Problems Teachers Face Teaching Essay ideas of the great religious and philosophical systems of the pre-modern age. It deals with fundamental questions like “What is the purpose of life?” and christina rossetti, how to discover and achieve Truth, Goodness, and polytheistic, Beauty. It emphasizes, prioritizes, and applies higher values such as love, compassion, understanding, and empathy. Being guided by it is the key to rossetti analysis dealing with our most serious problems, whether economic, environmental, political, or personnel. To Schumacher wisdom was like the sun and its rays should penetrate and enlighten all aspects of our life. “Unless that person has sorted out and coordinated his manifold urges, impulses, and polytheistic religions, desires, his strivings are likely to be confused, contradictory, self-defeating, and possibly highly destructive. The ‘centre,’ obviously, is the christina analysis place where he has to create for himself an orderly system of ideas about himself and the world, which can regulate the direction of his various strivings.” By the questionnaire final decades of his life, Schumacher had concluded that “it may conceivably be possible to live without churches; but it is not possible to live without religion, that is, without systematic work to keep in contact with, and develop toward, Higher Levels than those of ‘ordinary life’ with all its pleasure or pain, sensation, gratification, refinement or crudity—whatever it may be.” These words lead to me a few final thoughts about religion and its relationship to our lives. Religion has many definitions. If one means by it, as Schumacher suggests, “systematic work to keep in rossetti contact with, and central republics, develop toward, Higher Levels than those of ‘ordinary life,’” then I believe in religion.
Every day of rossetti analysis, our lives there is more goodness, beauty, and truth out polytheistic religions there in the world than we appreciate in our humdrum existence of “living and partly living” (T. S. Eliot’s phrase). I also think, as Schumacher did, that the a birthday christina great religions of the world contain much wisdom, including the emphasis of many of them on compassion, humility, and the Golden Rule of treating others as one wishes to be treated. But I am not willing to go as far as saying I think Jesus Christ was more divine than say Buddha. And religions have a checkered record when it comes to valuing tolerance and rationality, which to me these are great wisdom values. In Crime and Punishment (1866) Dostoevsky has his main character, Raskolnikov, pridefully overemphasize “reason,” and happiness questionnaire, it leads him to a birthday christina rossetti analysis think that ordinary morality does not apply to him, that he can be sort of a super-man standing above conventional ethics. Although very critical of the moral essay Catholic Church, Dostoevsky’s thinking on reason was similar to a birthday analysis that proclaimed two years earlier by Pope Pius IX in his Syllabus of Essay about The Ocean, Errors. In this encyclical the pope proclaimed as an error the belief that “human reason, without any reference whatsoever to God, is the sole arbiter of truth and christina analysis, falsehood, and of good and evil.” The warnings of Dostoevsky and Pius IX about individuals relying too much on reason are ones worth considering.
The reasoning of individuals can be twisted. Look at someone like the Unabomber, Theodore Kaczynski, who earned a Ph.D. in inventions mathematics and thought his mail bombing campaign could be intellectually justified. A wise person will consider the wisdom of the past, including that maintained by the great religions, and the laws and customs of his/her society. Ultimately, however, is it not our own reason and judgment that should dictate our behavior? Church leaders and teachings can be wrong. In the a birthday christina rossetti analysis past, some have justified slavery or war when they shouldn’t. Laws and government policies can be wrong. Calling Of The Ocean? Dorothy Day, Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, and Andrei Sakharov all spent some time in jail or exile for daring to violate unjust laws or government policies. Our culture or subculture can be wrong. In making decisions many of a birthday rossetti analysis, us are strongly influenced by about The Calling, them. When young, I belonged to a Catholic subculture.
Throughout most of my adulthood, I was part of an academic subculture. When I was in the military, I noted that many career officers seemed to be part of a military subculture. All of these subcultures skew our objectivity and way of looking at a birthday analysis, the world, and if we wish to oxford happiness act rationally, we must be aware of their influence on us. Our ideology can also be wrong. Christina? Whether we consider ourselves conservatives, liberals, progressives, socialists, or anarchists, our ideology can box us in, deterring us from thinking afresh about complex problems. Problems Face Adolescents Essay? Although the expression “knee-jerk liberal” is common enough, knee-jerkism can also be a failing of other ideologists. Standing outside of any particular religious community and attempting to remain free of any cultural or ideological boxes can be a lonely path to rossetti follow. Moral Essay? I sometimes miss the sense of oneness and warmth experienced by singing with others in church.
And as Dostoevsky so clearly perceived there is a birthday christina analysis always the danger or pride and egotism, of thinking oneself or one’s ideas superior to others. As a historian, however, I take comfort in past individuals whom I admire, those like Dorothy Day, Thomas Merton, Carl Sandburg, E. F. Schumacher, Anton Chekhov, W. H. Auden, Andrei Sakharov, Nelson Mandela, and finally, the Problems Teachers Teaching Adolescents Essay French writer Albert Camus (1913-1960), an existentialist and “non-believer,” greatly admired by the two fervent Catholics, Day and a birthday christina rossetti analysis, Merton. About Camus, Merton wrote, “By reason of his personal integrity, his genius, his eloquence, and his own record in protest and resistance, Camus still speaks to our world with resounding authority,” and “life is, or should be, nothing but a struggle to seek truth,” and “the whole truth of Albert Camus is centered upon the idea of telling the truth.” Camus himself once told a group of Dominican monks, “I shall never start from the supposition that Christian truth is illusory, but merely from the fact that I could not accept it.” He also wrote, “It is essential to condemn what must be condemned,” but also “one should praise at length what still deserves to be praised.” In his short story “The Guest,” he ends it this way: “Daru looked at the sky, the plateau and beyond the invisible lands stretching all the way to central asia the sea. In this vast landscape he had loved so much, he was alone.” Like his character Daru, we may often feel alone. A Birthday Rossetti? And in moral essay condemning and praising as Camus suggests, we must always realize our fallibility: we may be wrong. One final lesson from the non-believer Camus and the very Catholic Dorothy Day is to (in Day’s words) “always be seeking concordances, rather than differences—that is the basis of the ecumenical movement, which is rossetti analysis part of the peace movement.” After her conversion, she was often criticized for still associating with Marxists and religions, anarchists, but she believed strongly that dialogue contributed to “clarification of thought.” In his address to Dominican monks, Camus said “between the forces of terror and the forces of dialogue a great unequal battle has begun. . . . But I believe it must be fought,” and he encouraged the monks to whom he spoke, and Christians generally, to join with “isolated individuals who, without any sort of affiliation, today intercede almost everywhere and ceaselessly for children and for men.” I n these days of partisan name-calling and a birthday analysis, political gridlock, when intolerance and lack of canadian technology, humility are too often on display, Camus and Day offer us an important lesson. Like them, we need to “condemn what [note: not ‘who’] must be condemned,” but also seek dialogue with anyone (believers or unbelievers) willing to correct injustices and a birthday christina, work for the common good.
Sufficiently humble, they were both aware that in their condemnations they could be wrong, but believed in technology inventions dialogue as a path of christina rossetti, correcting their mistakes. In this, they mirror what Robert Fuller admires about science: “[it] makes even more mistakes than religion; but it saves itself by being quicker to recognize and correct them.” Posted on July 1, 2012. Walter G. Moss is a professor emeritus of history at Eastern Michigan University. Moral Essay? His most recent book is christina rossetti analysis An Age of Progress?: Clashing Twentieth-Century Global Forces (2008). For a list of all his recent books and online publications, including many on Russian history and culture, go here: http://people.emich.edu/wmoss/pub.htm. Edwin Ted Mosser says. I read the Essay about The of the Ocean above this morning.
I won’t comment now on all of it or on all of my beliefs. What I will say, is a birthday christina rossetti that one of the technology inventions problems with Christianity, at least as it is a birthday rossetti so often stated, is that it is exclusionary, and evidently so is Islam. Thus, the huge conflict. Christians are a little more subtle. I frankly don’t know whether Jesus intended to exclude those who did not make a specific vow. Anyway, I am something of a pantheist and I’m inclined to believe there are many paths for republics, people to the divine. Pope Francis seems to be a man who is moving in the right direction. I do envision a heaven or a sort of nirvana where I hope to reunite with those I love. The Cost of Silence: How A Wealthy LA Democratic Donor Muted The Political Party of “Allies” and “Coalition Building” Jasmyne Cannick: Very few from the political party of allies, coalition building and we’re stronger together have joined the public call for justice in the death of rossetti, this young Black gay man. Appetite for Essay about The Calling, War: US, Israel and a birthday rossetti analysis, Saudi Arabia v. Iran.
Vijay Prashad: There is Essay about The of the widespread enthusiasm in the White House to walk away from the nuclear deal and to use the full vitality of rossetti, U.S. power to suffocate Iran. Once More into the Breech: Getting a Grip on Gun Violence. John Peeler: Just as Trump’s supporters chant “Build the canadian Wall” for its symbolic value, those of us who want to christina get a grip on gun violence will not stop advocating for outlawing weapons whose only purpose is to kill people. Copyright #x000A9; 2017 · Dick Price and Sharon Kyle · Log in.
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Analyze the poem "Birthday" by Christina Rossetti | eNotes
Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and christina, grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to central present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to a birthday christina analysis format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the Essay The Calling of the Ocean, link below. How to a birthday rossetti analysis Choose the central asia republics, Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to a birthday rossetti get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience.
As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to Problems formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of christina advantages and asia republics, disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Analysis! Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Polytheistic! Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to rossetti analysis oldest (least relevant).
This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if… I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a similar field. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in technology, my employment history. I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs.
To learn more about what should be in included in a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in a birthday, terms of the about The, skills and a birthday christina rossetti, abilities he/she believes are most relevant to the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the canadian inventions, candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and a birthday rossetti analysis, simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is oxford, beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history.
I am in the midst of a big career change into christina rossetti analysis, a new industry. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here.
A combination resume is literally a combination of the oxford, reverse-chronological and christina rossetti, functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and moral essay, achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the christina analysis, functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and about The of the, additional sections. (This is the analysis, reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. Canadian! I want to transfer to a different industry. I am a master at what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. A Birthday Analysis! I want to emphasize my educational experience.
I lack relevant qualifications and skills. To learn more about what should be in central asia, included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in a birthday, this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at oxford happiness questionnaire the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Christina Analysis! Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist. If I apply a admin. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire! job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and a birthday christina rossetti analysis, now in school learning social service.
How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and oxford questionnaire, transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on christina rossetti analysis the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Teachers! Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format.
Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to a birthday analysis now make the shift to polytheistic religions elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for a birthday christina, your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the central asia, primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in a birthday, the middle of my employment with them. Religions! Should the internship be listed before, or after?)
You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an rossetti analysis army veteran of nearly 7 years and moral essay, now I am studying to get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at rossetti 19 in 2006 and canadian inventions, got out in 2013.
From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an a birthday christina rossetti analysis entrepreneur. Essay The Calling Ocean! I was largely unsuccessful and in rossetti analysis, order to Problems Teachers Face Teaching stay on top of a birthday rossetti my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the oxford, day while working as a bouncer at various bars and clubs at a birthday christina rossetti analysis night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to oxford blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume.
I need to know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. A Birthday Rossetti Analysis! Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on canadian technology the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and rossetti analysis, isn’t in the fast-food industry to asia republics help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and christina rossetti analysis, I really need this job. Please help!
Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to Essay The Calling include your research and writing experience. Christina Rossetti Analysis! Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. I am over moral essay 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. A Birthday Christina Analysis! Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts.
Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to polytheistic religions this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in rossetti, construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to moral essay apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). A Birthday Rossetti! I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Inventions! Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck! Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it.
With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of christina your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of technology inventions luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to a birthday analysis rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to technology inventions marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came.
6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. A Birthday Christina Analysis! I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to present my resume. Moral Essay! I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the christina rossetti, history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is holding me back.
Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. Problems Teachers Teaching Adolescents! As far as explaining work gaps in christina analysis, your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm.
After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for asia, 2 years. I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for a year. I currently want to go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Christina Analysis! Best of luck! If the religions, the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it!
Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in a birthday christina analysis, 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks!
List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Moral Essay! Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center.
Many of analysis these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into canadian technology inventions, your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the christina rossetti analysis, classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship!
Put your skills to the test, and a birthday christina rossetti analysis, learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of Essay about The of the Ocean a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. A Birthday Rossetti Analysis! See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your.
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Analyze the poem "Birthday" by Christina Rossetti | eNotes
6 Things Attorneys and a birthday rossetti analysis, Law Students Need to Remove from Their Resumes ASAP If They Want to Get Jobs with the Most Prestigious Law Firms. At the central asia, highest levels, legal recruiters put an rossetti incredible amount of canadian technology thought into how you are perceived. You can drastically increase your odds of getting hired by removing various items from your resume. If this is all too much for christina rossetti analysis you … then just have your legal resume professionally done. Essay. See Attorney Resume. If you submit your resume here, I will review it and a birthday christina rossetti analysis, give you some feedback. Overview. With a resume, you are applying to be a firm#39;s employee and go to work for them. Your resume is essentially an application. Everyone in the legal community knows what going to Stanford Law School and being a second-year associate at Mayer Brown means. Everyone in the legal community knows what going to University of Chicago and inventions, spending eight years at a birthday rossetti Kirkland Ellis means.
If you are in moral essay, law school and a birthday analysis, looking for technology inventions your first job, everyone knows what going to Duke for college and being in a birthday christina, the top half of about of the your class at Columbia Law School means. A Birthday. While I hate to be so generic, this is really (for the most part), the most important information for large law firms hiring laterally or hiring people out of law school. Everything else on your resume presents a giant opportunity for central republics you to mess up. The most important thing most big firm attorneys can do is a birthday christina rossetti analysis strip down (and not puff up) their resumes . The more crap that is on there, the more reasons people can find not to Teachers Face, hire you. If you take one thing from this article, you need to understand that. Most large law firms do not like people who try to stick out. In their experience, these people can be problems: they will leave if they do not get lots of praise, may turn on the firm and undermine morale, are likely to seek unnecessary attention from clients (and may even try and steal them), and are most likely to leave if something better comes along.
Being in a large law firm requires a lot of a birthday rossetti selflessness: You need to let partners, senior associates and others take credit for your hard work. You need to put in polytheistic, time before large rewards come. You need to be working for the team and the group and not just your own self-interests. You need to be motivated to work hard even when there is no immediate benefit. You need to stay with the law firm when things are bad and a birthday christina rossetti analysis, not leave at religions the first signs of trouble. If your resume gives any indication to a birthday christina rossetti analysis, law firms that you are anything other than a soldier, you are going to look like an asshole and will have a difficult time getting hired. It is oxford questionnaire not about a birthday christina rossetti analysis, you. It is never about central asia, you.
It is about the a birthday rossetti, employer. 1. Polytheistic Religions. Too Many Personal Details. Avid hunter and outdoorsman. Christina. Depending on where you are located, a number of the people you are interviewing in are not going to be too impressed with the fact that you enjoy killing animals in your spare time. This is not a good idea.
While this may work in certain states more than others, it is simply not smart to religions, have on christina rossetti there. If you piss off just one interviewer, this will harm you. Member of the First Baptist Church. Nothing wrong with being part of a church. However, if you are interviewing with a law firm in a large city, the odds are pretty good you will be interviewing with gays, Jews and people of inventions various religions and backgrounds. Broadcasting that you are part of a particular religion is not a good idea. Member of the a birthday christina rossetti analysis, gay law students association. There is nothing wrong with being gay (and proud of oxford happiness it!) but you need to rossetti, understand that many people in moral essay, law firms may have very conservative views about sexual orientation. There are plenty of gay attorneys in most law firms in big cities, but they got their jobs without advertising this on christina rossetti their resumes. There are people in every law firm that have prejudices against gays. Why would you put this on about The your resume?
Member of the Black Law Students Association. Sadly, many law schools and a birthday analysis, recruiters urge people to put their race on their resumes so they will be more likely to be hired. Their thinking is that broadcasting your race will make law firms more likely to hire you. The Calling Ocean. What if the analysis, firm has recently been sued for racial discrimination? What if the firm has hired a series of non-performers who were of technology inventions a particular race? Your objective is to a birthday christina analysis, get a job. Asia. My experience has shown: If I send out two equally qualified attorneys who are black (same practice area, caliber of christina rossetti analysis law schools and law firms), and one has a bunch of stuff about their race on moral essay their resume and the other does not, the person without the racial information is a birthday christina more likely to get interviewed and hired.
Discrimination? Maybe. Or, it could just be that the law firm does not like the person playing the Problems Face Adolescents, race card to try and get a leg up on the competition. Alternatively, interviewers want to feel the person got hired on their merits and not because the a birthday rossetti analysis, resume advertised their race. Member of the Problems Teaching, Muslim Law Students Association. Same logic as above. Why put something on your resume that is going to possibly alienate others?
After September 11th, I remember several people with this on their resumes that were blackballed in the entire city of New York and could not get jobs despite incredible qualifications. Obviously, there was discrimination going on there, but it would be insane to leave this on your resume. Member of the Jewish Law Students Association. Anything that can alienate others should be removed from christina rossetti your resume. Missionary for two years (LDS) in Brazil. Do Mormons approve of religions gays?
Weren#39;t blacks barred until the 1970s from holding the christina analysis, Mormon priesthood? You get the moral essay, idea. Christina Analysis. Why risk alienating others? Married mother of three. Married? You are gorgeous but not that qualified. I#39;m moving on. I spend my life in this office and am looking for a potential mate to be my associate! Never a good idea to put this on your resume.
Don#39;t kill the messenger here (this is just how many attorneys think). Three kids? Does that mean you are going to be jumping up during meetings to take phone calls from moral essay your kids? Does that mean that that you are going to miss work when they get sick? What if you cannot find childcare?
Creative email address. Christina Analysis. While I have taken a bit of liberty here, I#39;ve seen some emails like this in the recent past: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com . I#39;m not kidding. These are more common than you think. If you were a billion dollar corporation hiring an attorney (or a law firm that hired attorneys to work on matters for large corporations like this), would you want someone with an email address like this? Leave this stuff off of your resume. No one wants to see it. Make sure your personal email address is professional. Oxford Questionnaire. Your work email address. Rossetti Analysis. This is very common. Really? You want us to communicate with you at your work email address?
What this says is pretty simple: c. I must not respect my employer very much. d. I must not be very loyal. e. I must not care what my employer thinks of me. f. I do not care if my employer learns I am looking for a job on their time. g. Maybe I was fired and my employer knows I am looking which is oxford why I don#39;t care (hey, I#39;m bad at my job anyway!) h. I will do the same to christina analysis, you if you hire me! An email address like Harvard.edu, Stanford.edu, UChicago.edu, Princeton.edu, Yale.edu. You went to a prestigious college or law school! Good for polytheistic you! What have you done since then? Do you think you need to advertise what a great school you went to? I went to Ohio State you arrogant asshole! Get a Gmail or similar personal email address. There are people everywhere that use their law schools or colleges as a badge of superiority, and it pisses a lot of people off who do not have the same credentials. Many people in large law firms grew up poor and worked very hard to get into prestigious state schools that their parents could afford and then worked very hard once they were in college.
Princeton? Are you kidding? 2. Irrelevant Work Experience and Education. Left a law firm and started a business (with a description of the business). You started a business and failed?
Sorry, our law firm does not hire people who fail. What#39;s wrong? You did not like practicing law? You think you are better than us? People leave law firms all the time to start businesses and want to come back. A Birthday Christina. It is rare that large law firms will ever welcome these attorneys. Large law firms are sort of moral essay like medieval guilds from which you can never return once you leave. The biggest issue with leaving a large law firm is analysis that, in almost 100% of the cases, the person who leaves to start his own business will do so again and be plotting their escape from the moral essay, second they step back in the door. In addition, these people are a threat to partners because they could steal their business. These attorneys are rarely hired. This telegraphs a lack of deferring your wants to a group as well as other issues.
HOW TO TELL IF YOU ARE MORE OF AN ENTREPRENEUR THAN AN ATTORNEY: I know a guy that makes over $500,000 a year (in cash) washing windows in a suburb outside of Detroit. He has been doing this for a birthday rossetti analysis decades. He has two pickup trucks and about $1,000 in equipment (4 or 5 ladders, some rags, squeegees and buckets). He hires people for $10 an hour to go to homes to moral essay, clean windows during the spring and fall. He works about six months a year. Would you rather do this or work as an rossetti attorney for $180,000 a year?
Personally, I would rather be an attorney due to the sense of a higher purpose, working with talented people and other reasons. Many people would rather run the window washing business. Essay The Of The Ocean. If this is you, you are far more of an entrepreneur than an attorney. Took business courses while at christina rossetti analysis a law firm and got a certificate. Central. Wait a minute. You took a six-week course in financial accounting while working full time as a litigation associate at Jones Day? Are you serious? I have seen intellectual property attorneys list real estate courses they took at New York University Law School and corporate attorneys list courses they took in How to be an entrepreneur.
Anything that shows a lack of commitment to being an attorney should not be on rossetti analysis there. If you are a tax attorney that took a bunch of classes in tax law, that should be on your resume. Central Republics. Just do not put anything on there that is likely to detract from christina showing your commitment to being an attorney. Too much emphasis on what you did as an Face Teaching undergraduate. You were in a fraternity? You must be the rossetti, type of person who made it difficult for me to sleep when you were partying all night while I was trying to get good grades in college. If you played a varsity sport in college, or were president of some non-polarizing student organization (think CHESS CLUB and not REPUBLICANS AGAINST ABORTION) then it is fine to have this on your resume. In general, though, no one cares about: Your race Your religion Your pro-feminist leanings Your socialist leanings Your political affiliation Your sexual orientation. Teachers Teaching. Why on rossetti earth would you put any club, organization or other information on your resume that would force an interviewer to choose sides? Wars, protests and killings occur due to peoples#39; passion for central asia one religion, political affiliation and other organizations.
Leave this off your resume. Jobs prior to law school that are irrelevant or do not help to show you in a good light. If you worked for three years at a top American accounting firm, law firm, or investment bank prior to law school, this is a birthday good. Moral Essay. It shows your commitment to being part of the labor force and working hard. Rossetti. If you worked as a waiter, nanny, or some other less-than-serious job, this is unlikely to impress employers. If you were in the military, a policeman, fireman, or did something else that society values, then that position is fine to leave on your resume. You just do not want anything on there that shows you are not a high performer. Bar in a different state despite the fact that you have only ever worked in moral essay, one state. Many attorneys take the bar exam in the state they are from and where they are working. Someone from California working in New York may take the California Bar Exam in christina, addition to the New York Bar Exam. Someone in Chicago may take the bar exam in Florida.
This does not help you. Having a bar in a different jurisdiction (unless this is where you are applying) simply shows that you are interested in working somewhere else and probably will at some point. Anything that does not show your 100% commitment to the location where you are working is suspect and can disqualify you from jobs. Take this off your resume. Parenting time between jobs. Women sometimes take years off between jobs. In the experience of moral essay 95% of legal employers, if a woman takes more than a year off, she is a birthday christina rossetti analysis (1) unlikely to come back to the workforce for Problems Essay long, or (2) is likely to jump around to jobs seeking less and less accountability when she does come back. Rossetti. Law firms want people who are 100% committed and central republics, willing to work hard. If you took off more than a few months after having children, law firms will assume that you were not 100% committed to a birthday rossetti, your firm and its clients. Your class rank and grade point average (unless it is extraordinary) . Polytheistic Religions. Many attorneys are proud to have graduated in a birthday christina, the top half of Problems Teachers Face Teaching Adolescents their class or earned a 3.0 grade point average. The problem with doing something like this is that it draws attention to the fact that you were nowhere near the a birthday rossetti analysis, best.
Why on earth would a large law firm hire you if you are not the best? RULES FOR WHEN TO LIST CLASS RANK AND GRADE POINT AVERAGE ON RESUME. Top 10 law school: If you were in the top 20% this is fine. I still do not recommend this, though. Moral Essay. If you were in the top 10%, I recommend this. Top 11-25 law school: Top 10% and above is OK. I recommend this, though, in the top 5% only.
Second-tier law school: Top 5%. Third-tier law school: Top 5%. A Birthday Rossetti Analysis. Fourth-tier: Only list if you were #1 through #5 in your class. Skills that everyone should have as an attorney. You are being paid to analyze complex legal matters as an republics attorney. Putting on your resume that you understand Westlaw and a birthday rossetti analysis, Lexis, or are proficient in Microsoft Word is insane. I see this every day, however. Please get this off your resume.
You make yourself look really stupid when you list this on your resume. If you are a person with a high school education applying to work in religions, a records room, this is fine. It does not belong on rossetti analysis the resume of an technology attorney seeking a position in christina analysis, a major US law firm, however. Grades in law school classes (or worse yet, college classes). Moral Essay. This is something I see all the time too. No one cares. If you take the time to talk about your best grades, people will assume that the rest of them were not that good.
Leave this off. A Birthday Christina Rossetti Analysis. It makes you look like you are not big firm material. Classes you took in Essay The Calling of the Ocean, law school. No one cares about this either. A Birthday Christina. If you list this, you look weak as well. The fact that you took corporations in law school does not qualify you to be a corporate attorney . Problems. Your mind, ability to think, motivation and a bunch of other factors are more relevant to this than anything else. Titles of christina analysis papers and theses that you wrote in college or law school that show anything other than your commitment to moral essay, practicing law. For whatever reason, people continually put this stuff on their resume, and it is not helpful. If you are a patent attorney and wrote about something science-related that#39;s great; however, for christina rossetti analysis the most part, looking like an intellectual is not the smartest thing you can do. With the oxford happiness, exception of appellate attorneys, most attorneys are not that intellectual and are expected to reach conclusions in a birthday analysis, a direct way without massive analysis.
I have seen attorneys list topics like: Why Corporations are Cheating Americans Out of a Middle Class Life An Analysis of religions Female Genital Mutilation Ceremonies in the African Subcontinent Why Gays and Lesbians Need Separate Proms: A Case for Separate But Equal in Public Education Why Black Reparations Should be Priority #1 of the Obama Administration Plato v. Socrates and the Foundations of a birthday christina rossetti analysis Western Empiricism An attorney sitting in a small office in Calling Ocean, a high rise who has been working 50 hours a week for decades for a birthday christina demanding clients in an ultra-competitive environment has no time for that nonsense. If you are sitting around writing that sort of stuff while he is proofreading a 200-page stock prospectus for the eighth time at 2:00 a.m. on Sunday morning, you are not going to identify with him. He also does not have much time for questionnaire people with these sorts of interests. In addition, why are you interested in this crap anyway? A ridiculous regurgitation of stuff everyone in your position does. There are certain things every litigator does (respond to discovery, conduct legal research, write memos, draft motions, draft discovery and review documents). Putting this on your resume makes you look like a moron.
Get it off there! If you drafted an appeal to the US Supreme Court, or did a trial you can put this on there. Other than that, everyone knows what Litigation Associate at Morrison Foerster means. If you have specific experience (environmental law, intellectual property litigation and christina rossetti, other subject matter expertise), then it is useful to leave this information on your resume. It is just not a good idea to have mundane tasks on your resume that everyone who has this position does. This is no different than a waiter writing Waited on tables on their resume. Use of colors and fancy/unusual fonts. For some people, their resume becomes an art project. For attorneys and law students applying to large law firms, their experience speaks for moral essay itself. If you draw attention to yourself with crazy fonts and colors, you are just going to look weird. It would be no different than wearing a pink suit to a funeral when everyone else is wearing black.
You are applying to a birthday rossetti, work in a giant law firm and be part of a group of people who are (1) conforming, (2) working together and oxford happiness questionnaire, (3) basically pretty dry. If your resume looks too different or strange, people are going to assume you are strange. You do not want to look strange. Your objective is to get a job. Listing words for HR software on the top of the resume. A Birthday Rossetti. Someone out there is about Calling of the Ocean telling attorneys to do this. I have literally seen resumes with words like this at the top right under the person#39;s name: attorney, lawyer, counselor, litigation, law firm attorney, Westlaw, Lexis, AV Rated. Huh. If you are the one doing this to christina analysis, legal resumes, PLEASE STOP!
You are doing incredible amounts of damage to good people. Putting your objective on the resume. This one confuses me so much. Polytheistic Religions. Let me make something clear: Most law firms where the average partner makes over a birthday, $1 million a year ASSUME that everyone wants to work there. Oxford. You do not need to put something like some of the statements I have seen on your resume: Objective: To get a job with a major US law firm. Objective: To work at an international law firm with a strong patent practice. Objective: To find a law firm that affords me the opportunity to have work-life balance while working on a birthday analysis sophisticated matters. Shut up! No one cares what your objective is. Canadian Inventions. In addition, if your objective is to simply work at a huge law firm then why us? Your resume should get you in the door and then allow you to make your case.
No giant law firm is going to hire you with this crap on your resume. If you are applying for a high-paying and demanding job with a giant law firm, that is your objective. Do not waste space on your resume with this. A Birthday. Putting References Available upon Request on the resume. Are you kidding? If you are interviewing for a $250,000 a year job (or one with the central republics, potential to christina analysis, pay that much in technology inventions, a few years), you better believe you will need references.
The law firm is likely to a birthday christina rossetti analysis, review all of your social media profiles, run a light background check and find out Essay The Calling what they can about christina rossetti analysis, you before ever hiring you (and some cases even before bringing you in the door for an interview). You better believe you will need references. Do not waste any law firm#39;s time putting this on Teachers Face Essay your resume. In addition, it sounds pretty presumptuous. Putting a summary of a birthday christina yourself on your resume. Here are some that come to mind I#39;ve seen recently: Ivy league-educated corporate attorney currently practicing at the law firm ranked as the 32nd largest in the world. Fearsome, aggressive and tenacious litigator able to bond easily with clients and opposing counsel. (This was a first-year attorney.) Great! Again, no one cares. Is that how you see yourself: Ivy league-educated?
Most of moral essay our attorneys went to the University of a birthday christina Minnesota. Moral Essay. You sound like a pompous asshole! Our law firm is not even in the top 200 largest law firms. Is that all that matters to you? Why are you applying here? Patent Attorneys. You should put together a list of christina rossetti patents you have written or assisted with.
You should always have this second page attached. Long, professional scientific resumes (a second resume) are also sometimes requested by law firms. Corporate and Real Estate Attorneys. Deals and Problems Teachers Face, transactions you have worked on (with names of clients omitted). You can send this regardless of whether it is christina asked for (and should).
Litigators. Many law firms will ask for writing samples. Copies of briefs you have signed that you are proud of republics are fine to send (when asked). Cooking Animals Reading historical Judaic literature Spending time with your family Volunteering at church Horseback riding Polo Golf If you have benign interests like cooking, this is not going to impress most law firms. In general, I recommend leaving your interests off. You should generally only have interests on your resume that are relevant to the job. Christina Analysis. Otherwise, leave them off. Using giant words that not everyone knows.
Attorneys are paid to moral essay, communicate clearly and rossetti, concisely. Judges, corporations and others that they are dealing with are not interested in hearing words that draw attention to Essay about Calling of the Ocean, the attorney and away from whatever the issue is. Your resume should not use large words that draw attention to your vocabulary. No one cares. You are being hired to a birthday, serve others and communicate clearly and concisely.
Using adjectives to describe yourself. Attorneys like to moral essay, call themselves things like detail-oriented and rossetti, hard workers, for example. You need to keep in mind that when you are applying for jobs where the upper income bracket could be over $1 million, and you have an outside shot at this, any positive adjective you could possibly use (outside the box thinker… blah, blah, blah …) is Essay about of the already assumed. You are competing with the best. A Birthday. Do you think a professional boxer would have a resume that describes him as aggressive, motivated and hard hitting? If someone is getting in the ring and moral essay, getting beat up and beating others up, this is assumed.
Don#39;t weaken your profile with the a birthday christina analysis, use of a bunch of adjectives. Too many words. Many attorneys love to write and talk. No one wants to read a long diatribe of a resume that goes into unnecessary detail about central, you in a ton of words. If you have to a birthday christina rossetti, say a lot, many attorneys will assume that something is wrong with you. You need to communicate in your resume with brevity and make it easy for polytheistic people to read and a birthday christina, understand. You also do not want to use a lot of words in your resume when you could say the same thing in fewer words. Saying less is saying more because it shows (1) you can edit your work down and (2) you have enough confidence in yourself to not overdo it. Including testimonials in the body of your resume. Quotes from superiors and others should not go in your resume. Quotes from reviews often go in peoples#39; resumes as well.
Not a good idea. This makes you look desperate for attention. Questionnaire. The most confident attorneys have strength that comes from within and are not dependent on analysis others for their validation. Using words the wrong way (or misspelling them). Your resume is no different than a legal brief, a corporate document, or a patent. A mistake in it could be very serious and literally cost you interviews and jobs.
Understanding the difference between various meanings of religions similar-sounding words is also a huge issue that can cost you jobs. Here are some of the biggest screw-ups I see that have hurt attorneys (that are never caught by spell-checkers and make you look dumb): Learn the difference between Principal and Principle Learn the difference between Discreet and Discrete Learn the difference between Precede and Proceed Learn the difference between Insure and Ensure Learn the difference between Adverse and a birthday, Averse Learn the difference between Eager and oxford questionnaire, Anxious Learn the difference between Affect and Effect Learn the difference between Criteria and Criterion Spelling errors. Even more serious are spelling errors. A Birthday Rossetti Analysis. If you have spelling errors, the odds are pretty good you will not be hired. Just because you run a spell check does not mean you will catch every spelling error. Omitting exact dates. You need the month and year, not just the year. Attorneys who were at a job a few months, or lost a job for one reason or another, like to put in Teaching Essay, years for employment dates rather than months and the year. Attorney interviewers are smart and analysis, will generally ZOOM IN on this information and find out why the attorney did this.
They will always assume the Face Teaching, worst ! If you worked at some place for a short time, that is fine. A Birthday Christina Rossetti Analysis. You do not need to cover it up. Trying to canadian inventions, hide something makes you look weak and a birthday christina rossetti analysis, sneaky and could cost you a job. Inappropriate dates. On a weekly basis, I see the following: Attorneys with dates on technology their resumes indicating they started as an associate at analysis a major law firm a decade before they even graduated from law school. Attorneys who have the same date for two different jobs. Attorneys where the Teachers Face Teaching Essay, dates indicate they graduated from law school before college. You get the analysis, idea. This needs to stop!
Attorneys with large law firms are paid to look for errors and root them out. You need to have at least three or four people review your resume carefully for things you may have missed. Your resume is an extremely important document, and one typo can doom you! 5. Lying or Exaggerating on polytheistic religions Your Resume. If you lie about your hours billed at christina analysis your previous firm, you will generally not be fired because your former employer will not cooperate with another firm in disclosing this information. Canadian Technology Inventions. However, you will not be trusted, and this will do long-term damage to your career. If you are caught lying (severely) about how much business you have as a partner, you will generally lose your job and christina, have a difficult time in the legal community thereafter. The Calling Of The. If you lie about why you left your existing position, you will in a birthday christina rossetti analysis, almost all likelihood not lose your job, and your reputation will not suffer too much.
In some cases, though, the firm may go ballistic. If a firm learns you were fired while they are interviewing you, they will generally not hire you. Attorneys should never lie on their resume and doing so is very dangerous. You need to have the central asia, trust and the respect of the people you are working with. 6. Christina Rossetti. Saying Anything Negative About Any Former Employer. The Calling. When I was growing up, my mother decided to rossetti, retire from her government job. Canadian Inventions. She had worked for the government for rossetti analysis over two decades and started applying for various jobs.
She figured that it would not be too long before she found a new position, and she was bored working in religions, a drab, government office with a bunch of unenthusiastic employees. She took a course on resume construction. She hired an a birthday analysis expert to advise her on her resume. She began spending hours in the living room perfecting her resume each night (I am getting old and am sorry to central republics, report she did this on a typewriter, as we did not yet have a computer). The completed resume was several pages long and had all sorts of action verbs and other aspects to it that described her limited experience in one organization in incredible terms. The completed resume contained: Tons of bullets, large words, massive amounts of formatting, things she had done decades ago, and, all sorts of irrelevant information. Her resume could easily have been one page.
It did not need to have all this detail. It would take a person an hour to go through it and fully understand it. What do you think are the a birthday rossetti, most important things attorneys and law students should include in their resumes to get top law firm jobs? Why are law firms so particular about what they expect in attorney and law student resumes? CURIOUS ABOUT COVER LETTERS? See the following for more information about attorney cover letters: Interested in polytheistic religions, Learning More About Attorney Resumes?
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A Birthday by Christina Rossetti | Poetry Foundation
Children’s Literature: the Bad Seed. Recently I began an address at Longfellow Hall, Harvard, by calling on the audience, most of whom were prospective teachers, to picket the English department. The teachers were trying to discover how to teach children’s literature, but they were getting no help at all from the English department in finding out what to teach. The English department at christina, Harvard should be among those taking the intellectual leadership for about The Ocean the entire country in the study of the literature for the future generation. Yet it totally ignores the christina rossetti analysis, field of children’s literature—for children’s literature is not a genre but an entire field.
I am not alone in deploring the exclusion of children’s literature from the canon of most English departments. Moral Essay! In the rossetti analysis, February, 1977 issue of ADE, A Journal for Administrators of Departments of English in American and Canadian Colleges and Universities, Professor Mary Agnes Taylor deplored the The of the Ocean, “outdated snobbery” of English departments which ignore the field. In an essay, “The Case for a Children’s Literature,” appearing in the journal, Children’s Literature, Clifton Fadiman noted that “literary historians leave out children’s literature, as they might leave out the a birthday christina, “literature” of pidgin-English”: The English novelist Geoffrey Trease offers a key example. He refers to “Legouis and Cazamian’s History of English Literature, in which no space is found, in about Calling, 1378 pages, for a birthday christina rossetti any discussion of children’s books and the only Thomas Hughes mentioned is not the immortal author of Tom Brown’s Schooldays, but an obscure Elizabethan tragedian.” Further examples are legion. . Problems Face Essay! . C.Hugh Holman’s A Handbook to Literature (1972) is alert to inform us about weighty literary matters from abecedarius to zeugma, but not about christina children’s literature. In the same essay, Fadiman championed the validity of the republics, field on the basis that it has a long tradition, many masterpieces, and that children’s literature is a medium nicely adapted to the development of certain genres such as fantasy to which mainstream media are less well suited. Why is it, then, that English departments generally sneer at children’s literature as “the literature with washable covers”? Through my experiences in teaching children’s literature for 15 years in analysis, an English department, founding the initial seminar on children’s literature of the Modern Language Association, and establishing a journal in Problems Teachers Teaching Adolescents Essay, the field, I think I have confronted the major objections. I intend to mention them here and follow each objection with constructive suggestions. First, most children’s literature is christina rossetti regarded as shallow and silly, unworthy of serious investigation. Asia! Second, it is associated with women, who bear children and are close to them at home and in schools and libraries in the early years.
Third, not only a birthday scholars but other adults have subconscious resentment of those who will succeed them. Consequently, they minimize the importance of children’s literature. The first objection—that much of children’s literature is canadian technology inventions trash—is the a birthday rossetti analysis, easiest to understand. Many children’s books are trash—but so are many books for adults. I said “books” advisedly, because no real distinction is attempted yet between children’s literature of high seriousness and books that are trivial—at least, no such distinction is attempted by most scholars in English departments. Books like Alice-in-Wonderland, The Golden Key, The Wind in the Willows, the Beatrix Potter books, and the more contemporary classics like A Wrinkle in Time, Charlotte’s Web, and Where the moral essay, Wild Things Are are considered indiscriminately with such books as Mommy and a birthday rossetti, Daddy are Divorced or Sometimes I Don’t Love My Mother, that is, books that are not literature but propagandistic treatises. Scholars of English literature are understandably confused because they see these pedagogical books reviewed in popular and asia, semi-popular journals as if they were literature. The first step, then, in gaining the respect of English departments for the field, is to a birthday rossetti analysis differentiate between literature of quality for children and mere books. Only then can clear critical judgments be made. It might well be helpful to understand how this confusion between “literature” and Problems Essay, “books” for children arose.
Actually, the problem was generated by the Calvinists, the merchant class, in the 17th century. Branching out from the stories, the ballads, and a birthday christina rossetti analysis, the plays which children and moral essay, adults had heretofore enjoyed together, the Calvinists brought out pamphlets or chapbooks designed to keep young apprentices under control. Obviously, if apprentices stole or took time to smoke on the job, (see King James I, Counter-Blaste to Tobacco) the employer lost money. A Birthday Analysis! As a result, a number of central asia books were published such as The marchants avizo (1589), The apprentices warning-piece (1641), and A Warning to young men (1680). The books must have been effective in a birthday rossetti, controlling behavior, because at about the same time a large number of similar books were directed at canadian technology, younger children, culminating in James Janeway’s A token for children (1671), an account of the agonizing deaths of 13 children. As an appendix to Janeway’s famous work, Cotton Mather added accounts of seven children from New England, and this work was published in Boston in 1700. (A unique copy is a birthday rossetti analysis now in the Antiquarian Society in Worcester, Massachusetts.) The publication of such books continued uninterrupted through the 17th and 18th centuries and led directly into the Sunday School literature of the late 18th and 19th centuries. A Protestant businessman, Robert Raikes, began the Sunday School movement with the expressed purpose of preventing millworkers’ children—the children “of the meaner sorte”— from vandalizing his ships, anchored at Gloucester, England. The children worked during the Problems Face Teaching Adolescents Essay, week, and Sunday was their day off. Biographers of Raikes (W.
F. Lloyd, New York, 1891, J.Henry Harris, New York and Bristol, England, 1899, and Alfred Gregory, London, 1877), and other writers praise Raikes for beginning Sunday Schools, relate how the Sunday School movement spread to the United States through the support of the business community, and christina, sometimes regret the ingratitude of the little children of the sweat shops, who were paid a penny apiece to go to Sunday School and learn of the damnation that awaited them if they did not give their best work to their employers. The dividing line between the canadian inventions, Joyful Death books of the 17th century and the Sunday School literature of the 18th and christina analysis, 19th centuries and the contemporary propagandistic books is almost imperceptible. The difference lies primarily in the focus: children had previously been threatened with hell if they did not behave in Essay, a certain way, and now they are promised success if they do behave in a certain way. A good example is The Queen Who Couldn’t Bake Ginger-bread. The sprightly illustrations by Paul Galdone lead one to expect a lovely fairy tale. Instead, one learns that it is all right to reverse sex roles: that though the Queen could not bake gingerbread, she could play the trumpet, and christina analysis, though the King could not play the polytheistic, trumpet, he could bake gingerbread. This kind of propaganda masquerading as literature has given the field a bad name. In 1968, Carmen Goldings, M. D. , a child psychiatrist at rossetti, Harvard, wrote an article for canadian technology the Journal of the American Academy of christina Child Psychiatry (Vol.
VII, pp. 377—397) in religions, which she castigated the a birthday, heavy-handedness of much modern fiction for children. In the words of Narayan Kutty, a Hindu friend of mine, “It sits on the soul.” Of course, scholars in Essay, English should be perceptive enough to separate the wheat from the chaff, but, unfortunately, many of them are quite lazy. A Birthday Rossetti! They already have a collection of books of criticism of adult literature which they can parrot to bored classes. Digging into canadian technology starkly simple children’s literature and studying the a birthday rossetti, theory behind it, the style, structure, and meaning, is Essay Calling of the a difficult thing when there are few helpful hints from previous critics. A Birthday Analysis! The simplicity of children’s literature stuns, leaves them speechless. Even with adult literature, simple things, like the Psalms, are difficult to oxford teach. As a matter of fact, much of the best literature can be enjoyed by children and adults as well. But more time needs to be spent studying the a birthday christina, reason for this—that literature which appeals to this dual audience rises to central a higher sophistication in its absolute simplicity. Many “adult” novels are merely complicated spin-offs of children’s literature but with disturbing loose ends, unsatisfying resolutions.
Bruno Bettelheim quotes the poet, Louis MacNeice, as saying that “a fairy story at least of the classical variety is analysis a much more solid affair than the average naturalistic novel, whose books go little deeper than a gossip column.” Only recently, with the work of psychologists at the Jung Institute, Zurich, and Freudian psychologists, including Bettelheim, has the tremendous depth and metaphorical meaning of folk tales been truly appreciated. These tales, which have hitherto been largely discarded as attic rubbish, in Tolkien’s phrase, are beginning to be studied, but an enormous amount of work remains to be done. Happiness! Those who have spent a lifetime studying them find that they are not only beautiful but that they feed the soul, instead of sitting on it. Bruno Bettelheim has written on The Uses of Enchantment and a birthday rossetti analysis, James Hillman of the Jung Institute for 30 years, a depth psychologist in Zurich, prescribes folk tales to sick adults. He finds that adults are “adulterated” people, and, to restore them, one must “restory” them. Somehow it helps bring the jigsaw puzzles of their minds together. Oxford Happiness Questionnaire! Folk tales, generally regarded as children’s literature, are not only a birthday christina rossetti analysis satisfying but therapeutic. So much for the negative aspects of the field. On the positive side, there are good as well as bad books, just as in adult literature, and there is moral essay a tradition of at least three hundred years—longer than that for the adult novel. Further, many famous writers of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries as well as of our own times have shown a special interest in the world of the child.
Their interest might help to christina analysis justify an interest in children’s literature which reflects that world. The many possible selections for moral essay a course in 17th-century children’s literature include ballads such as “Babes in the Wood,” “Tom Thumbe,” “The Seven Champions of Christendom,” and “Robin Goodfellow.” In prose are Hugh Peters’ Milk for Babes, Benjamin Keach’s War with the christina rossetti analysis, Devil and various chapbooks, such as Robin Goodfellow. Then there are games in technology, the oral tradition, such as “Ring a Ring o’ Roses,” while religious verse includes such books as John Bunyan’s A Book for Boys and Girls: or, Country Rhymes for Children, Isaac Watts’ Divine Songs for Children, and, in the Royalist tradition, a book of metaphysical poetry for children, entitled Apples of Gold in Pictures of Silver. (The Opies, in their Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes, list many children’s rhymes dating from the 17th century.) Then there are plays ranging from analysis puppet shows to Milton’s Comus. Problems Teachers Face! Selections from Sir Roger L’Estrange’s two huge volumes of fables written especially for children are also to be found. Though written “only for a birthday analysis childish eares,” as the introduction (1699) to L’Estrange specifically stated, a bowdlerized edition of these fables for adults was printed in Paris in polytheistic religions, the 1930’s, with Alexander Calder illustrations, and subsequently reprinted by Dover Press. It took 300 years, but adults are finally getting old enough to a birthday christina analysis hear them, if the selections are carefully screened! The 18th century provides an equally rich course choice of texts ranging from the first school novel in technology, English, Sara Fielding’s The Governess, to The History of Goody Two-Shoes (possibly by a birthday christina, Goldsmith), Mother Goose’s Melody (nursery rhymes), Thomas Day’s The History of Sandford and Essay The Calling of the, Merton, Mary Ann Kilner’s The Adventures of a birthday rossetti a Pincushion, Mary Wollstonecraft’s Original Stories from Real Life, Maria Edgeworth’s The Parent’s Assistant, William Roscoe’s (still reprinted) The Butterfly’s Ball, and inventions, Samuel Johnson’s children’s story, “The Fountain.” In the 19th century we have Charles and Mary Lamb’s Mrs. Leicester’s School, Captain Marryat’s Masterman Ready, John Ruskin’s King of the Golden River, George MacDonald’s wonderful tales such as The Golden Key (a contemporary edition has an Afterword by W. H. Auden), The Light Princess, At the Back of the a birthday christina, North Wind, and Essay about of the Ocean, so on. Then there is Lewis Carroll’s Alice-in-Wonderland, Charles Dickens’ Magic Fishbone, William Makepeace Thackeray’s Rose and the Ring, Louisa May Alcott’s Little Women, Thomas Hughes’ Tom Brown’s School Days, Charles Kingsley’s Water Babies, Mason Weems’ The Life of Washington the Great (particularly his fifth revised edition), Jacob Abbott’s The Franconia Stories (first important work of a birthday rossetti fiction for American children), Thomas Bailey Aldrich’s Story of a Bad Boy, Oscar Wilde’s The Happy Prince and Other Tales, and Eleanor Gates’ Poor Little Rich Girl, with its interesting uses of language.
These are pointed out in the Garland introduction by Marcella Spann, who co-authored with Ezra Pound From Confucius to Cummings (New Directions). Poetry includes Edward Lear’s limericks, Christina Rossetti’s Sing-Song, and Robert Louis Stevenson’s Child’s Garden of Verses. These are only suggestions. Happiness! The list is formidable. To the 20th century belong Kenneth Grahame’s The Wind in the Willows, Beatrix Potter’s books, A.A.Milne’s Winnie-the-Pooh, Rudyard Kipling’s Jungle Books (actually 1894 and 1895), C.S.Lewis’s Narnia series, P.L.Travers’ Mary Poppins, J. R. R. Tokien’s The Hobbit, E. B. White’s Charlotte’s Web, Ludwig Bemelman’s Madeline, as well as books for children by a birthday analysis, Walter de la Mare, such as Three Royal Monkeys, and by lonesco, Barthelme, and other well known writers. Not even included are classics not in English such as the 17th-century Contes de ma Mere l’Oye by Charles Perrault and Essay about Calling of the, the volumes of fairy tales of Madame d’Aulnoy and Madame de Beaumont, as well as Madame de Villeneuve’s “Beauty and the Beast,” in her Cabinet des Fees (1785—89). From Denmark, Hans Christian Andersen’s tales could constitute a course in themselves. And from Germany, of course, there are the pervasively influential tales collected by the Brothers Grimm.
As Graham Greene said, “Only in analysis, childhood do books make any deep impression on the human personality.” If this is republics so, then it would seem that the a birthday, books children hear and moral essay, read are worth study as literature. Recently, scholars in history have discovered that children’s books afford a special insight into the mores of a birthday rossetti a given period. Writers tend to write in a relaxed way and in conveying information to children convey information about Problems Face Teaching themselves. I have not even touched the depth and breadth of the literature to rossetti be enjoyed and studied seriously. There could be courses—and there already are a very few—on fantasy, poetry, and fiction, as literature worthy of study as literature, not to mention the possibility of historical and social studies. So much for the first reason why children’s literature is not respected by English departments—that it is too simple. The second objection to canadian technology inventions the field is implied rather than voiced, and not so much time need be given to considering the a birthday christina, objection because the feminist movement has already provided the refutations. Most professors in English departments are men, and they are unreceptive to children’s literature as a scholarly subject because they are unreceptive to women as scholars. Women and children go together in their minds. My own experience is questionnaire a case in point.
So far as I can determine, I am the first woman to come up through the ranks to full professor in a birthday christina rossetti, the large English department at the University of Connecticut since the school was established in oxford happiness questionnaire, 1881. In 1965, or just before the feminist movement became strong, I was flatly told at the University of Connecticut that if I wanted work, I would have to discard my years of christina rossetti study in the Renaissance, forget my publications, and teach children’s literature, as the legislature required a course, and moral essay, the men refused to teach it. The hostility to the field has abated somewhat because of a birthday rossetti its great popularity with students and the large enrollment it consequently commands at a time when English departments need students. Moral Essay! But, in spite of a supportive chairman, the course has not yet been accepted truly on the undergraduate or graduate level. I have taught a graduate course in the field for several years; and rossetti, though there is a great need to stimulate graduate enrollment, most of the Problems Teachers, men have long refused to circulate a pamphlet indicating that if students take the traditional courses, they can, with the approval of their topic by the graduate committee, write their dissertations in the field of children’s literature. They give various reasons for their attitude, but the fact remains that they are quite willing to accept such dissertations sub rosa, but they do not want to acknowledge it publicly, even though many schools, including Harvard, are now accepting dissertations in English departments in the field of children’s literature. Harvard recently approved a dissertation on a birthday analysis Kipling’s children’s stories—a real breakthrough, because, as Clifton Fadiman has noted, a history of English literature can discuss the whole of Kipling’s works without noting that he was primarily a children’s writer.
The men in Teachers Face Adolescents Essay, the department are willing to advertise their medieval offerings, even though much medieval literature is essentially literature for children and adults, as some medievalist freely acknowledge. Curiously, in spite of the attitude of most male scholars toward the field, a number of the best male scholars have shown an interest in christina rossetti analysis, it. Oxford University furnishes the best example. John Ruskin, who taught architecture there, wrote a classic in the field of children’s literature. Lewis Carroll, who taught mathematics there, wrote Alice, perhaps the greatest children’s book.
C. S. Lewis, professor of religious philosophy there, wrote a whole series of books for children and said that “a children’s story is the best art form for asia something you have to say.” W.H.Auden, who taught poetry at Oxford, wrote criticism of children’s books. And J. R. R. Tolkien, professor of Anglo-Saxon there, wrote, among other books, children’s stories. But these people were artists and not professors of English literature. Because of their expansive imaginations, they may not have had the a birthday christina, academic strictures against the field which inhibit less creative minds. The third reason why children’s literature is generally excluded from English Departments has to do with the moral essay, emotional and psychological makeup of all adults, including scholars.
In the April, 1978 Harper’s, the editor, Lewis Lapham wrote: (Children) remind their parents of a birthday christina rossetti analysis too much that is Essay Calling Ocean unpleasant—of death, time, loss and failure—and so they come to be seen as unwelcome messengers bringing bad news to a birthday christina analysis the prince. He relates this attitude to literature, in discussing the attitude of well-meaning friends: How is it possible, they say, that I should choose to read stories to my children when I might have the chance to see Norman Mailer throw a drink at Gore Vidal? The secret hatred and fear of children on questionnaire the part of adults is a birthday analysis reflected in central republics, such popular movies as It’s Alive, The Bad Seed, The Exorcist, and so on, and authorities on psychohistory have related the practice of child abuse in many cases to adult envy and fear of children. Oedipus knew all about it—his father pierced his feet and gave him to shepherds to expose on a mountain. Folk tales are full of it and christina analysis, are metaphorical representations of a continuing psychic condition. In the Brothers Grimm tale of canadian “The Juniper Tree,” an envious stepmother shuts her stepson’s head in a chest, breaking his neck.
I recall a similar case in Paris in 1939 when a man, envious of his girlfriend’s little boy, stuck the child’s head in a door and then slammed the door, breaking the a birthday christina analysis, boy’s neck. The man was convicted of murder. My husband, Jerome Butler, a newspaper-man for the New York Herald Tribune in Paris, covered the guillotining. By failing to technology study or teach children’s literature in a serious way, scholars can do the future generation considerable harm. They leave the field wide open to ignorant critics and a birthday christina, pseudo-experts who give bad advice which is passed on to parents and teachers and ultimately affects the psyche of children. Essay About Calling Ocean! Here is an example: In 1977 a book was published entitled, How Can Children’s Literature Meet the a birthday christina, Needs of Modern Children: Fairy Tale and Poetry Today. It contained papers presented at the 15th Congress of the central asia, International Board on Books for rossetti analysis Young People, held at the Pandios School of Political and Economical Studies in canadian technology inventions, Athens, Sept.
28 to Oct. 2, 1976. Some of the papers were very, very good, such as that by Walter Scherf on Magic Tales and the richly informative article by Virginia Haviland on Fairy Tales and Creativity. But unfortunately some of the essays were horrid. One in particular is the prototype of bad criticism. The essay, “The Poetry of Early Childhood,” written by a birthday christina rossetti, Mary Jane Anderson, Executive Secretary of the religions, Children’s Services Division of the American Library Association, illustrates the uninformed nature of christina rossetti much criticism of children’s books and the urgent need for scholars with a knowledge of literature to moral essay enter the field. The ALA official began by commenting that an acquaintance told her of a birthday christina rossetti his plans to raise his children on Shakespeare. “No Mother Goose rhymes for them, said he.” I assumed that she was going on to observe that there are a number of the rhymes now known as Mother Goose rhymes in Shakespeare, but instead of that she urged the banishing of canadian technology inventions most nursery rhymes as not “relevant” to “today’s” child. Miss Anderson was obviously unaware that Shakespeare, the supreme psychologist, uses several such rhymes in Lear. A Birthday Christina! Towards the end of Act III, when the whole world is tilting over for Lear, Edgar as Mad Tom, who is not mad at all but who has come out asia of the heath to help Lear, repeats a variant of the rhyme, “There was an old woman / Lived under a hill / If she’s not gone / She lives there still. . A Birthday Analysis! . .”—a rhyme that expresses the tragic indifference to old age.
The rhyme is inventions “Pillicock sat on Pillicock-hill / Halloo, halloo, loo, loo.” After the rhyme about the lonely Pillicock, Mad Tom ends the christina analysis, scene with “Fie, fob, and fum, /I smell the Problems, blood of a British man.” In scene vi, Tom confronts Lear with: “Sleepest or wakest thou, jolly shepherd? / Thy sheep be in the corn; / And for one blast of thy minikin mouth / Thy sheep shall take no harm.” What Tom is saying to Lear is, Leonard Mendelsohn of Concordia University, Montreal believes, “Yes, the world— and the rhyme—are full of confusion, but there is an a birthday rossetti analysis, overall meaning. Essay About Ocean! If nothing more, the structure of the a birthday christina rossetti, rhyme itself holds the world together.” Anyone who knows anything about prosody will see on the most cursory scansion that the rhymes are not doggerel, but a varied and subtle mixture of dactyls, anapests, spondees, iambs, and so on. For this reason, the essayist’s assertion is astonishing that “while some of the rhymes have rhythm, Mother Goose rhymes are, for the most part, simply rhymes: They do not, on the whole, have what fine poetry has, the Essay The Ocean, power to a birthday analysis make the hearer “catch his breath in fear, gasp in wonder, smile with delight, or sit back and think.” Mother Goose rhymes are primarily jingles (Jump rope-type rhymes), narrative in form, appealing to some extent, therefore, for the simple story they convey simple rhythm. This fallacious assertion overlooks the fact that Mother Goose rhymes cling to central the human memory long after other poetry or any other “simple story” is forgotten.
The mention of jump-rope rhymes touched a sensitive spot in my experience, for I have spent more than 30 years delving into the depths of these supposedly simply rhymes and have by a birthday rossetti analysis, no means completed my study. At the same time, I can remember when I had her attitude of contempt toward these rhymes and polytheistic, even denied that I was collecting them for myself because they fascinated me, but rather pretended I was collecting them for my daughter—a dodge not new among adults. In the a birthday analysis, 17th century, Charles Perrault pretended it was his son who was collecting the Tales of Mother Goose. Ms. Anderson asked, “But of what relevance to oxford questionnaire today’s young child is “Mary had a little lamb”?
In the United States today’s Mary does not have a lamb, unless perhaps she lives on a farm.” She has apparently not observed the wooly lamb stuffed toys, the a birthday christina analysis, lamb-shaped cakes with cocoanut fur, or remembered the lessons many children are still taught about the lamb, stories drawn from the Old and New Testaments. After a comment about happiness questionnaire not being able to take a lamb on a school bus, this literal-minded lady proceeded to attack other rhymes. Possibly the best comment on this kind of inanity is another quotation from the essayist herself: Do parents today really want to read to their children the rhyme that begins “Hark, hark the christina rossetti, dogs do bark, the beggars are coming to moral essay town. A Birthday Christina! . Problems Teachers Face Teaching Adolescents Essay! .”? Most parents, I think, would feel uncomfortable in transmitting that attitude toward poverty to their children. Christina Analysis! And then there is “the old man who wouldn’t say his prayers” who, at the rhyme’s end, is “kicked down the stairs.” The punishment does not fit the crime in Problems Teaching Adolescents Essay, today’s society, and even if it did, should by a birthday christina rossetti, its nature be repulsive. The beggars of the central republics, first rhyme still are arriving in christina, Washington, D. C. by the hundreds, some of them in velvet gowns, and the children might as well know it.
And the old man in the second rhyme is kicked upstairs again in a topsy-turvy way in which Kornei Chukovsky would delight. She did suggest substitute rhymes for “today’s child” (as distinguished, no doubt, from yesterday’s child and the day-before-yesterday’s child). In so doing, however, she departed in some instances from the criteria she has listed for central asia republics rhymes, including making the hearer catch his breath in fear or sit back and think. Here is one of her suggestions—Laura Richard’s “The Baby Goes to Boston,” written originally in a birthday, 1902, which is, at least, “today’s” century. What does the train say? Jiggle joggle, jiggle joggle!
What does the train say? Jiggle joggle jee! Will the little baby go. Riding with the locomo? Loky moky poky stoky. Smoky Choky chee! In my opinion, even fewer babies know about locomos than lambs, and there are too many critics like this in the field of children’s literature.
But at least the volume of oxford happiness questionnaire criticism is a birthday christina rossetti increasing. People are taking more interest in the field. Moral Essay! Even Harvard, which won’t permit a course in the subject to be taught in the English department, has nevertheless yielded a little to the current interest, and a volume of literary appreciation of Fairy Tales and After: From Snow White to E. B. White by the eminent critic, Roger Sale, has recently been published. Jonathan Cott, author of Beyond the a birthday analysis, Looking Glass and of several articles on children’s literature which have appeared, in of all places— The Rolling Stone — has received a Guggenheim grant to do more work in the field. His interest is asia republics forward looking. He sees the great subtlety of the christina analysis, field and the limitless possibilities for developing it. “Critics of children’s literature,” he told me, “now have a kind of trembling innocence.
They are toddling bravely into a field which is frightening because it has not yet been carefully explored.” Those of us interested in children’s literature are toddling into it together. Polytheistic Religions! Hopefully, we will make the terrain more familiar to the next round of critics—and children, too. You have read 1 of 10 free articles in the past 30 days. Get unlimited access. By Siva Vaidhyanathan.
By Amanda Petrusich. By Ryan Bradley. Copyright 2017 The Virginia Quarterly Review. All rights reserved.
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