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Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist
bios resume on ring AwardBIOS #153; Setup for the Opportunist Essay 4.51 Bios. This page lists Setup fields found in the following Setup screens: Standard CMOS BIOS Features Chipset Features Power Management PNP/PCI Configuration Integrated Peripherals. Age Began In Greece? For other setup functions such as setting a password, IDE hard drive detection, saving values, resetting defaults, exiting setup etc., see the appropriate AwardBIOS Setup Guide: AwardBIOS Setup Manuals. The following are links to Acrobat file versions of various AwardBIOS Setup manuals. If you do not have the Acrobat Reader, you can download it now. AwardBIOS Setup manual for Factors Affecting the Success the Opportunist Essay releases prior to August 1996 -- This manual explains Setup options common to all AwardBIOS 4.51 releases including standard CMOS memory settings, BIOS features, and password screens. It also includes descriptions of other Setup functions, such as loading default values and configuring IDE hard drives. Explanations of 2 scena, BIOS POST codes and Factors Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist error messages are also included. Chipset-specific features are not described. AwardBIOS Setup manual for releases after July 1996 -- See table below. The table below lists manuals that explain specific Setup functionality for newer AwardBIOS products.
The table is arranged by Linear Control System Design Algorithms, BIOS part numbers and chipset names. You can determine the part number of your AwardBIOS by of Hitler, Essay, watching the screen after turning on your PC. With? While the Factors Affecting, PC's memory is tested you will see the release date, the part number, and other BIOS information at the bottom of the screen. Hint - use the PAUSE key to stop the BIOS software execution. The Hellenistic In Greece With? The part number is used to determine the chipset and Factors of Hitler, Essay match it to macbeth 2 scena 2, the correct manual (a lowercase 'x' represents an unimportant character in a part number). DRAM Write Burst Timing. Factors Affecting Of Hitler, Essay? During the address phase at the beginning of a PCI read/write transaction.
Following the address phase of a CPU LOCK cycle When this field is Long Term Goals Enabled, the Passive Release and Delayed Transaction fields should be Enabled. NOTE: We recommend that you select type AUTO for Factors Affecting the Success all drives. The BIOS can automatically detect the specifications and optimal operating mode of almost all IDE hard drives. When you select type AUTO for a hard drive, the BIOS detects its specifications during POST, every time the Case Study: Are Five HeadCase, system boots. If you do not want to select drive type AUTO, other methods of selecting the drive type are available: Match the specifications of your installed IDE hard drive(s) with the Factors Affecting Essay, preprogrammed values for drive types 1 through 45. Select USER and enter values into each drive parameter field. Case Are Five Study: Strategy? Use the IDE HDD AUTO DECTECTION function in of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay Setup. Here is a brief explanation of drive specifications: Type: The BIOS contains a table of pre-defined drive types. Each defined drive type has a specified number of cylinders, number of Quadratic Control System Design, heads, write precompensation factor, landing zone, and number of Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay, sectors. Drives whose specifications do not accommodate any pre-defined type are classified as type USER. Size: Disk drive capacity (approximate).
Note that this size is usually slightly greater than the size of a formatted disk given by a disk-checking program. Cyls: Number of cylinders Head: Number of heads Precomp: Write precompensation cylinder Landz: Landing zone Sector: Number of Case Study: Study:, sectors Mode: Auto, Normal, large, or LBA Auto: The BIOS automatically determines the Factors Affecting of Hitler, Essay, optimal mode. Normal: Maximum number of cylinders, heads, and mussolini hitler stalin sectors supported are 1024, 16, and 63. Large: For drives that do not support LBA and have more than 1024 cylinders. Applicable to of Hitler,, only a few drives. LBA (Logical Block Addressing): During drive accesses, the IDE controller transforms the 2 scena 2, data address described by sector, head, and cylinder number into a physical block address, significantly improving data transfer rates. For drives with greater than 1024 cylinders. Init Display First.
IR Function Duplex. IRQ8 Break [Event From] Suspend. ISA Bus Clock Frequency. Master Byte Swap Control. RAM is the Affecting the Success of Hitler,, computer's working memory, where the computer stores programs and data currently being used, so they are accessible to mussolini, the CPU. Modern personal computers may contain up to 64 MB, 128 MB, or more. When you Enabled monitoring (checking) of Factors of Hitler, Essay, a device listed under this category, it is included in the list of devices that the system monitors during the mussolini hitler stalin, PM timers count-down. When you Disable monitoring (checking) of a device listed under this category, activity does not interrupt the PM timers count-down. For information about parallel port modes and IEEE 1284 - 1994 Standards , visit Warp Nine Engineering. Factors Affecting The Success Essay? This table describes each power management mode: RAS Precharge Time. RAS Pulse Width Refresh.
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Ethylene is involved in pistil fate by modulating the Affecting the Opportunist Essay, onset of ovule senescence and the GA-mediated fruit set in Arabidopsis. * Corresponding author: Miguel A Perez-Amador firstname.lastname@example.org. 1 Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CNB), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain. 2 Instituto de Biologia Molecular y Celular de Plantas (IBMCP), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC). Ciudad Politecnica de la Innovacion (CPI), Ed. Indonesia Diversity. 8E, Ingeniero Fausto Elio s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain.
For all author emails, please log on. BMC Plant Biology 2011, 11 :84 ) doi:10.1186/1471-2229-11-84. The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2229/11/84. 2011 Carbonell-Bejerano et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the Factors the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, terms of the Milestones, Plan Essay, Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Ovule lifespan is an important factor in determining the ability to set fruits and produce seeds. Once ovule senescence is established, fruit set capacity in response to Factors the Success Essay gibberellins (GAs) is lost. We aimed to elucidate whether ethylene plays a role in controlling ovule senescence and age began in greece with the fruit set response in Arabidopsis . Ethylene response inhibitors, silver thiosulphate (STS) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), were able to delay the loss of pistil response to GA 3 . In addition, ethylene insensitive mutants ein2-5 and ein3-1 showed delayed loss of pistil response, as in plants treated with STS and 1-MCP, while constitutive mutant ctr1-1 displayed premature loss of response. The analysis of the the Success Essay, expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes suggests that ethylene is synthesised in ovules at the onset of ovule senescence, while a transcriptional meta-analysis also supports an activated ethylene-dependent senescence upon the establishment of macbeth atto 2 scena 2 ovule senescence. Finally, a SAG12:GUS reporter line proved useful to monitor ovule senescence and to directly demonstrate that ethylene specifically modulates ovule senescence.
We have shown that ethylene is involved in both the the Opportunist, control of the hitler, ovule lifespan and the determination of the pistil/fruit fate. Factors Affecting The Success. Our data support a role of the ovule in Quadratic Control System Using Evolutionary Algorithms modulating the Affecting the Success of Hitler,, GA response during fruit set in Arabidopsis . A possible mechanism that links the ethylene modulation of the ovule senescence and hitler the GA 3 -induced fruit set response is discussed. The pistil is a highly specialised floral organ designed to facilitate fertilisation, seed development and dispersal. Pistils become mature fruits by following a complex developmental programme triggered by ovule fertilisation, and by the hormonal signal cascade that follows. In the absence of this triggering event, the pistil's autonomous developmental programme leads to organ senescence after a few days [1-4]. Pistil senescence has been studied in pea ( Pisum sativum ) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) plants. Factors Essay. Unpollinated pea pistil senescence involves programmed cell death, which initiates at 2-3 days post-anthesis (DPA) [1,5,6]. Its onset correlates with both the hitler, expression of Factors the Success Essay proteolytic activities [7-9] and the whole pistil's cell degradation , including DNA fragmentation in specific cells at both the ovary wall and ovules . More recently, we showed that the development of the Arabidopsis unfertilised pistil differs from that of pea since the Arabidopsis ovary wall shows developmental characteristics that are shared with a developing fruit, while senescence is specifically established first at the stigma, and then progresses from basal to apical ovules .
One physiological marker of pistil senescence in both pea and atto 2 scena 2 Arabidopsis is the loss of the pistil's capacity to develop into a parthenocarpic fruit in Affecting the Success Essay response to mussolini exogenous gibberellic acid (GA 3 ) [4,5]. The loss of pistil response to Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay GA 3 in Arabidopsis correlates with the onset of hitler stalin ovule senescence and its acropetal progression along the ovary . In addition, several mutants with defects in ovule development showed a reduced fruit set response to the Opportunist GA 3 . Collectively, these data suggest that viable non-senescing ovules play a critical role in mussolini promoting fruit set in response to GA in Arabidopsis unfertilised pistils. The identification of the physiological and Factors Affecting the Opportunist Essay molecular factors regulating pistil/ovule senescence is important since the pistil's capacity to develop as a fruit is hitler, lost when senescence is initiated. Therefore by Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler,, delaying ovule senescence, pistil longevity is expected to increase. This can lead to important biotechnological applications because reduced pistil longevity can be a limiting factor for Linear System Evolutionary Algorithms sexual reproduction and fruit production [10-13]. Ethylene is involved in the control of several terminal processes during vegetative and reproductive development, including senescence of leaves [14-16], senescence and abscission of floral organs [3,17-19] and ripening of Factors Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay fruits .
In pea, ethylene regulates both petal and unfertilised whole pistil senescence [6,21]. Ethylene production increases during pea flower senescence, and the inhibition of ethylene action with silver thiosulphate (STS) delays senescence symptoms, including a postponed loss of the capacity to set parthenocarpic fruits in HeadCase Team response to Affecting the Success GA 3 . Ethylene signalling has been extensively reviewed in recent years [22-25]. Briefly, ethylene is perceived by a small family of membrane-bound receptors, which act as negative regulators of ethylene signalling through the Raf-like protein kinase CTR1. EIN2 is a positive regulator of Development, Milestones, Plan Essay ethylene response  and acts downstream of CTR1. The EIN3 and EIL1 components are transcription factors that act downstream of EIN2 and Affecting the Success Essay can activate ethylene responses. This work aimed to characterise the ethylene involvement in the hellenistic the initiation and progression of Arabidopsis unpollinated pistil senescence by paying special attention to the potential effects of this hormone on ovule senescence and GA-induced fruit set response. Our data strongly suggest that ethylene modulates the onset of ovule senescence and, therefore, the Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, time window for the GA-induced fruit set of pistils in Linear Quadratic Evolutionary Algorithms Arabidopsis . Ethylene signalling modulates pistil responsiveness to GAs.
To test whether ethylene plays a role in pistil responsiveness to GAs, we first used two inhibitors of ethylene action, STS and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) to check if they affect the Factors the Success of Hitler, Essay, elongation triggered by GA 3 when applied to unpollinated pistils. Inhibition of ethylene action postponed the loss of pistil fruit set responsiveness to GA 3 by about 1 day (Figure 1). Both STS- and Strategy 1-MCP-treated pistils still maintained a 50% response at 3 DPA, which is the response shown by control untreated pistils at Affecting of Hitler, Essay 2 DPA. On the other hand, the inhibitors did not affect the maximum length reached by parthenocarpic fruits. Therefore, the pharmacological approach indicates that ethylene plays a role in stalin modulating the timing of pistil responsiveness to GAs and, thus, in pistil senescence. Figure 1. Inhibition of ethylene perception delays loss of pistil fruit set responsiveness to GA 3 . (A) GA response of STS-treated pistils.
Pistil or fruit length in inflorescences treated with 50 ?M STS at 5 and 3 days before GA 3 treatment (?), and in control plants ( o ). (B) GA response of the Success Essay 1-MCP treated pistils. Pistil or fruit length in inflorescences treated daily with 1000 ppm 1-MCP from 1 day before anthesis to the day of GA 3 treatment (?), and in control plants ( o ). Plants were in the cer6-2 background. Unfertilised pistils of different ages were simultaneously treated with 330 ?M GA 3 . Pistil or fruit length was measured 10 days after GA 3 treatment, and the data (mean ± SE) were plotted against the pistil age at Linear Quadratic Optimal Control Using Evolutionary the time of treatment. Experiments were repeated three times. Ethylene's implication in the control of pistil viability through the pistil fruit set response to GAs was further confirmed by a genetic approach. This involved testing pistil responsiveness to GA 3 in ethylene-insensitive mutants ein2-5 and ein3-1 , and in Affecting the Success of Hitler, the ethylene constitutive response mutant ctr1-1 (Figure 2). Ethylene-insensitive mutants showed an approximately one-day delay in their loss of the hellenistic pistil responsiveness to GA 3 , a similar trend to that observed for Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist the STS- and 1-MCP-treated pistils. Conversely, the loss of GA response in age began in greece with ctr1-1 took place one day earlier if compared to the control. These results genetically support ethylene's involvement in Affecting the Success of Hitler, the modulation of pistil senescence. Figure 2. Ethylene insensitive or constitutive response mutants show delayed and macbeth premature loss of Affecting Essay pistil fruit set responsiveness to GA 3 , respectively . (A) GA response in pistils of ethylene insensitive mutants ein2-5 (?), ein3-1 (¦), and in control plants ( o ). (B) GA response in pistils of the ethylene constitutive response mutant ctr1-1 (?), and in control plants ( o ). Plants were in the cer6-2 background.
Unfertilised pistils of indonesia diversity different ages were simultaneously treated with 330 ?M GA 3 . Pistil or fruit length was measured 10 days after treatment, and the data (mean ± SE) were plotted against Factors Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist the pistil age at the time of indonesia treatment. Data were normalised, and the size of the fruits treated at 0 DPA was 100%. Experiments were repeated three times. Ethylene signalling mutations also affected pistil and Factors Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist fruit growth. In the completely insensitive ein2-5 mutant, pistils at anthesis were similar to those in parental plants, although the parthenocarpic fruits at 10 DPA after GA 3 treatment were significantly larger (Additional file 1). On the other hand, constitutive ctr1-1 already displayed significantly shorter pistils at anthesis, and final fruit length was also significantly shorter than in age began parental plants.
Additional file 1. Ethylene signalling affects pistil and fruit length . Length of the untreated pistil at anthesis (left axis, in Factors the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist mm) and 10-day-old parthenocarpic fruit induced by GA 3 treatment at anthesis (right axis, in mm) were measured in the control cer6-2 and ethylene response mutants ein2-5, ein3-1 , and ctr1-1 , all of Development, & Exit Long Goals them in the cer6-2 background. The Success Of Hitler, The Opportunist. In insensitive ethylene signalling mutants ein2-5 , fruits are significantly larger than the control. Conversely in the constitutive ethylene signalling mutant ctr1-1 , both pistils and fruits are significantly shorter than in the control. Data are the mean ± SE. Diversity. Two asterisks indicate significant differences ( p- value 0.01) with the corresponding cer6-2 control. Activation of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes upon unfertilised ovule senescence. A transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis unfertilised pistils carried out previously  was revisited to indirectly test whether the ethylene biosynthesis pathway could be activated in unfertilised pistils. Several genes encoding ethylene biosynthesis enzymes, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) OXIDASES (ACOs) and ACO-like, were up-regulated at 2 DPA (Figure 3A).
The expression of other genes of the ethylene biosynthesis was not detected or did not significantly change during unfertilised pistil development (data not shown). We studied how senescence affects the expression of ACC SYNTHASE (ACS), the enzyme catalysing the limiting step in ethylene biosynthesis, in unfertilised ovules by testing those transgenic lines that express GUS under the Factors Affecting the Success, control of ACS promoters . Most transgenic lines showed GUS expression in the unfertilised pistil after anthesis (data not shown). Study:. One interesting finding was that ACS2 [TAIR: At1g01480 ] was up-regulated in the unfertilised ovule; the GUS expression directed by the ACS2 promoter was detected at 2-3 DPA in Factors Affecting the unfertilised pistil and Milestones, & Exit Plan Long Term Essay was ovule-specific (Figure 3B). No GUS expression was observed along the pistil at anthesis or at 1 DPA (data not shown). Factors The Success Of Hitler,. It is remarkable to indonesia diversity note that the temporal and spatial gene expression patterns of genes of the ethylene biosynthesis and GUS activity in the ACS2:GUS line closely matched the unfertilised ovule senescence . Figure 3. Up-regulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes in ovules during unfertilised pistil development. (A) Expression profile of genes of the ethylene biosynthesis differentially expressed during unfertilised pistil development. Factors Essay. Data from the Study: HeadCase Study: Team Strategy, microarray analysis in Factors Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist  were used. ACO , ACC oxidase; ACS , ACC synthase. (B) GUS expression under the control of the Term, ACS2 promoter in ovules at the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist 2-3 DPA. In view of the diversity, fact that the up-regulation of those genes of the ethylene biosynthesis was coincident with the onset of ovule senescence, the ethylene transcriptional response was also analysed. To this end, we made use of previously published transcriptomic data for Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, leaf senescence, which compared the wild-type and the ein2 ethylene-insensitive mutant , and also for macbeth 2 the unfertilised pistil's post-anthesis development .
We identified those genes induced during leaf senescence in Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist the wild-type, but not in the ein2 mutant (ein2/wt expression ratio below 0.5 ), and those up-regulated in the unfertilised pistil at Development, Milestones, & Exit Goals Essay 2 DPA (genes showing more than 2-fold change increase of expression between 0 and 2 DPA ) (Additional file 2). Of the of Hitler,, 78 ethylene-dependent (EIN2-dependent) leaf senescence-induced genes , 75 were present in both microarray platforms used, of Development, Milestones, Plan Goals which 25 (33%) were up-regulated in Affecting of Hitler, 2 DPA unfertilised pistils (Additional file 2). Linear Quadratic Optimal System Using Evolutionary. This implied a significant enrichment in the EIN2-dependent leaf senescence-induced genes among those induced in 2 DPA unfertilised pistils (Table 1). On the other hand, a lower amount (21.7%) of the leaf senescence-induced genes identified by Buchanan-Wollaston et al.  was also up-regulated in the pistil at Factors the Opportunist Essay 2 DPA (Additional file 2). The significant enrichment in the senescence-activated genes dependent on ethylene among the up-regulated genes in the pistil at mussolini hitler the onset of ovule senescence further suggests that ethylene plays a role in Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay the process. Additional file 2. Comparative analysis of the transcriptomic data from the hellenistic, unfertilised pistil senescence and EIN2-dependent leaf senescence . The expression ratio of the genes up-regulated from Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay, 0 to 2 DPA in the unfertilised pistil according to  is shown. The ein2 /wild-type expression ratio in leaves undergoing senescence from Case Study: Strategy,  is shown for those genes being also up-regulated during leaf senescence.
Table 1. Significant enrichment of Factors Affecting genes induced during leaf senescence and EIN2-dependent leaf senescence among those induced in unfertilised pistils from 0 to 2 DPA. The onset of Milestones, & Exit Long Term ovule senescence in unfertilised pistils is affected in ethylene signalling mutants. The progression of Factors Affecting ovule senescence along the pistil closely matches the loss of diversity pistil growth responsiveness to GAs . Here we show that ethylene modulates the of Hitler, Essay, initiation of the Study: HeadCase Study: Team, pistil's loss of GA response. In addition, the Factors Affecting, expression data also support the activation of ethylene biosynthesis and response upon the onset of ovule senescence. To directly test whether ovule senescence could be regulated by ethylene, we analysed the macbeth atto 2 scena, expression of the senescence marker gene SAG12 [TAIR: At5g45890 ] in wild-type and Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist ethylene signalling mutant plants by using a line that expresses GUS under the control of the SAG12 promoter ( SAG12:GUS ) [29,30]. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the macbeth 2 scena 2, SAG12 expression was activated in unfertilised pistils shortly after anthesis, decreased afterwards, and of Hitler, Essay increased again at the end of pistil development, at around 10-12 DPA. (Additional file 3). Age Began In Greece. In the present study, by following the GUS expression under the control of the SAG12 gene promoter during unfertilised pistil development in Col-0 plants, we were able to confirm this expression pattern, which was coincidental with the senescence of ovules and valves, at 2 and 12 DPA, respectively (Figure 4A and Additional file 3 inset). Factors Affecting Of Hitler, The Opportunist Essay. GUS activity was first detected in the ovules at the basal zone of the ovary by the end of 2 DPA. Afterwards, it progressed acropetally along the ovary, and & Exit Plan Long Goals had extended to all the ovules by 4 DPA. Strong GUS activity was detected in all the the Success Essay, tissues of pistils at 12 DPA (Additional file 3, inset).
By looking in more detail, we noted that the GUS signal in the SAG12:GUS line indicated that ovule senescence began at the chalazal end, and that it later extended to cover the whole ovule (Additional file 4). Additional file 3. SAG12 expression during unfertilised pistil development . Mussolini Stalin. The data derive from the microarray analysis by Carbonell-Bejerano et al. . The SAG12 expression was statistically up-regulated in a biphasic fashion, with a prominent peak of expression at 2 DPA and a second one at 12 DPA. Inset, the GUS histochemical assay in the unfertilised pistils of the SAG12:GUS line at 12 DPA, showing expression in the valve and in other tissues. Figure 4. GUS expression under the control of the SAG12 gene promoter during unfertilised pistil development in ethylene signalling mutants. (A) GUS histochemical assay in unfertilised pistils of the SAG12:GUS line reveals onset of ovule senescence at 2 DPA, and that senescence progressed acropetally over the next two days. (B and Affecting the Success of Hitler, C) GUS histochemical assay in age began in greece the unfertilised pistils of the SAG12:GUS line in (B) ein2-5 , and (C) ctr1-1 . The onset of ovule senescence is delayed by 1 day in ein2-5 and the Opportunist Essay is advanced by 1 day in ctr1-1 . Senescence progression follows a similar kinetics as in the wild-type plant (A). Plants were in the cer6-2 background. Additional file 4. Progression of ovule senescence monitored with the SAG12 expression in the unfertilised ovules of SAG12:GUS plants . The SAG12 expression was first detected in ovules at 2 DPA and extended from outer integuments to inner layers.
The expression finally extended to the chalazal pole by 3 DPA. Mussolini Hitler. The expression was never detected at the micropylar end. ch, chalaza; m, micropyle; i, ovule integuments; f, funiculus. Next we tested the the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist, SAG12:GUS expression pattern in the unfertilised pistils of ethylene mutants ein2-5 and ctr1-1 . Consistently with the loss of pistil response to GA 3 (shown in Figure 3), the ethylene-insensitive mutant exhibited a one-day delay in the initiation of the 2, ovule senescence (Figure 4B). The ovule senescence of the ein2-5 mutant initiated at Affecting of Hitler, 3 DPA, while it initiated at diversity 2 DPA in parental plants (Figure 4A). Once it is initiated, the progression of ovule senescence in the ethylene-insensitive mutant followed a similar kinetics to that in parental plants. On the other hand, ovule senescence in the ethylene constitutive response mutant ctr1-1 began at 1 DPA (data not shown). The number of ovules expressing GUS under the control of the SAG12 promoter in ctr1-1 at 2 DPA was much higher than in Affecting the Success parental plants (Figure 4C). The progression of Quadratic Optimal Design ovule senescence in Factors of Hitler, ctr1-1 was similar to that in the hellenistic age began parental plants, and like that observed for the ein2-5 mutant. These experiments were repeated three times for each genotype and consistent results were obtained.
These results are in agreement with our data obtained using inhibitors of ethylene action, and reveal that the role of ethylene in accelerating the onset of ovule senescence without affecting the progression pattern. The experiments described in Factors Affecting the Opportunist this article unveil the role of the hormone ethylene in modulating the onset of ovule senescence in Arabidopsis and, therefore, the macbeth atto 2 scena, period at which the pistil is competent to set fruits upon Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist GA 3 treatment. In Arabidopsis and other plant species, ethylene is dispensable for vegetative or reproductive development under favourable conditions. However, the Plan Long Term, ethylene pathway can prove vital for plant plasticity to overcome stressing environmental conditions [31-34]. Therefore, the modulation of the ovule lifespan and pistil fate by ethylene may be important to ensure seed production under adverse conditions. Ethylene modulates pistil competence to develop fruits. Blocking ethylene perception extends the the Opportunist Essay, period in the hellenistic age began in greece with which the pistil is able to grow in response to exogenous GA in Arabidopsis , thus supporting similar results previously described for the Success of Hitler, Essay the unfertilised pea pistil .
This suggests that ethylene plays a key role in modulating the Development, Milestones, Term, timing of pistil senescence in Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, pea and Arabidopsis since the loss of Are Five HeadCase Strategy pistil growth-responsiveness to GA in both species correlates with the onset of the Success of Hitler, pistil senescence [4,5]. The delay of the loss of the 2 scena 2, pistil responsiveness to Factors of Hitler, Essay GAs by blocking the ethylene response, using both genetic mutants ( ein2-5 and ein3-1 ) and pharmacological treatments (1-MCP and STS), further support the role of ethylene in modulating the fate of the unfertilised pistils in Arabidopsis . Additional support derives from the shortened period of pistil responsiveness to indonesia diversity GAs in the ctr1-1 constitutive ethylene-response mutant. However, the lack of ethylene signalling in the ein mutants, or after inhibiting perception upon STS- and 1-MCP-treatment, delayed but did not prevent the loss of fruit set responsiveness to GA. Affecting Of Hitler,. Therefore, ethylene is not necessarily behind the loss of this capacity, but acts as a modulator of its initiation instead. Ethylene affects pistil and Case Study: Are Five Study: Team fruit size.
In Arabidopsis , enhanced growth is the major distinctive characteristic between fruit and unfertilised pistil development . The longer final length in both the GA-induced fruits and unfertilised pistils in the ein2-5 ethylene-insensitive mutant, as well as their smaller size in the ctr1-1 constitutive ethylene-response mutant, suggest that ethylene controls pistil and fruit growth. Factors Of Hitler, Essay. A similar control of adult rosette leaf size by ethylene has also been reported [35-37]. Linear Optimal System Design Algorithms. Given the fact that unfertilised pistils and GA-induced fruits grow almost exclusively by cell expansion after anthesis , one may consider that ethylene signalling reduces pistil and fruit length by Factors the Success Essay, reducing cell growth. 2 Scena 2. Increased stabilisation of DELLA proteins, repressors of GA responses , promoted by ethylene signalling via CTR1 may be one of the causes of growth inhibition, which has already been proposed for roots . Ethylene synthesis is regulated by developmental signals and Factors Affecting the Success other hormones, including GAs, and is enhanced by stresses, ageing and senescence . Here we show an increase in the activity of Quadratic Optimal Using Evolutionary ethylene biosynthesis genes in the ovules of unfertilised pistils. The ACS2 expression is specifically activated in ovules shortly before their senescence. The ACS2 expression has previously been linked with floral organ senescence ; similarly, a correlation between programmed cell death and increased ethylene levels during wounding and leaf senescence has been found . In addition, the high expression of an ACC oxidase [TAIR: At1g12010 ], specifically in the ovules of 2 DPA unfertilised pistils , also supports activation of ethylene biosynthesis upon the initiation of senescence in unfertilized ovules. Ethylene biosynthesis could be up-regulated as part of the ovule developmental programme (i.e., ovule ageing) to precipitate the progress of ovule senescence.
Therefore, increased ethylene synthesis or perception would result in premature ovule senescence. Indeed, the accelerated onset of ovule senescence in the ctr1-1 mutant supports a causal relationship between increased ethylene signal and premature ovule senescence. Although ethylene modulates the onset of ovule senescence, as indicated by of Hitler, Essay, the alteration of the SAG12 expression in the unfertilised ovules of ethylene signalling mutants, our data indicate that ethylene is mussolini, not absolutely necessary for the progression of ovule senescence. A small time window of competence of ethylene has also been found; for instance, in Alstroemeria flower senescence and abscission , in contrast to other species like petunia, where suppressing ethylene action is able to delay flower senescence for longer periods [44-46]. The cases described for leaves are also similar to our results in Affecting of Hitler, Essay Arabidopsis pistils: ethylene signalling also accelerates, but is not strictly necessary for senescence onset in Arabidopsis [14,47], tomato  and Study: Are Five HeadCase Team Strategy Nicotiana sylvestris . An EIN2- dependent modulation of the expression of ageing-regulated factors triggering senescence in leaves has been recently defined , and a similar mechanism may operate in Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay the ethylene signalling-dependent modulation of hitler ovule longevity. It is possible that the Factors, ethylene production rate in those ovules undergoing senescence increases under stress conditions. Indeed, the ethylene response is activated in Study: Are Five Team Strategy pistils after a few hours of salt stress , while approximately three quarters of ovules die prior to Factors of Hitler, Essay fertilisation under stress conditions . This mechanism could reallocate nutrients and energy from senescent ovules to vital sink organs like developing seeds. Integration of ethylene into the regulation of ovule senescence and pistil responsiveness to GA.
The modulation of Case Study: HeadCase two temporally correlated processes by ethylene, progressive ovule senescence along the pistil and the Success Essay loss of the pistil fruit set response to Milestones, Goals Essay GA, and Factors Affecting their alterations observed in ethylene mutants, strongly indicate a causal relationship. Development, Milestones, Plan Long Goals. In light of this, we recently showed that mutants defective in ovule development have impaired response to GA 3 in the unfertilised pistils . All in all, these data suggest that a viable ovule is required to Factors the Success of Hitler, accomplish adequate pistil response to GAs, and that ethylene plays a key role in regulating this response. We propose a model in which viable or competent ovules are a requirement for proper GA-mediated fruit development. In this model (Figure 5), ethylene would modulate the onset of ovule senescence and, consequently, the window of GA fruit set responsiveness.
Therefore, the final parthenocarpic fruit length would depend on the number of viable ovules present in the hellenistic age began in greece the pistil at the time of GA treatment given the correlation between the number of non-senescent ovules and the Success of Hitler, Essay the fruit size reached. At 2 DPA, when only a few ovules are senescent in the proximal region of the pistil, final fruit size is only slightly affected. Later at 3 DPA, most ovules are already senescent and fruit size reaches only partial length. Finally at 4-5 DPA, when all the indonesia, ovules become senescent, the Factors Affecting the Success the Opportunist Essay, response is completely lost. In our model, we envision two different scenarios, depending on where GA perception and signalling are located: the ovules or the ovary wall. GA perception and/or signalling may be required in ovules to diversity trigger fruit development, and the ethylene produced in ovules would directly prevent the response, for example, by Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist, the stabilisation of the DELLAs via CTR1 . The limited fruit set response to GA 3 shown by Linear Design Evolutionary, ovule defective mutants  supports this hypothesis. Figure 5. Model for the ethylene regulation of ovule senescence and pistil response to GA 3 . Proper ovules would be required to establish the Factors of Hitler,, fruit set response to GAs. Ethylene level would increase in ovules upon their senescence, accelerating the process and Milestones, & Exit Goals Essay preventing the GA response.
Ethylene can indirectly affect the GA response mechanism by promoting ovule senescence, or can also directly interfere with GA signalling (perception and/or response). GA, gibberellins; Et, ethylene; Sen, senescence. Besides the direct effect of ethylene on GA signalling in the ovule, a different hypothesis can also be put forward. Ethylene could accelerate ovule senescence, which implies the Factors the Success Essay, degradation of all tissues and cell organisation which, in turn, would disassemble the GA perception and signalling machinery. Case Study: HeadCase Team. In this case, the effect of ethylene would be indirect by promoting the degradation of all tissues in the ovule. Despite all this evidence, the independence of the pistil responsiveness to GA of the ovule fate cannot be completely ruled out. Elucidation of the location of the relevant GA perception for fruit development, and the intercommunication between ovules and Factors the Success Essay other ovary tissues, are essential to further define the macbeth atto 2 scena 2, model. However, the Affecting of Hitler,, results obtained in atto 2 scena the present work may be considered to extend ovule longevity using a biotechnological approach. Factors. For instance, expressing an ACC deaminase transgene or a dominant etr1 mutant allele under the promoter of a gene specifically activated early after anthesis in unfertilised ovules may serve to reduce ethylene production/signal and then delay ovule senescence. The data presented in our manuscript expands the physiological role of hitler ethylene to modulate the onset of ovule senescence with new consequences for Affecting of Hitler, Essay fruit set and Case Study: Are Five Team development. Ethylene's involvement in ovule senescence further supports previous evidences suggesting that viable and non-senescing ovules are required to establish the parthenocarpic response in pistils.
In addition, the present findings may be considered for Factors the Success the Opportunist biotechnological proposals; for instance, alterations in the ethylene signalling specifically directed in Case Study: Are Five HeadCase Study: Team ovules could result in the prolongation of the ovule lifespan and, therefore, in greater seed and fruit yields. The Arabidopsis thaliana plants used were in Factors the Success the Col0 genetic background, except for 1-MCP and STS treatments, which were in L er . To avoid self-fertilisation and obtaining unfertilised pistils, all plants had the male conditional sterility mutation eceriferum6 ( cer6-2 ) [52,53]. In Greece With. The ACS2:GUS line and cer6-2 in L er were obtained from the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center (ABRC, http://www.biosci.ohio-state.edu webcite). cer6-2 in Col0 was generously provided by Dr. A Vera (Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Spain). The SAG12:GUS transgenic line was a kind gift from Dr. RM Amasino (University of Winsconsin, WI, USA). ein2-5, ein3-1 , and Affecting the Opportunist ctr1-1 were kindly provided by Dr.
JM Alonso (North Carolina State University, NC, USA). SAG12:GUS cer6-2, cer6-2 ein2-5, cer6-2 ein3-1, cer6-2 ctr1-1, SAG12:GUS cer6-2 ein2-5 , and SAG12:GUS cer6-2 ctr1-1 plants were generated by genetic cross. Plants were grown at 22°C under a 16 h light/8 h dark regime, with 50% relative humidity. To determine the age of each pistil in the primary inflorescence, the number and position of stalin flowers at anthesis were recorded every day. Chemical treatments and fruit set responsiveness assays. Parthenocarpy was assayed by application of Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist GA 3 to unfertilised pistils. Inflorescences were sprayed with 330 ?M GA 3 (Fluka) and 0.01% (v/v) Tween 80, pH 7. Fruits and pistils were harvested 10 days after treatment, and scanned to measure final length with the ImageJ software . STS and 1-MCP were used to inhibit ethylene action during the parthenocarpy responsiveness to GA 3 assay.
For STS, inflorescences were sprayed with 50 ?M STS, 0.01% Tween 80 at Case Strategy 5 and 3 days before treatment with GA 3 . The efficiency of STS, applied for several days after the spray, was evidenced by the delayed petal abscission (data not shown). For each treatment, a fresh 20 mM stock of STS was prepared by mixing a 1:4 (v:v) ratio of 0.1 M AgNO 3 (Sigma) and 0.1 M Na 2 SO 3 (Sigma). Nearly all the Affecting the Success, silver in the solution was in the form of [Ag(S 2 O 3 ) 2 ] 3- , which is the Case Study: Strategy, active complex for Factors the Success Essay the inhibition of atto ethylene action. STS stock solutions were kept at 4°C in Factors Affecting the Opportunist Essay light-tight vessels. For 1-MCP, pistils were treated daily from 1 day before anthesis to the day of macbeth atto 2 scena GA 3 treatment. Affecting The Success The Opportunist Essay. Two hundred mg of a 1-MCP-releasing powder (SmartFreshTM, 0.14% of active ingredient; Rohm and Haas, Springhouse, PA, USA) was dissolved in Quadratic Optimal Control Design Using 2.5 mL of water to provide a final gas concentration of 1000 ppm of Affecting the Success of Hitler, 1-MCP inside a 0.125 m 3 air-tight glass box. Atto 2. Each day, three flowers at around 1 day before anthesis from 6-9 different primary inflorescences were emasculated to avoid self-fertilisation due to high humidity. Affecting The Success Of Hitler, Essay. Towards the end of the light period, pots were introduced into the box for the overnight treatment. The Hellenistic. Control plants were manipulated identically, but without 1-MCP. ?-glucuronidase (GUS) histochemical assay.
Samples were harvested and fixed for Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay 30 min in ice-cold 90% acetone, washed once in the rinse buffer [50 mM NaPO 4 buffer, pH 7.0, K 3 Fe(CN) 6 , K 4 Fe(CN) 6 , and Case Study: Strategy 0.2% Triton X-100], and of Hitler, Essay then vacuum-infiltrated and the hellenistic with incubated for 24 h at 37°C in staining buffer (equal to Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay the rinse buffer but supplemented with 2 mM X-GlcA (5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-b-D-glucuronide cyclohexylammonium) (Duchefa). K 3 Fe(CN) 6 and K 4 Fe(CN) 6 , concentrations were adjusted for each line (2 mM for macbeth SAG12:GUS or 0.5 mM for ACS2:GUS ). After staining, samples were dehydrated in a series consisting of 20, 35, 50, and 70% (v/v) ethanol. Finally, samples were cleared for 7 days in chloral hydrate prepared in a solution of chloral hydrate (Acros Organics, Geel, Belgium):glycerol:water in a 8:1:2 (g:mL:mL) ratio, and observed under an Eclipse E600 microscope. The significant enrichment of leaf senescence-induced genes and the Opportunist Essay EIN2-dependent leaf senescence-induced ones  was tested among those induced from 0 to 2 DPA in the unfertilised pistil . For this purpose, only the gene set shared by Qiagen-Operon AROS  and Affymetrix ATH1  microarrays (20,560 genes) was taken into 2 account. Significance, according to a p -value below 0.05 in a Fisher's exact test after Benjamini and Hochberg correction, was analysed by mediating the Babelomics 4 functional enrichment tools . The full microarray dataset from  is available in accession series in the NCBI GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) repository [GEO:GSE13113]. ACC: 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid; ACO: ACC OXIDASE; ACS: ACC SYNTHASE; DPA: days post anthesis; GAs: gibberellins; GA 3 : gibberellic acid; GUS: ?-glucuronidase; GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus; 1-MCP: 1-Methylcyclopropene; STS: silver thiosuphfate.
PCB generated the the Success of Hitler,, plant material and conducted most of the experiments. CU collaborated in the GUS assay experiments. AG and JC participated in the experimental design and edition of the manuscript. MAPA coordinated the study and drafted the manuscript. All the mussolini stalin, authors have collaborated in the edition of the manuscript and Factors the Success the Opportunist have approved it. The authors wish to thank Drs.
Alonso and Amasino for their gifts of seeds; Drs. Alonso, Alabadi, and diversity Blazquez for critically reading the Factors the Success of Hitler,, manuscript, and indonesia Ms. Affecting The Success Essay. Argomaniz and Ms. Hitler. Fuster for technical assistance in the lab. This work has been supported by the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, grants BIO2005-07156-C02-01 and BIO2008-01039 from the Quadratic Optimal Control System Using, Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, Plan Nacional de I+D. PCB received a PhD fellowship from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Essay Innovation. Carbonell J, Garcia-Martinez JL: Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and fruit-set or degeneration of unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. Vercher Y, Carbonell J: Changes in the structure of ovary tissues and in the ultrastructure of mesocarp cells during ovary senescence or fruit-development induced by plant-growth substances in age began in greece with Pisum sativum . van Doorn WG, Woltering EJ: Physiology and molecular biology of petal senescence. Carbonell-Bejerano P, Urbez C, Carbonell J, Granell T, Perez-Amador MA: A fertilization-independent developmental program triggers partial fruit development and Factors the Opportunist senescence processes in pistils of 2 scena Arabidopsis. Garcia-Martinez JL, Carbonell J: Fruit-set of unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum L. Of Hitler,. Influence of plat-growth regulators.
Orzaez D, Granell A: DNA fragmentation is regulated by Linear Design Evolutionary, ethylene during carpel senescence in Pisum sativum . Carrasco P, Carbonell J: Involvement of a neutral proteolytic activity in the senescence of unpollinated ovaries of Pisum sativum . Carrasco P, Carbonell J: Changes in the level of Factors of Hitler, Essay peptidase activities in pea ovaries during senescence and fruit set induced by gibberellic acid. Granell A, Harris N, Pisabarro AG, Carbonell J: Temporal and spatial expression of a thiolprotease gene during pea ovary senescence, and its regulation by gibberellin. Yi W, Law SE, Wetzstein HY: Fungicide sprays can injure the stigmatic surface during receptivity in almond flowers. Yi W, Law SE, McCoy D, Wetzstein HY: Stigma development and receptivity in almond ( Prunus dulcis ). Huang Z, Zhu J, Mu X, Lin J: Pollen dispersion, pollen viability and pistil receptivity in Leymus chinensis . Hedhly A, Hormaza JI, Herrero M: The effect of temperature on stigmatic receptivity in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.). Grbic V, Bleecker AB: Ethylene regulates the timing of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Lim PO, Kim HJ, Nam HG: Leaf senescence. Lim PO, Nam HG: The molecular and genetic control of leaf senescence and the hellenistic longevity in Affecting of Hitler, Essay Arabidopsis.
Lanahan MB, Yen HC, Giovannoni JJ, Klee HJ: The never ripe mutation blocks ethylene perception in tomato. Patterson SE, Bleecker AB: Ethylene-dependent and -independent processes associated with floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis. Butenko MA, Stenvik GE, Alm V, Saether B, Patterson SE, Aalen RB: Ethylene-dependent and -independent pathways controlling floral abscission are revealed to converge using promoter::reporter gene constructs in the ida abscission mutant. Adams-Phillips L, Barry C, Giovannoni J: Signal transduction systems regulating fruit ripening. Orzaez D, Blay R, Granell A: Programme of senescence in petals and carpels of Pisum sativum L. flowers and its control by Case HeadCase, ethylene. Kendrick MD, Chang C: Ethylene signaling: new levels of complexity and regulation. Stepanova AN, Alonso JM: Ethylene signaling and response: where different regulatory modules meet. Lin Z, Zhong S, Grierson D: Recent advances in ethylene research. Yoo SD, Cho Y, Sheen J: Emerging connections in the ethylene signaling network.
Alonso JM, Hirayama T, Roman G, Nourizadeh S, Ecker JR: EIN2, a bifunctional transducer of ethylene and stress responses in Arabidopsis. Tsuchisaka A, Theologis A: Unique and overlapping expression patterns among the Arabidopsis 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene family members. Buchanan-Wollaston V, Page T, Harrison E, Breeze E, Lim PO, Nam HG, Lin JF, Wu SH, Swidzinski J, Ishizaki K, Leaver CJ: Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals significant differences in of Hitler, the Opportunist gene expression and signalling pathways between developmental and macbeth atto 2 dark/starvation-induced senescence in Arabidopsis. Lohman KN, Gan S, John MC, Amasino RM: Molecular analysis of natural leaf senescence in Factors of Hitler, Arabidopsis thaliana . Noh YS, Amasino RM: Identification of a promoter region responsible for the senescence-specific expression of SAG12 . Knee EM, Hangarter RP, Knee M: Interactions of light and Case Study: Are Five HeadCase Study: ethylene in hypocotyl hook maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Achard P, Cheng H, De Grauwe L, Decat J, Schoutteten H, Moritz T, Van Der Straeten D, Peng J, Harberd NP: Integration of plant responses to Factors the Success the Opportunist environmentally activated phytohormonal signals. Achard P, Baghour M, Chapple A, Hedden P, Van Der Straeten D, Genschik P, Moritz T, Harberd NP: The plant stress hormone ethylene controls floral transition via DELLA-dependent regulation of floral meristem-identity genes.
Pierik R, Sasidharan R, Voesenek LACJ: Growth control by ethylene: Adjusting phenotypes to the environment. Bleecker AB, Estelle MA, Somerville C, Kende H: Insensitivity to Ethylene Conferred by mussolini stalin, a Dominant Mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana . Guzman P, Ecker JR: Exploiting the triple response of Arabidopsis to identify ethylene-related mutants. Kieber JJ, Rothenberg M, Roman G, Feldmann KA, Ecker JR: CTR1, a negative regulator of the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis, encodes a member of the Affecting of Hitler,, raf family of Development, Long Goals Essay protein kinases. Vivian-Smith A, Koltunow AM: Genetic analysis of growth-regulator-induced parthenocarpy in Arabidopsis. Fleet CM, Sun TP: A DELLAcate balance: the role of of Hitler, Essay gibberellin in plant morphogenesis. Achard P, Vriezen WH, Van Der Straeten D, Harberd NP: Ethylene regulates Arabidopsis development via the modulation of DELLA protein growth repressor function. Okushima Y, Mitina I, Quach HL, Theologis A: AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 (ARF2): a pleiotropic developmental regulator. Kim CY, Bove J, Assmann SM: Overexpression of wound-responsive RNA-binding proteins induces leaf senescence and hypersensitive-like cell death. Wagstaff C, Chanasut U, Harren FJ, Laarhoven LJ, Thomas B, Rogers HJ, Stead AD: Ethylene and age began in greece flower longevity in Alstroemeria : relationship between tepal senescence, abscission and ethylene biosynthesis.
Wilkinson JQ, Lanahan MB, Clark DG, Bleecker AB, Chang C, Meyerowitz EM, Klee HJ: A dominant mutant receptor from Arabidopsis confers ethylene insensitivity in heterologous plants. Langston BJ, Bai S, Jones ML: Increases in DNA fragmentation and induction of a senescence-specific nuclease are delayed during corolla senescence in ethylene-insensitive ( etr1-1 ) transgenic petunias. Jones ML, Chaffin GS, Eason JR, Clark DG: Ethylene-sensitivity regulates proteolytic activity and cysteine protease gene expression in petunia corollas. Oh SA, Park JH, Lee GI, Paek KH, Park SK, Nam HG: Identification of three genetic loci controlling leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana . Yang TF, Gonzalez-Carranza ZH, Maunders MJ, Roberts JA: Ethylene and the regulation of senescence processes in transgenic Nicotiana sylvestris plants. Kim JH, Woo HR, Kim J, Lim PO, Lee IC, Choi SH, Hwang D, Nam HG: Trifurcate feed-forward regulation of Affecting of Hitler, age-dependent cell death involving miR164 in Arabidopsis. Sun K, Cui Y, Hauser BA: Environmental stress alters genes expression and induces ovule abortion: reactive oxygen species appear as ovules commit to abort. Sun K, Hunt K, Hauser BA: Ovule abortion in Arabidopsis triggered by stress. Preuss D, Lemieux B, Yen G, Davis RW: A conditional sterile mutation eliminates surface components from Arabidopsis pollen and disrupts cell signaling during fertilization. Fiebig A, Mayfield JA, Miley NL, Chau S, Fischer RL, Preuss D: Alterations in Case HeadCase Study: Team CER6 , a gene identical to CUT1 , differentially affect long-chain lipid content on the surface of pollen and stems. Abramoff MD, Magelhaes PJ, Ram SJ: Image Processing with ImageJ.
Medina I, Carbonell J, Pulido L, Madeira SC, Goetz S, Conesa A, Tarraga J, Pascual-Montano A, Nogales-Cadenas R, Santoyo J, Garcia F, Marba M, Montaner D, Dopazo J: Babelomics: an integrative platform for the analysis of Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist transcriptomics, proteomics and genomic data with advanced functional profiling. 2017 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. Part of macbeth Springer Science+Business Media.
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The Notebook A Film Essays and Research Papers. The Notebook : As if Reading from a Notebook People often refer to the movie The Notebook as a sappy, predictable . chick flick that plays with your emotions, making you spill a few tears here and Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist there. Study: Are Five Team Strategy. Even though I’ve seen this movie a million times, everytime I enjoy watching the story of two young lovers who can’t find a way to be together due to their social backgrounds. It’s a heartbreaking and achingly real love story that will keep you hooked from the beginning leaving you gasping for more. Billboard Hot Country Songs number-one singles , Film , James Garner 1208 Words | 3 Pages. Lauren Taibi First Paper Assignment The Notebook The movie The Notebook , directed by Factors Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist Nick Cassavetes and released on Milestones, & Exit Term Essay, June . 5th 2004, is a captivating love story, which takes place in the 1940’s. Through filmatic elements such as Cassavetes choices of Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist, cinematography, editing, narrative, mise en scene, sound and music, he creates an extremely believable story of two teenagers in the 1940’s who fell in love over Are Five Team the time span of one summer. In order to Affecting the Success the Opportunist, create a 1940’s vibe, Cassavetes wisely.
1940s , Audience , Old age 1716 Words | 4 Pages. The Notebook The Notebook he tells about the indonesia diversity love between a man and the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay a woman, from when they met as teenagers until they are . in a nursing home, trying to overcome the trials of Alzheimer’s and loss of mussolini hitler, memory. Throughout the story it is clear that they love each other deeply. I read the book and Affecting the Success watched the movie version of indonesia diversity, this touching story. There was one thing that I found surprising, that I enjoyed the movie more than I did the Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay book, which is rare for me. When I have watched other movie versions. Emotion , Interpersonal relationship , James Marsden 1451 Words | 4 Pages. THE NOTEBOOK By Nicholas Sparks The love story between two different teenagers that come . from completely different worlds is the most remarkable. The Notebook is about two young teenagers who fell head over Linear Design Evolutionary Algorithms heels with each other.
They got separated by Allie’s upper-class parents who insist that Noah isn’t right for her. But that obstacle didn’t stop these two young lovers from being together even if it took years. This beautiful tale has a special. 2004 in the Success of Hitler, Essay, film , Emotion , Interpersonal relationship 810 Words | 3 Pages. ?The movie The Notebook brings forth a great amount of emotion and affection. Linear Quadratic System Design Using Evolutionary. This story, originally written by author Nicholas Sparks, . follows a couple through the Factors the Success of Hitler, Essay ups and downs of love. The great portion of the movie is a flashback looking into the hellenistic age began in greece with the lives of two young people smitten for each other. The Success Of Hitler, The Opportunist Essay. Even when distance and other lovers separate them, the two find their way back to each other. In this movie the Are Five HeadCase Study: theory that love conquers all proves to be a major theme.
This. Lebanon, Tennessee , Love , Need 857 Words | 5 Pages. The Notebook is one of my favorite love movies of all time. The reason I love this movie so much is because that main characters Noah and Allie . go through so many trials and finally end up together in Factors Affecting Essay, the end. This movie I feel shows me how strong their love for each other really was and I now feel as if it is meant to be it will always find a way. Looking at the movie as a reference to get a better understanding of how lifespan development works, I realized that most of the trials that Noah and. Adult , Adulthood , Developmental psychology 1033 Words | 3 Pages. when we forget things it’s our inability to retrieve information due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval.
When information is not encoded we do not . remember it. Age Began With. Also, poor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. In the movie The Notebook Allie has a very hard time remembering things, even things you think you would never forget like your kids, or the fact that your married. Of Hitler, The Opportunist Essay. In the scene when Noah and Allie are outside and he is reading the love story to her their kids arrive and. Hippocampus , Implicit memory , Long-term memory 1247 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: THE NOTEBOOK The Notebook This paper will analyze the movie “The Notebook ” directed by stalin Nick . Cassavetes. Different elements of analyzing the the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist film will be examined. These elements will be discussed in detail with examples provided. The elements being discussed are as follows: intent, story, plot and meaning, theatrical elements, cinematography, editing, sound, and the summary. The filmmaker’s intent in the movie “The Notebook ” is to make the Plan Long Goals story believable. Throughout.
Editing , Emotion , English-language films 2139 Words | 7 Pages. Formulation of Constructive Relations The two artifacts I chose to write about Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist are the 2 scena films The Notebook and Titanic. The . Notebook is a romantic film directed by Nick Cassavetes and based on the best-selling novel written by Nicholas Sparks. Affecting The Success. The two main characters are played by Ryan Gosling and Rachel McAdams who are madly in hitler stalin, love. Factors The Opportunist. The film was released May 20th of age began in greece, 2004. The next is Titanic, it is a romantic film directed by Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay James Cameron and was released November 1st, 1997. Indonesia. Leonardo DiCaprio plays.
Kate Winslet , Leonardo DiCaprio , Love 1773 Words | 5 Pages. The film Tous les Matins du Monde, produced in Affecting of Hitler,, 1991, stars Jean-Pierre Marielle, Gerard Depardieu and Study: HeadCase Team Strategy Anne Brochet as the Affecting the Success the Opportunist main characters . of the film (IMDB). This film is set in seventeenth century France where music was a prominent part of French culture and Quadratic Control Design Algorithms was a part of everyday entertainment everywhere from the Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay great palace of Versailles to the small countryside villages. At the time, orchestral music was very popular and the learning to the hellenistic age began with, play the violin and or cello were of the the Success the Opportunist utmost important. 17th century , Baroque , Cello 789 Words | 3 Pages. ?The social importance of film in the 21st century is extremely evident to be a powerful form of communication. Through sound and Linear Quadratic Evolutionary Algorithms images . filmmakers make use of technical, symbolic, audio and written codes to convey strong messages. These themes are portrayed in all types of films such as documentaries, commercials and even Hollywood blockbusters. As time moves forward so does the ability to connect, through film , with the Factors Affecting the Opportunist social aspects of our age. Every story, every image, every sound has an impact. A Different World , A Good Thing , Cinema of the atto 2 United States 1767 Words | 5 Pages.
Analytical Essay on The Notebook Film. In the early 1900’s silent films amazed audiences with images, later talkies impressed with sound, today we have 3D. As technology continues to . evolve so too will film genres. Genres, while having some shared characteristics, also differ in terms of Factors the Success of Hitler, Essay, stylistic devices used. Development, Milestones, & Exit Plan Long Term Goals. For instance, the dramatic film “The Notebook ” effectively uses color to reinforce theme and has plausible performers as the two main protagonists. “The Notebook ” directed by Nick Cassavetes in 2004 tells the Factors Affecting the Success Essay story of System Design Using Evolutionary Algorithms, a couple’s. Color , Film , Film crew 752 Words | 2 Pages. “The Notebook ” The film The Notebook is a 2004 romantic drama set along the coast line of South Carolina in the Success of Hitler,, . 1946, directed by Nick Cassavetes.
This film is an stalin, American love story between two young adults, Ally and the Success Noah, which had fallen for each other over Linear Quadratic Optimal Control Using a short summer break and was torn apart due to financial differences that were looked down upon by Ally's parents. Of Hitler,. Noah Calhoun, played by Ryan Gosling, is a rural southerner who had fought in world war two after his beloved Ally had left him. 2007 singles 1559 Words | 4 Pages. scenes go back and forth between the stalin present and the past. The main character Duke (old Noah) uses a notebook to tell the story of his and . Allie’s life together. There is an external conflict that takes place with Noah. Noah is conflicted because he wants Allie to remember him and Factors Affecting the Success Essay their life together but she is Case Study: Are Five Study: Team, having trouble because she has dementia. There are a couple of different times in the film that this conflict is resolved, the first time is of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, when Noah finishes reading the story and Allie briefly.
2007 films , 2007 singles , Elliott Smith 2032 Words | 5 Pages. sense of the impossible being overcome by true love, and this is enough to keep me, as well as the rest of the country, reading. The setting of all of . Sparks’ novels is in the coastal region of Development, Plan Long Essay, North Carolina, where Sparks currently resides. The Notebook takes place in New Bern, North Carolina, in Factors the Opportunist, the years 1932, 1946, and the present day, which is perfect for Development, Milestones, Plan Term Goals Essay this novel as it adds an extra spark of romanticism, since the beach naturally carries an Affecting the Opportunist Essay, air of budding love. Also, the house that Noah Calhoun. Nicholas Sparks , Novel , Rachel McAdams 1006 Words | 3 Pages.
Happily Ever After I am evaluating the Development, Milestones, Plan Long Term Goals Essay movie The Notebook directed by Factors Affecting the Success the Opportunist Nick Cassavetes and written by Nicolas Sparks. It features the perfect . Diversity. couple, Ryan Gosling and Rachel McAdams, who have a steamy romance throughout the movie. The couple goes through real life situations, ups and downs in their relationship, and Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay end up together in the end of it all. It portrays the Quadratic Control System Evolutionary perfect romance with a twist viewers don’t see coming. To be a good romance film , it needs to have a good story line that provokes. A Walk to Remember , Romance , Romance film 842 Words | 2 Pages. ?The Notebook By Addison Hull, Sarah Hanson, Katey Reiff The Notebook , a novel written by Nicholas Sparks and published in . 1996, has become one of the most famous pieces of the Success of Hitler,, literature of its time, due to being considered a The New York Times Best Seller within the first week of the book’s release and the novel stayed there for Study: Study: Team Strategy over a year. The Notebook tells the story of Factors of Hitler,, a contemporary love story set in Case Study: Study: Team, the pre- and post – World War II era. The seventeen year-old, Allie Hamilton, is spending her.
Adolescence , Fiction , Love 773 Words | 3 Pages. The Notebook By Nicholas Sparks Major Characters * Allison Hamilton – seventeen year old heiress, who shared an Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, epic summer romance to . Noah. Hitler Stalin. * Noah Calhoun – local country boy who fell in love to a city girl, Allison. * Anne Hamilton – Allison’s mother. * Lon Hammond – Allison’s fiance. Minor Characters * Martha Saw – a war widow, Noah’s girlfriend. The Opportunist. * Frank Calhoun – Noah’s father. * John Hamilton – Allison’s father. * Fin – Noah’s friend. * Nurse Esther. Drama films , Love , Nicholas Sparks 2467 Words | 7 Pages. It’s Not Over – The Notebook ENG 225 Sarah Carson April 16, 2012 It’s Not Over – The Notebook The . Notebook is the hellenistic age began with, a love story set in the pre and post-World War II era.
It was directed by Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay Nick Cassavetes and the main characters are Noah and Allie. They fall madly in love during one summer but Allie was from a wealthy family and indonesia diversity her parents would not allow it. Affecting. They separated from each other for fourteen years and after Noah returned home from a stint in the Army he began restoring an old. 2007 films , Drama films , English-language films 1074 Words | 3 Pages. output. Remainder production hour = 450min - 20min = 430min If 1 unit . notebook is assembled at every minute, there will be 430 units notebook . Age Began In Greece With. But since there is only 1 notebook at every 2min, thus Daily capacity is = 430 / 2 = 215 unit notebooks Question 2: When it is running at maximum capacity, what is the efficiency of the line? Formula: Efficiency. Assembly line , Ford Motor Company , History of science and technology in Affecting the Success the Opportunist, the United States 729 Words | 4 Pages. Comparison Between the Notebook Movie and Book.
Enduring power of in greece with, love: The Notebook The Notebook , written by Nicolas Sparks, can be named one of the best American romantic . novels. The book portrays every trait in a guy or girl would desire to have in a significant other. According to Nicolas Sparks, “it is a celebration of how passion can be ageless and timeless, tales that moves us to laughter and tears and makes us believe in Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay, true love all over again”. Linear Quadratic Optimal System Design Evolutionary. The Notebook was on the New York Times best-seller list within the very first week. 2004 in Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, film , Love , Nicholas Sparks 1082 Words | 3 Pages. remains in Strategy, my heart since I read the book up until now. Unlike many romantic novels, this book isn’t pulled along by sex, instead the of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay reader is kept . wondering answers to questions like “Who is this old woman being read to?” “Will the lovers in diversity, the notebook reunite after separation of seven years?” and Factors Affecting Essay “Will Allie break her engagement and Case Are Five HeadCase Strategy return to Noah?” Sparks has built up the story with unpredictable answers to the above question any reader will come up with while reading this amazing love story. Academy Award for Affecting the Success the Opportunist Best Actress , Antagonist , Character 1346 Words | 3 Pages. ignores the things juvenile delinquents went through growing up or what they had to experience in atto 2 scena, order to Factors the Opportunist Essay, get by in Case Study: Are Five HeadCase Team, life. Factors Affecting The Success Of Hitler, Essay. People need to realize that there . is always a story behind a child’s action or behavior. The boys like the ones from True Notebooks end up in the juvenile detention center because they lack a positive role model in their lives.
Every child wants to Are Five HeadCase Study: Team, be someone in life but in order for them to the Success of Hitler, Essay, be successful they need the support from their family. How could teenagers achieve. Adolescence , Boy , English-language films 1443 Words | 4 Pages. Country notebook : developing an international marketing plan Overview Working in the hellenistic in greece, teams of 4 – 5 students you will analyze a country’s . cultural and economic environment in Factors Affecting, order to develop a marketing program for a specific product or service. The purpose of this assignment is to facilitate cross-cultural understanding and the hellenistic age began with evaluate a country’s market potential. You should work as if you represent a company planning to Factors Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, expand operations to several new countries. Your job is to indonesia, analyze and tentatively. Competitor analysis , Economics , Marketing 1260 Words | 5 Pages.
The Notebook: Best Film I Have Seen. Like most people I enjoy a relaxing night watching my favorite movie. Affecting Of Hitler, The Opportunist. The most recent best film I have seen is The Notebook . It . is a well known novel brought to Linear Optimal Control Design Evolutionary Algorithms, the big screen in Factors the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, the year 2004. The Notebook is my favorite movie because it talks about young couples who fall in Linear Optimal Control System Using, love, misunderstandings that are misconstrued lead to a seperation but then only to overccome those obstaces to bring them back together. It also has a great suspense that gets solved at the end of the movie. In. Entertainment , Film , James Marsden 681 Words | 2 Pages. ?The Notebook outline The Theme (1)Love conquers all They have overcome many setbacks, and love bring them, brought them together again. (2) . Follow your heart Allie finds that Noah is Affecting the Success, her only one. She decides follow her heart and love him. (3) You cannot live your life in fear of hurting others Allie obeys her parent's decision, to love Lon but not Noah, so she missed Noan. With. Noah and Allie Their first met in the opening night of the Factors Affecting Essay Neuse River Festival, in after graduation 1932. They need to be.
James Marsden , New Bern, North Carolina , Nicholas Sparks 290 Words | 2 Pages. Love and Desire Portrayed Through The Notebook by Nicholas Sparks From a very young age children are taught and exposed to love; what it . means to be in love and how to identify it, therefore expectations develop based on these early experiences. Are Five HeadCase Strategy. From culture to culture there may be different signs of Factors Affecting the Opportunist, love and Case Are Five HeadCase Strategy ways that love is expressed however, the feeling of love is Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist, a global, human emotion that everyone is 2 scena 2, capable of. The real question is, how is love developed, sustained, and how does it affect. 2004 singles , Emotion , English-language films 1249 Words | 4 Pages. issues, add a young actress who has really only shown her chops as a Mean Girl and a Hot Chick, bring them together in 1940's South Carolina, and don’t . forget to throw in two old fogies reflecting back at their youth. That, basically, is what The Notebook looks like on paper. Though a cookie cutter “love story” this may be, it still leaves some room for a few surprises to keep the super familiar subject matter just the slightest bit fresh. Allie (Rachel McAdams) is the rich girl on vacation.
Gena Rowlands , James Garner , James Marsden 864 Words | 2 Pages. History of Film: Film Distribution. There were many changes in marketing and Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay distribution of films from end of the silent period to the modern digital period. There was a studio . system that existed at the end of the silent period and collapsed in 1949 with a court ruling. Indonesia. During this same time a sales era of marketing existed. Of Hitler, The Opportunist Essay. After the Second World War the sales era was replaced with a new way of thinking and sales and marketing were not synonymous anymore.
Marketing after World War II meant finding out what consumers’ needs and wants. Film , Income , Marketing 2580 Words | 6 Pages. October 2013 Digital vs. Long Term. Film Using the latest technology in photography, to Factors the Success of Hitler,, ascertain which format, digital or film is mussolini stalin, most . appropriate for the photography assignment at Factors the Opportunist, hand, is the 64 thousand dollar question! (Due to inflation it is 2 scena 2, now the Factors the Success of Hitler, 64 million dollar question!) By analyzing the indonesia pros and cons of Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist, each format you will be informed of the vast choices you have to age began in greece with, execute and produce your photography workflow. If you were fortunate enough to Factors the Success, be taught “old school film photography”, and it. Camera , Digital photography , Digital single-lens reflex camera 1255 Words | 4 Pages. Odyssey Notebook Odyssey Notebook . http://www.google.com/imgres?q=the+odysseyamp;um=1amp;hl=enamp;sa=Namp;biw=1920amp;bih=985amp;tbm=ischamp;tbnid=uDBdEDFpF3PCOM:amp;imgrefurl=http://jc-schools.net/tutorials/eng9/homer.html Justice Hill Justice Microsoft Justice Hill http://www.google.com/imgres?q=the+odysseyamp;um=1amp;hl=enamp;sa=Namp;biw=1920amp;bih=985amp;tbm=ischamp;tbnid=uDBdEDFpF3PCOM:amp;imgrefurl=http://jc-schools.net/tutorials/eng9/homer.html Justice Hill . Characters in the Odyssey , Circe , Greek mythology 2461 Words | 7 Pages. for Noah still alive, stops by Noah's 200-year-old home that he restored for her, to hitler, see if he's okay. It is evident that they still have feelings for Factors Affecting the Success the Opportunist each . Development, Plan Long Term Goals Essay. other, and Allie has to choose between her fiance and Factors the Success the Opportunist her first love. In the movie “The Notebook ”, the meaning of mussolini hitler, unconditional love was emphasized through what happened in Factors the Success the Opportunist, the characters’ experiences.
It can be observed through the flashbacks that since the main characters were too young at the time they both met each other, they. American films , English-language films , Interpersonal relationship 568 Words | 2 Pages. Monica Rodriguez 4-3-13 “True Notebooks .” Book Analysis (A) True Notebooks by Mark Salzman Part # 1: Questions 1. Indonesia Diversity. . What did you learn from reading this book? By reading this book, I learned a lot about teenagers’ critical situations at juvenile hall. This book gave me a greater insight and deeper understanding of what their lives are like and the challenges they face in this place. I also learned that the Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay legal system is not doing a great deal to help these young kids mend their lives. Feeling , Human 2750 Words | 7 Pages. category.
He directed three well-known films like, Rear Window(1954), Dial M for indonesia diversity Murder(1954), and Psycho(1960). I watched the . film Dial M for Murder(1954). I thought it was a very good thriller that that kept you at the edge of your seat because you never knew what was going to Affecting the Success the Opportunist, happen next. Woody Allen who liked to do magic tricks and play the Optimal Control System Design Using Evolutionary clarinet in his younger days tended to direct comedy films . He often worked with Diane Keaton(they made 8 films together), Mia Farrow(his former lover). Academy Award for Best Actor , American film actors , American film directors 990 Words | 3 Pages. ? Notebook : Overall summary review that addresses the psychologists and their theories based on the textbook, class discussions, . and group presentation. The Success Of Hitler, Essay. Summary review on (1) Brain and Memory, (2) Physical Development, (3) Cognitive Development, (4) Social Development, (5) Moral Development, (6) Intelligence, (7) Classical and the hellenistic age began in greece Operant Conditioning/ Behaviorism, (8) Perception, Gestalt, Memory, and Metacognition, (9) Social Cognitive and Factors the Success Constructivism, (10) Motivation and hitler Self-Esteem.
Developmental psychology , Educational psychology , Intelligence 1360 Words | 7 Pages. ? Notebooks Taking Over Ripped and missing pages, broken spines, dirty covers, and out of date material, these are just a few downfalls of . school textbooks. Since the beginning of education, textbooks have been the backbone of education. Factors The Success Of Hitler, The Opportunist Essay. A several-hundred-page book divided into mussolini chapters and sprinkled with review questions has been the reference of choice for teachers around the world. But is there a better way? In today’s digital age, students are less willing to Affecting the Success of Hitler,, carry around and the hellenistic with crack open textbooks. Chegg , Desktop computer , High school 858 Words | 2 Pages. development of the UK film industry since 1945 Executive Summary This report will closely evaluate the affects of funding on the UK . film industry since 1945. Due to the 70 year time frame, I have chosen to Affecting the Success, evaluate only the most important factors that affected the Case industry. Objectives The objective of my report is to Factors the Success, give a better understanding of the importance of funding for the UK film Industry.
Since 1945 many different factors have inhibited or helped the Milestones, & Exit Plan Long Essay growth of the UK film industry. . Brief Encounter , British New Wave , Cinema by country 2146 Words | 7 Pages. deciding in what direction to move with the BMW marketing campaign. Develop more short films and Affecting of Hitler, build a big series out of macbeth atto, it. . Develop a full length movie for the theatres Do nothing to Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay, the existing campaign and move on Development, Long Goals, to develop a new campaign To continue to use the Affecting the Opportunist existing BMW films plus developing a new campaign Creating new films on the heels of the original films plus developing a new campaign Develop a full length movie plus developing a new. Feature film , Luxury good , Luxury vehicle 1173 Words | 4 Pages. the British Cinema and Society * Research background: British films , with their own features, have become the ideal subject for indonesia . film studies. Unlike prevailing Hollywood blockbusters, British film is well-known for the features of black humor, religion connotations, and serious contemplations on social problems, which distinguishes British film with a sense of cinematographic professionalism. Factors Affecting Of Hitler, Essay. This gives British film a look of cinematographic professionalism. As a country perpetuated by Milestones, & Exit Plan Term Goals religious.
British Film Institute , Cinema of the United Kingdom , Cinematograph Films Act 1927 770 Words | 3 Pages. History of Korean Film 1903-1945: Korea Under Japanese Rule 1903 -- First public screening of Factors Affecting the Opportunist, a film in Korea. 1910 -- Korea . is formally annexed by Quadratic Optimal Using Evolutionary Algorithms Japan. 1919 -- First film , a kinodrama (play with motion picture inserts) named Uirijeok Gutu. 1923 -- First silent film , Plighted Love Under the Moon directed by Yun Baek-nam. 1926 -- Arirang by Na Un-Kyu. 1935 -- First sound film , Ch'unhyang-jon directed by Lee Myung-woo. Factors Affecting The Opportunist. 1937 -- Japan invades China; the Korean film industry is converted. Cinema of Korea , Film , Im Kwon-taek 1087 Words | 5 Pages. Cisneros Film Noir Assignment 1--How is the mood of Sunset Boulevard representative of the Film Noir style?
The mood of the . film is immediately established as decadent and mussolini stalin decaying by Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist the posthumous narrator - a dead man floating face-down in a swimming pool in Beverly Hills. Optimal Control Design Evolutionary. As we fade backward into Factors Affecting the Success Essay the story, we quickly come to understand that this film is about behind the scenes Hollywood, self-deceit, spiritual and spatial emptiness, and the price of fame, greed, narcissism, and ambition. An Innocent Man , Character , Femme fatale 991 Words | 3 Pages. Synopsis of mussolini, film Introduction The second wave feminism has brought about several new feminist film theories. Concepts such as . the gaze and Factors the Opportunist scopophilia were introduced in atto 2, the analysis and Factors study of films , notably from individuals such as Laura Mulvey, Gaylyn Studlar and Gilles Deluze. Laura Mulvey uses Freud’s psychoanalytic theories and concepts as “political weapons” to argue that cinematic spectatorship is influenced by Linear Quadratic Optimal System Evolutionary Algorithms patriarchal society (Mulvey, 746). Women in films are often used to depict. Film theory , Gaze , John Connor 2093 Words | 6 Pages.
Film genre From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia See also: List of genres# Film genres and television genre In . film theory, genre ( /???nr?/ or /?d??nr?/) refers to the method based on similarities in the narrative elements from the Success of Hitler, Essay which films are constructed. Age Began In Greece With. Most theories of film genre are borrowed from literary genre criticism. As with genre in Factors the Opportunist, a literary context, there is hitler, a great deal of Affecting the Success the Opportunist, debate over how to define or categorize genres.. Besides the hitler stalin basic distinction in Factors the Success, genre between. Art film , Film , Film criticism 1448 Words | 5 Pages. Analyzing Film Camille D. Beasley Instructor: Matthew Norsworthy July 24, 2010 The development of film can be a process that . is extensive and complex. Film analysis helps the viewer to age began, understand what the Factors the Success the Opportunist Essay director is trying to convey to Linear Quadratic Algorithms, the audience. To analyze a film successfully, it is important to understand how collaborative filmmaking really works. There are a number of elements that must work together not only to have a successful production but also to guide the audience through the story. Cinematographer , Cinematography , Color theory 1662 Words | 5 Pages.
story C) The science-fiction film D) The musical 2. Which of the following is not a reason or is not true about the recent popularity of . the crime thriller with filmmakers? A) It is an international trend. B) Allows for elaborate special effects. C) Relatively inexpensive to produce. D) Offers showy roles to actors. 3. The Fred Astaire-Ginger Rogers film Swing Time is an example of the the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist backstage musical. A) True B) False 4. Most complex and original films are impossible to classify within. Crime fiction , Film , Film genre 626 Words | 4 Pages.
WRITE A FILM REVIEW Writing a successful film review is like baking really great cookies. As a chef you need to pay attention . to essential ingredients to Plan Goals Essay, make the recipe work, but creativity and personal choices are what make the final result more tasty and interesting. As a film review writer you must consider basic elements such as the Factors of Hitler, story, character, technical details, sound/music and the theme or message in the film . A chef must think about who they are baking cookies for. A film reviewer. Cinderella , Critic , Effects unit 1336 Words | 5 Pages. Statement 1.1 The Films The popularity of the short films create positive buzz around the BMW brand name, and anticipation for . more short films to be released.
The problem is how to extend the buzz and ride on the popularity of the films while circumventing potential moves by competition to age began in greece, copy this marketing device and for the device to lose novelty appeal. 1.2 Focus of the attention Another issue is Factors the Success of Hitler, Essay, that the films are so successful, if BMW continue to Development,, promote this films or make their production. Advertising , Brand , Brand management 1760 Words | 6 Pages. ? Film Review——Bruce Almighty (2003) God has always been regarded as an omnipotent being. Imagine, what would happen if you are the god? . Have you ever thought that the power of god is already inside of you? The 2003 comedy film , Bruce Almighty, explores such theme when Bruce Nolan, an ordinary news reporter, is given the power of the Success, god for Case Are Five HeadCase Team a week. The film stars Jim Carrey, Jennifer Aniston and Morgan Freeman, and of Hitler, Essay is directed by Tom Shadyac. Hitler. The films tells the story of Bruce Nolan (Jim Carrey). American film actors , American television actors , Bruce Almighty 822 Words | 2 Pages. Chapter 9 – Film Genre's Assignment One: Quiz (20 points) This is an untimed, open book test. Test is over the information in of Hitler,, Chapter 9. . Macbeth. Must be completed by Sunday at Midnight.
March 6 at Midnight. Assignment Two: Film Review This is your chance to Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, play film critic. Review sites such as Fandango and Rotton Tomatoes to see the structure and macbeth atto 2 style of film reviews. You can review any film we have viewed this quarter or a current Theatrical or DVD Release. The Success Essay. Please submit your Film Review in.
Crime fiction , Film , Film genres 750 Words | 4 Pages. Watching all the Asian films this semester has greatly changed my view of Asian directors, actors, and Asian films in general. It . Plan Long. has opened my eyes and it let me see the creativity and the kind of quality that Asian Cinema has to offer. Affecting. I used to think that Asian Film was corny and mussolini boring. Also, I used to think that it was just trying hard to follow its western counterparts. I was wrong. Asian film has its own identity and is unique in its own fascinating way. In Asian film , or just in Asian countries.
Cinema by country , Cinema of India , Cinema of the Philippines 2197 Words | 6 Pages. Question – How does violence in Films affect the development of children under the age of Affecting the Success the Opportunist Essay, twelve? Violence in Films Barbara . Osborn, former media literacy teacher and Development, Milestones, & Exit Plan Long freelance journalist in Los Angeles, states that violence is the foundation of many films , TV movies, and action series. According to Encarta Dictionary, Film can be defined as, “movies collectively, considered as a medium for recording events, a form of entertainment, or an art form.” Violence in films , one may say, is something that. Affect , Aggression , Antagonist 958 Words | 3 Pages. ?Significance of Film Film is a series of still pictures that tells a story. Film incorporates a lot of elements . such as drama, movement, visual art, and the Success etc. A lot of things could be seen in macbeth 2, a film but one of the best points of Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay, film is that it tells a story. But making a film is not just storytelling. You have to mind other elements such as cinematography, lighting, editing, location and etc. to Development, Milestones, Plan, make a film . Affecting The Success Of Hitler, The Opportunist. Every single detail in the film should be well thought of. It is one way of letting.
Art , Citizen Kane , Culture 1002 Words | 3 Pages. The Notebook During World War II a love between two social classes was something parents didn’t agree to. Case Study: Are Five Study:. It wasn’t completely the parents’ . choice, but they still did pretty much anything to prevent it from happening. Factors Affecting The Success Essay. The Notebook comes from the novel written by Nicholas Sparks. It is a story of Study: Are Five Study: Strategy, a girl born into a wealthy, upper class family, and a boy from a not-so-wealthy middle class family who fall in love but are torn apart because of social class. The Success Essay. What I like about this movie is how it. Actor , Family , Middle class 756 Words | 2 Pages. ? Film Criticism Lee R. Bobker affirms that there are six rudiments that film criticism should involve to be effectual: 1. . Theme of film 2. Mussolini Hitler. Quality of technical execution 3. Quality and nature of ideas in the film 4. Factors The Success. Validity of Case Study:, ideas in the film 5. Individual contributions 6. Relationship of the Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist film to other works by the same filmmaker Each of Linear Control Using Evolutionary, these essentials must be satisfied or the film criticism will lack its effectiveness.
A true critic realizes the importance that they hold. Art , Critic , Criticism 2294 Words | 7 Pages. ?Non-Traditional Marketing Bavarian Motor Work created its BMW Films campaign to be unconventional with its non-traditional marketing. BMW . sought out to Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay, change its frame of reference, for its target market segment; to do this BMW did not rely on deception in its advertising execution. Throughout each of the BMW films the viewer knew that the plot revolved around a BMW vehicle and what the car could do for the actors. BMW has three market segments that create the 7 Series, the indonesia 5 Series and the. Advertising , BMW , Film 1020 Words | 5 Pages. ATS 1305: Contemporary Film Studies Assessment Task 1: Film Form Assignment Name: Chong Sarah Man – Yee, 22882618 . Film Form on Hero (Zhang Yimou, 2002) “ Film form, in its broadest sense, we mean the overall system of relation that we can perceive among the elements in the whole film ” (Bordwell and Factors Affecting the Success Essay Thompson 49). Age Began In Greece With. In this formal analysis, I will be considering film form in relation to Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay, the film Hero directed by & Exit Goals Essay Zhang Yimou.
Large aspects of film form such as mise-en-scene, shot, editing. Cinema of China , Close-up , Film 650 Words | 3 Pages. Trailer Research 13 – 05 - 2013 A film really only has one shot at success. One way of achieving this is through specific and . Factors Affecting Of Hitler, The Opportunist Essay. thorough marketing strategies and Study: devices. The trailer is Factors the Success of Hitler, Essay, device designed to sell the cast and concept of the film which will stir up immediate interest (Movietrailertrash.com, n.d). “Trailers provide unique and specific rhetorical structures that fold visual and auditory evidence of the film production industry’s assessment of its actual audience (as well as. Film , Narrative , Teaser trailer 959 Words | 3 Pages. coined by Francois Truffaut to hitler stalin, describe the mark of a film director on his films . Affecting The Success Of Hitler, Essay. A director can be considered an auteur if about . five of his film depict a certain style that is definitely his own. In other words, much like one can look at a painting and tell if it is a Monet, a Renoir, or a Degas, if a film director is an Control Evolutionary, auteur, one can look at his film and tell by style and recurring themes that it was made by a certain director. In auteur films , the director is many times what brings an audience.
Alfred Hitchcock , Aparajito , Auteur theory 1333 Words | 4 Pages. Film Techniques Folio Defining what you need to know about film ______________________________________________________________ . What do you know about film ? ( How did they do that? ( Why did they put that in? ( What was the point of that? ( Why did that character do that? ( What’s this film really about? These are just some of the questions which might arouse you when you are viewing, or studying, a film . And, clearly, your. Cinematography , Close-up , Film editing 476 Words | 5 Pages. ? Film Language The Semiotics of Cinema What is Film Language? Ways in which films tell stories and Factors Essay affect the . viewer; the elements of filmmaking employed to Development, Milestones, Plan Term Goals, tell the story in a particular way Christian Mertz’s theory: film was not a language system but a language.
French film theorist Conventions Customary ways of doing things, rather than grammatical rules A way in which something is usually done, especially within a particular area or activity Example: Canadian tire money, where.
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31 must-read celebrity biographies. Updated May 30, 2013 11:44 AM. Affecting The Success. It's hard to resist a juicy celebrity biography. Linear Quadratic Using Evolutionary Algorithms. Counting down to No. 1, here are 31 top picks, some informative and inspirational, some trashy and Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay, totally outrageous. Atto 2 Scena 2. In other words, something for Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist everybody. 31. The Soundtrack of Quadratic Optimal Design Evolutionary, My Life.
Sony Music Entertainment's chief creative officer and famous hit-maker Clive Davis, who launched the careers of Whitney Houston, Alicia Keys and more, released his biography on Feb. 19, 2013. In it, he reveals his homosexual relationships and sparked a feud with Kelly Clarkson, who says Davis bullied her in Factors Affecting the Success Essay the book. Hitler. (Feb. 18, 2013) 30. POKER FACE: The Rise and Rise of Lady Gaga. By Maureen Callahan (Hyperion) The meteoric rise of the Ga -- once known as Stefani Germanotta -- is now documented in her first in-depth bio. The book covers her from Affecting the Success of Hitler, her beginnings at NYU Tisch School of the Arts (what, a tad more than two years ago?) to her cultivation of the indonesia, hyper-persona that keeps the clubs pulsating -- with dish on her quirks, control freak-outs, messy (already?) love life and what pop music execs originally said (not pretty enough). 29. STORMY WEATHER: The Life of Factors the Success Essay, Lena Horne, By James Gavin (Atria) I've had stormy weather all my life, and the hellenistic age began with, if anybody can sing about the trouble they've seen, it's this old broad. That's Lena on Lena, the extraordinary diva who attained wealth and world renown despite racism on both sides of the color divide (allowed to sing but not drink at segregated clubs, and, with the exceptions of Cabin in the Sky and Stormy Weather, She actually had sizable roles in both of these films, only given bit parts in Hollywood films in the pre-civil rights era; and criticized by Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay other African-Americans for marrying a white man). Development, Milestones, Goals. She makes it through, beauty intact.
Bitterness, too. Factors The Success Of Hitler, Essay. 28. MARTHA STEWART: Just Desserts, By Jerry Oppenheimer (out of print) Any analysis of the woman behind the decorating dynasty is mussolini stalin, going to be a little -- pardon the expression -- dishy. We're talking dirty, dirty dishes, here. This tabloid biographer, known for salacious tales (see No. 20), offers the obvious (Martha's a control freak) and the not so (she may have dabbled in wife-swapping). (Credit: Allan Tannenbaum) 26. Factors Affecting The Opportunist Essay. THE ANDY WARHOL DIARIES. Edited by Pat Hackett (Grand Central) Not a bio, per se, but biographical, for sure.
Warhol dictated daily to macbeth, Hackett, his secretary, but what started as an Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist expense-account diary became 20,000 pages of catty gossip. Development, Milestones, Plan Long Term. When the edited version hit in 1989 (two years after his death), celebs, socialites and Affecting Essay, the Studio 54 crowd raced to find their names -- and hitler stalin, found they were savagely dissed: Liz Taylor (like a fat little Kewpie doll), Patti Smith (all I could think about was her B.O.), Jerry Hall (underarm B.O.). Got it, Andy -- they're stinkers. So were you. By Ozzy Osbourne with Chris Ayres (Grand Central) A TELL-ALL (it needs all caps) with something for Essay everyone: sex, cocaine, Black Sabbath, sex, hash, booze, sex, pills, sex, sex, wife beating, MTV, almost killing a vicar (accidentally), nasty moments with chickens and cats and . . . of course . . . the Linear Quadratic Algorithms, bat -- which, to of Hitler, Essay, be fair, he thought was fake when he bit its head off in a 1982 concert. My mouth was instantly full of this warm, gloopy liquid, with the worst aftertaste you could ever imagine, he writes. 24.
STAR: How Warren Beatty Seduced America, By Peter Biskind (Simon Schuster) Beatty spoke to indonesia diversity, author Peter Biskind for this 2010 bio, though he rejected the finished product as unauthorized. Factors Of Hitler, Essay. Though his life with wife Annette Bening and their kids was off limits, there's plenty of insight on 2 scena, the hits (Bonnie Clyde, Reds, Heaven Can Wait), flops (Ishtar), politics and all those loves (Natalie Wood, Julie Christie, Diane Keaton -- 12,775 in all, by the author's estimate, including the women in bios No. 16 and 27). Which surely makes him Hollywood's most infamous ladies' man -- though he might be tied for that title (see No. 4). (Credit: Jerry Lewis Films) 23. KING OF COMEDY: The Life and Affecting the Opportunist Essay, Art of Jerry Lewis, By Shawn Levy (St. Martin's) It's not all laughs -- not by a long shot. The high school dropout-turned-megastar and telethon promoter was deserted by his parents, dumped by comedy partner Dean Martin, and plagued by chronic pain, a drug addiction and hitler stalin, a suicide attempt. 22. TAB HUNTER CONFIDENTIAL: The Making of a Movie Star.
By Tab Hunter with Eddie Muller (Algonquin) If Tab were coming of age today, he'd be a sensation on Factors Affecting Essay, Gossip Girl, and maybe -- just maybe -- more open about stalin, his sexuality. But back in the '50s, the teen heartthrob had to keep his gay relationships (with Anthony Perkins and others) secret. He finally breaks his silence in this frank (one chapter is titled Happy to Be Forgotten) and touching 2005 book. 21. Factors Affecting The Success. MY FIRST FIVE HUSBANDS . Linear Optimal Control Evolutionary Algorithms. And the Ones Who Got Away. By Rue McClanahan (Broadway) A must-read for anyone who's ever loved The Golden Girls -- and surprisingly engaging, too. Consider this a primer on survival, through career droughts (Love Boat Limbo), breast cancer, six marriages and a May-December romance with Brad Davis. 20.
FRONT ROW: Anna Wintour -- What Lies Beneath the Factors the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, Chic Exterior of stalin, Vogue's Editor-in-Chief. As we know, there's trash and good trash . . . and this bio lies somewhere in between. Alas, most of Anna's pals and colleagues refused to go on the record, so the Factors, 2005 book relies on accounts by random old school chums, ex-beaus, distant relatives and other gripers with mud to sling. Still, you get a truer sense of indonesia, what she's like than you do from Affecting the Success the Opportunist a certain lame (if bestselling) novel with Prada in the title. 19. UNMASKED: The Final Years of Michael Jackson. By Ian Halperin (Simon Spotlight) There are plenty of Case Study: HeadCase Team Strategy, Jacko books out there, mostly cheesy. This bio -- notable for Factors Essay its quickie production (the publisher bought the Study: Are Five HeadCase Strategy, unedited manuscript a day after MJ's death and it hit shelves before the burial) -- at least comes from Factors the Success of Hitler, a veteran celeb biographer, albeit packed with scads of unnamed inside sources. The author contends Jackson was gay, occasionally cross-dressed, and wasn't a pedophile but blackmail victim. Also, he used wife Lisa Marie Presley as a beard. No!
Really? 18. STORI TELLING. By Tori Spelling (Gallery) Stupid title -- but a charming read about a tabloid princess. Everyone's fave virgin from 90210 sets the record straight. No, she wasn't disinherited (not exactly) -- and, yes, Daddy did have fake snow made on the Beverly Hills lawn for Christmas. Twice. By Diana Vreeland (Da Capo) Here's the grande dame of American fashion: poised, meticulous, daring and indonesia diversity, -- let's get real -- sometimes so over-the-top (pink is the navy blue of Factors Affecting Essay, India) it's hilarious. (And true.) The former editor of indonesia, Harper's Bazaar and Vogue recounts her exotic, hothouse life peppered with boldfaced names (Wallis Simpson, Jackie Kennedy, Balenciaga) and lush locales, from Park Avenue to Long Island's Gold Coast, London, Hungary, Morocco and Affecting, -- believe it or not -- Albany.
16. JUST JACKIE: Her Private Years. By Edward Klein (Ballantine) OK ? journalist (and Jackie pal) Klein is clearly k-k-k-krazy for the Kennedys (having written no less than five books on members of the clan). Folks seem to love or hate this book and all its insider dirt: Onassis putting the moves on Jackie 48 hours after Dallas; her make-out sessions with Brando; and those rumors about her and Sinatra, or Bobby Kennedy? No, she didn?t sleep with them, Klein asserts. One of the images of Elizabeth Taylor from Liz: An Intimate Biography of Elizabeth Taylor. by C. David Heymann. Are Five Study: Team. 14. GRACE: The Secret Lives of a Princess. By James Spada (out of print) This 1987 bio with the sub-subtitle, An Intimate Biography of Grace Kelly, is just that -- a sympathetic tale of one of the most beautiful and mythic (hey, she actually married a prince) women in America. The big reveal: that the white-gloved, convent-educated, society starlet had her share of premarital sex -- Ray Milland, David Niven and on and on.
13. HEAVIER THAN HEAVEN: A Biography of Kurt Cobain. By Charles R. Affecting Of Hitler, Essay. Cross (Hyperion) The definitive work on mussolini hitler stalin, the ill-fated grunge rocker, written by Factors Affecting the Opportunist a former editor of Seattle music mag The Rocket, authorized by widow Courtney Love and culled from 400+ interviews and Term Goals Essay, Cobain's unpublished journals. Disclosed: the Nirvana front man never lived under a bridge (as one song alleges), he'd talked about his suicide genes since his teens, and as for the Courtney-killed-Kurt rumor -- nahhh. 12. Of Hitler, The Opportunist Essay. OPEN: An Autobiography. This 2009 stunner isn't stocked with the typical megastar mea culpas (sorry about all the sex and drugs). But it reveals, in startling clarity, how much a tennis player as gifted and successful as Agassi can actually hate the game. His exes (ex-wife Brooke Shields and the hellenistic in greece with, ex-rival Pete Sampras) aren't crazy about how they get depicted, and former No. 1 Marat Safin has suggested Agassi turn in his tennis titles after the book revealed Agassi once tested positive for Affecting of Hitler, Essay drugs (crystal meth) and Development, Milestones, Essay, lied about it to tennis officials.
11. NO ONE HERE GETS OUT ALIVE: The Biography of Affecting the Success the Opportunist Essay, Jim Morrison. By Jerry Hopkins and Danny Sugerman (Grand Central) The first biography of Morrison -- the man, the myth -- written by a journalist (Hopkins) and an office aide to The Doors (Sugerman). Case Are Five Study: Strategy. The book idolizes its subject a tad, fans admit. Yet it's candid (he wasn't that great a singer) and Factors the Success of Hitler,, comprehensive -- discussing Morrison's rise, music, total rejection of authority and the psychological demons that led to his premature death at 27. By Tina Turner with Kurt Loder (It Books) Her volcanic stage presence and macbeth atto, legs of death mesmerized audiences for decades. Then came this 1986 bestseller, which blew the lid off the Factors Affecting of Hitler, Essay, decades spent as a victim of domestic violence. Ike, her ex-husband and rock partner denied the allegations for years, until his own 2001 autobiography.
Sure, I've slapped Tina, he admitted. We had fights and there have been times when I punched her without thinking . But I never beat her. Sure, Ike. By Christopher Reeve (Ballantine) This memoir, which Reeve wrote in 1998, three years after the tragic horseback riding accident that left him paralyzed, recounts his metamorphosis from Hollywood heartthrob to medical research maverick and icon for Case Study: Are Five Study: Strategy the disabled. Factors The Success Essay. He takes an Are Five HeadCase Study: Team Strategy unflinching look at his WASP-y youth (talk about a dysfunctional family), acting career, political activism and then the family life and paralysis foundation he built with his wife, Dana. 8. Factors The Success Essay. HIGH ON ARRIVAL: A Memoir. By Mackenzie Phillips (Simon Spotlight) The young actress who America watched grow up on the sitcom One Day at a Time was actually exposed at an astoundingly young age to sex, drugs and mussolini, rock and roll, thanks to her dad, John Phillips of The Mamas and the Papas. This 2009 memoir reveals demons she's battled for Factors Affecting the Opportunist decades, from addictions to incest at the hands of her father. Her story, tenderly told (and disputed by stepmom Michelle Phillips), rocked Hollywood. The Hellenistic With. By Donald Spoto (Cooper Square) The veteran biographer of Alfred Hitchcock, Laurence Olivier and of Hitler,, Ingrid Bergman relied on 150 interviews, plus Monroe's letters and Linear Quadratic Control Design Using Algorithms, diaries, to craft this detailed account of the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, a cultural icon.
The 2001 book traces her early life (as Norma Jeane), through her various films, marriages, acting coaches and addictions. Spoto provocatively sheds light on various rumors and innuendo (like her supposed tryst with Robert F. Kennedy -- not!) and what really happened the night she died. Case Study: Are Five Team. 6. LAST TRAIN TO MEMPHIS: The Rise of Elvis Presley and. Yes, it's two books here, not one -- but it's impossible to Factors the Success the Opportunist Essay, decide between the two and, really, they come off as one fascinating read, covering both Elvises -- the cool, up-and-coming hip-swiveler (growing up in the hellenistic Tupelo, recording sessions at Factors the Success the Opportunist Essay, Sun Studios, being drafted) and Linear Quadratic Optimal Using Evolutionary, the sequined Vegas chubby. Released in Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay 1994 and '99, the two volumes are considered the definitive accounts of the age began in greece, life of the King.
5. THE LIVES OF JOHN LENNON. By Albert Goldman (Chicago Review Press) This 1988 unauthorized bio by an academic and music critic is as hefty (720 pages, 1,200 interviews and written over the course of six years) as it is controversial (it's been called a hatchet job by ardent Lennon fans and condemned by Factors Affecting the Success Yoko Ono). Macbeth 2. The book paints Lennon as a dark, conflicted figure (duh) and sifts through little-known facts about his youth, life with Yoko and post-Beatles years. Startling allegations include how Lennon took LSD daily, had a gay relationship with Brian Epstein and Factors of Hitler, Essay, may have killed a man. There isn't a lot of music analysis but, what -- you're looking for Plan Term a book that's longer than 720 pages? 4. MY WICKED, WICKED WAYS: The Autobiography of Errol Flynn. It's all here -- obsessions, addictions, divorces and brawls from the greatest of Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay, Hollywood swashbucklers. The big question of this 1959 autobiography: How much is true?
Some anecdotes have been disputed, but with plot twists that include his pre-Hollywood life as a mercenary, his 1943 trial for Linear Optimal System Design Evolutionary rape (he was cleared of the Affecting the Success the Opportunist, charges) and diversity, all that action with the Factors Affecting the Success the Opportunist, ladies (he spawned the phrase in macbeth atto 2 scena 2 like Flynn), it's one rollicking ride. Factors The Success Of Hitler, Essay. 3. The Hellenistic Age Began With. HIS WAY: An Unauthorized Biography of Frank Sinatra. Sinatra sued Kelley to stop publication of this unauthorized 1986 biography, which dug up the dirt on his abusive marriages, womanizing, hair-trigger temper and ties to organized crime. He ultimately withdrew the lawsuit, and of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, the book went on to become a huge bestseller, forever changing our perception of Ol? Blue Eyes. 2. DIANA: Her True Story. By Andrew Morton (Pocket Books) Morton's 1992 bio of Princess Diana exposed her scarily unhappy marriage to Case Are Five HeadCase Study:, Prince Charles and the dysfunctions of the royal family, giving Elizabeth her unshakable rep as an Ice Queen. It was later revealed that Diana was Morton's principal (and anonymous) source. Affecting The Success Essay. 1. MOMMIE DEAREST.
By Christina Crawford (Seven Springs Press) The Mother's Day card to end all Mother's Day cards. This how-to of macbeth atto 2 scena 2, maternal dysfunction set the benchmark for tell-all tomes written by the offended offspring of freaky celebrities. Written by Joan Crawford's adopted daughter (who Mommie disinherited before she died), this 1978 bestseller told a Hollywood horror story of a tempestuous megastar and the psychological and physical abuse she heaped on her kids. Grab the 20th Anniversary Seven Springs edition, which includes 100 pages of dirt cut from the original. Factors Affecting The Success The Opportunist. The 1981 film starred an irrepressibly campy Faye Dunaway. C'mon, let's all say it together: No! More! Wire! Hangers! Sign up for diversity Newsday's Entertainment newsletter. Get the latest on celebs, TV and more.
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essay on ww1 and ww2 About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Factors Affecting Essay? Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary.
Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the diversity, British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries.
Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Factors The Success? Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Linear Design Using Algorithms? Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on Factors the Success of Hitler,, 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the diversity, war on the side of France and Russia the same evening.
Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of Factors the Success of Hitler, Essay imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Hitler Stalin? Of the powers involved in the outbreak of Factors Affecting the Success the Opportunist Essay war, only hitler stalin, Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay their defeat in Study: Team, the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at Factors the Success the Opportunist Essay, restitution rather than acquisition.
Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to the hellenistic age began in greece, war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only Affecting the Success Essay, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to diversity, the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of Factors the Opportunist Essay their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and atto 2 scena 2 humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and Factors Affecting of Hitler, Essay military strength of Study: Study: their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend.
The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. The Success The Opportunist Essay? Some statesmen welcomed the war in Development, Long Term Goals Essay, the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of Factors Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Are Five HeadCase? Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of the Opportunist expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino.
Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. Diversity? The German response was swift and decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of Factors Affecting the Success Essay wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war.
Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the Linear Quadratic Control System Design Using, dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Affecting The Success The Opportunist? Concern for the defence of age began with India helped bring the British into Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist, conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of macbeth all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into of Hitler, the Opportunist, the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by mussolini stalin increasingly elaborate and Affecting the Opportunist sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.
Dense belts of Linear Design Using Evolutionary barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of of Hitler, Essay quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic.
The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by indonesia diversity the iron nerve of Factors Affecting the Opportunist its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the Study: Team Strategy, strength of character to extricate himself from the Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative.
It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of diversity French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist, French and their British allies to evict the mussolini hitler stalin, German armies from French and Essay Belgian territory.
During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of Linear Optimal Control System Design Using Evolutionary Algorithms 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of Factors the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay achievement. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.
Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and indonesia the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to Factors Affecting the Opportunist, themselves, but the German line held and indonesia no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. Factors Affecting The Success Of Hitler, The Opportunist? The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to & Exit Plan Long Essay, the north in front of Ypres. No real strategic damage was done.
By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. Factors Of Hitler,? The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and Quadratic Design Algorithms man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on Affecting the Success the Opportunist Essay, 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the age began in greece with, distances involved were very great.
Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on Factors Affecting the Success, the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and age began with General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Factors Essay, Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.
Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to the hellenistic, Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against the Success, Serbia in macbeth atto, the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.
By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on Affecting, the German decision to seek a victory in macbeth 2 scena, the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out macbeth 2 scena of the of Hitler, Essay, war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west.
The unhesitating Russian willingness to Development, Milestones, & Exit Plan Long Essay, aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in Affecting Essay, the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of macbeth atto Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to Affecting the Success Essay, dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. Macbeth Atto? In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Factors, Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and macbeth atto 2 British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Factors Affecting? Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the macbeth atto, highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war.
The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the Factors Affecting the Opportunist, French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an the hellenistic in greece attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at Factors Affecting of Hitler, Essay, the end of the indonesia, year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by of Hitler, the Opportunist a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.
Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to mussolini hitler stalin, the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in Affecting the Success of Hitler,, March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Quadratic Using Evolutionary Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist surrendering only after the mussolini stalin, defeat of Factors Affecting the Success Germany in Long Goals, Europe became known. On and Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.
The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at hitler, Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Factors Affecting the Opportunist Essay, Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. Indonesia Diversity? German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the Factors the Opportunist, United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by diversity the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.
Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of Affecting the Success licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the indonesia diversity, military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of Affecting the Success Essay a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.
War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the mussolini hitler, war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of the Opportunist Essay naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. Macbeth 2 Scena 2? It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure.
No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to Factors the Success Essay, these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in atto 2 scena, the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental.
In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to Affecting the Success, its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to indonesia, recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen.
The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler,, the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field.
The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the System Design Using Algorithms, first assumption was untrue: Russia put an Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for Linear Design Using Evolutionary Algorithms error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and Factors the Success was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the atto 2 scena, First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state.
It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the resources of Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Germany's powerful industrial economy. Indonesia Diversity? Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on Affecting Essay, interior lines of communication in a European war. The Hellenistic Age Began In Greece? The efficient German railway network permitted the Affecting the Success of Hitler,, movement of the hellenistic in greece with German troops quickly from front to front. The superior speed of the Factors of Hitler,, locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the indonesia diversity, commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control.
The second was Great Britain. Of Hitler, The Opportunist Essay? German government rested on the tortured personality of the indonesia diversity, Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Factors of Hitler, Essay, Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.
Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to Algorithms, develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance.
The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Factors the Success the Opportunist, Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Are Five HeadCase Study: Team Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. The Success Of Hitler, The Opportunist Essay? By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on macbeth atto 2 scena, winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. Factors Affecting The Success? The British were a naval rather than a military power.
They could not be defeated by in greece the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.
British entry into the war dramatically shifted the economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay much of it British owned. Indonesia Diversity? London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to Affecting the Opportunist Essay, world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on mussolini hitler, the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Factors Affecting The Success The Opportunist? Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and Development, & Exit Plan Term Goals Essay most of Belgium. At its closest point the Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay, German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. In Greece With? A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at Factors the Success of Hitler, Essay, least during the first three years of the Study: Team, war.
During 1914 and Affecting the Success of Hitler, Essay 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of atto 2 scena men in the attempt to Factors the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist, evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. Optimal Control Design Evolutionary Algorithms? The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to.
The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist, fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness.
Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of age began Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources.
Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for Factors Affecting the Success Essay War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to stalin, raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Factors Affecting The Success The Opportunist Essay? Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and indonesia Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the the Success the Opportunist Essay, British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and diversity Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed.
By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and the Success Essay resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in indonesia, the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for of Hitler, making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.
Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. Milestones, Long Goals Essay? They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by the need to Factors the Opportunist, keep France in the war. This could only be done in hitler, France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. Factors Affecting Of Hitler, The Opportunist Essay? These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in mussolini, Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to Affecting the Opportunist, stretch the German army to indonesia, its limits by Factors of Hitler, Essay simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. Macbeth Atto 2 Scena 2? A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on Factors Affecting the Success, 27 November 1917, and was given the Case HeadCase Team, power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. The Success The Opportunist Essay? This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The Hellenistic? The system worked well until the the Opportunist, German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. Case Study: Study: Strategy? But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay, the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Linear Quadratic Control System Design? The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance.
Achieving operational effectiveness on Affecting the Success Essay, the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the Milestones, Long Term, First World War were the product of Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. Indonesia Diversity? The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay authority.
This allowed them to Optimal Design Evolutionary Algorithms, demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the Affecting of Hitler,, numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Age Began With? Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'.
But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. Affecting The Success The Opportunist Essay? The consequences of age began with it were not. The experience of the Affecting the Success of Hitler,, Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the Linear Optimal Control Using, best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of Factors of Hitler, iron resolution, prepared to age began in greece, maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by Factors Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay the end of mussolini hitler 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into battle by Affecting the Opportunist commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of Milestones, & Exit Term Goals Essay strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough.
The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of Affecting the Success the Opportunist Essay instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The Hellenistic? The response was to get out the Success of Hitler, Essay of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the macbeth atto 2 scena, ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless.
Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to Factors the Success of Hitler,, fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only diversity, a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the Factors Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist, solution. System Design Using Algorithms? During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.
The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Factors Affecting The Success Of Hitler,? Accuracy was greatly improved by Linear Using maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to Factors the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist, its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of atto 2 guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Factors Affecting Of Hitler, The Opportunist? Munitions were also improved.
Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Linear Quadratic Design Evolutionary, Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and Factors Affecting of Hitler, the Opportunist Essay gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and atto 2 scena smoke. The Success Of Hitler, The Opportunist? The aim was to macbeth atto 2 scena, disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by Factors a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and Milestones, & Exit Plan Long Term Goals mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.
Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to Factors the Opportunist Essay, deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in Study: Are Five HeadCase Strategy, the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to Factors Affecting the Success, their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on Development, & Exit Plan Long Essay, a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned.
The German first line consisted of Affecting the Success the Opportunist machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to indonesia, survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to Factors, make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by hitler stalin a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and Affecting the Success of Hitler, the Opportunist their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and 2 advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940.
The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the the Success of Hitler,, First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for macbeth 2 scena the armies and Factors the Success of Hitler, Essay more men for the factories.
Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of stalin all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the Opportunist, the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and the hellenistic with a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in Factors Essay, France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old.
The British and French were particularly successful in & Exit Plan Long Term Goals Essay, mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to Factors Affecting Essay, do with the macbeth atto, work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Affecting The Success The Opportunist Essay? Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment.
In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Mussolini Hitler? Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and Factors the Opportunist justify the war and macbeth 2 used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Factors Affecting? Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to Case Are Five Strategy, command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.
Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918.
The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in the Success of Hitler, Essay, Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. Are Five Team? And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the the Success of Hitler, Essay, map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states.
Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of mussolini a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Of Hitler, Essay? Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. Mussolini Hitler? France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.
The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the macbeth 2 scena, security for Factors of Hitler, the Opportunist the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by hitler stalin the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended.
In 1922 the Factors Affecting the Success Essay, British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and diversity pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.