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Ap Bio Lab One: Osmosis and Diffusion. Meghann Kiphart AP Biology Lab Report Number One Mrs. Irvine Introduction: Because all molecules have kinetic energy and are constantly in motion cells go through a process called diffusion. Apa Citation Generator For Article. Diffusion is the movement if molecules from an area of Essay about and Types higher concentration to and area of lower concentration. This process with continue to occur until an equilibrium is reached. Osmosis is apa citation a different and unique kind of diffusion. Osmosis is the diffusion of water through a permeable membrane. The phrase permeable membrane means that the membrane will only allow specific molecules through such a water or oxygen.

In Osmosis water will travel from an area of higher water potential or an area of lower water potential. Hypothesis: I think that in this lab, osmosis and diffusion will occur between the solutions of different concentrations until a equilibrium is reached and there is no movement of water. Materials: EXERCISE 1A: Diffusion The materials include a 30-cm piece of 2. 5-cm dialysis tubing, 15-mL of the 15% glucose/1% starch solution, 250-mL beaker, distilled water, 4-mL Lugols solution, and string. EXERCISE 1B: Osmosis The materials used include 25-mL of these solutions: distilled water, 0. M sucrose, 0. 4M sucrose, 0. 6M sucrose, 0. 8M sucrose, and Online Car Sales 1. 0M sucrose, scissors, string, a balance, six 250-mL cups, and six 30cm strips of apa citation dialysis tubing. EXERCISE 1C: Water Potential The materials that were used included 50mL of confessions book distilled water, 0. 2M sucrose, 0. 4M sucrose, 0. 6M sucrose, 0. 8M sucrose, and 1. 0M sucrose, six 250mL cups with lids, 4 potato cores for each cup, a balance, and paper towel.

EXERCISE 1D: Calculation of for article Water Potential from Experimental Data This exercise required a calculator and a pencil. Procedure: EXERCISE 1A: Soak the dialysis tubing in 7 water before you start the experiment. Tie off one end of the tubing to form a bag like structure. Through the open end of the bad, place the starch solution in to the bag. Tie off the other end of the bag to secure the substance inside. Make sure to record the color of the solution in Table 1. Apa Citation Generator. 1. Next youre going to text the starch solution for the presence of glucose. Record the results in Table 1. 1. Fill a 250ml cup about 2/3 of the exodus book, way full with distilled water. Add 4ml of Lugols solution into the distilled water. Record the color of the solution in the Table 1. . For Article. Put the bag in the cup full of the solution. Allow the bag and cup to stand over night. The next day record the final color of the solution in Table 1. 1. Finally test the liquid in the cup and in the bag for the presence of glucose.

Record the final results in Table 1. 1. Exodus Book. EXERCISE 1B: Get six strips of presoaked dialysis tubing and create a bag like was shown in exercise 1A. Pour 25mL of the six solutions into each of the six bags. Tie off the other end of the bags. Rinse each bag gently with distilled water and dry the outside of the apa citation generator, bag with a paper towel. Record the data in Table 1. 4. Put 4 potato cores into each solution cup. Cover the cup with a lid to prevent evaporation. Let stand overnight. Remove cores from the cup and dry them with a paper towel. Then determine there combined weigh in groups of 4 (from the same cup).

Record the results in Table 1. 4. Calculate the percentages changes in mass. Collect the class data and about Leadership Traits determine the class change in mass. EXPERIMENT 1D: Determine the solute, pressure, and the water potential of the sucrose solution. Then, graph the information that is given about the apa citation for article, zucchini cores. Questions: EXPERIMENT 1A: 1. Which substances are entering the Essay on Should Gun Control be Stricter?, bag and which are leaving the bag? What evidence supports the answer? Distilled water and IKI are leaving and entering.

Glucose is able to leave the bag. 2. Explain the generator for article, results that were obtained. Include the concentration differences and membrane pore size in the discussion. Glucose and small molecules were able to move through the pores. Water and IKI moved from high to low concentration. Exodus Book. 3. How could this experiment be modified so that quantitative data could be collected to generator, show that water diffused into the dialysis bag? You could mass the catcher rye quotes about innocence, bag before and after it is placed into the solution.

4. Generator. Based on your observations, rank the following by relative size, beginning with the smallest: glucose molecules, water molecules, IKI molecules, membrane pores, and to kill quotes page number starch molecules. Water molecules, IKI molecules, Glucose molecules, membrane pores, and starch molecules. 5. what results would you expect if the experiment started with a glucose and IKI solution inside the bag and generator for article only starch and to kill a mockingbird quotes page number water outside? The glucose and IKI would move out apa citation of the bag and turn the starch and water solution purple/ blue. The starch couldnt move inside the bag because its molecules are too big to pass through the membrane of the tubing.

EXERCISE 1B: 1. Confessions 7. Explain the apa citation generator, relationship between the change in mass and augustine confessions book the molarity of sucrose within the dialysis bags. Apa Citation For Article. The solute in hypertonic and water will move into the bag. As the exodus book, molarity increases the apa citation for article, water moves into the bag. 2. Predict what would happen to the mass of each bag in the experiment of all the bags were places in a 0. 4M sucrose solution instead of distilled water. With the 0. Traits. 2M bag, the water would move out. With the 0. M bag, there will be no net movement of water because the solutions reach equilibrium. With the 0. 6M-1. 0M bags the generator, water would move into the bags. 3. Why did you calculate the percent change in mass rather then simply using the change in mass? This was calculated because each group began with different initial masses and we would have different data. All the groups need consistent data.

4. Catcher In The Innocence. A dialysis bag is filled with distilled water and then places in apa citation generator a sucrose solution. The bags initial mass is 20g and its final mass is 18g. Calculate the percent change of confessions book mass, showing your calculations. 18-20)/20) x 100 = 10% 5. The sucrose solution in the cup would have been hypotonic to the distilled water in the bag. EXPERIMENT 1D 1. If the potato core is allowed to dehydrate by sitting in the open air, would the water potential of the potato cells decrease or increase? Why? It would decrease because the water would leave the cells and cause the water potential to go down.

2. If a plant cell has a lower water potential then its surrounding environment and if pressure is equal to zero, is the apa citation, cell hypertonic or hypotonic to its environment? Will the cell gain water or lose water? It is Essay hypotonic and it will gain water. 3. The cup is open to the atmosphere, what is the pressure potential of the system? The pressure potential is zero. 4. Where is the greatest water potential? In the dialysis bag.

5. Water will diffuse out of the bag. Why? It is because the water moves from the area of apa citation generator for article high water potential to an area of lower water potential. 6. What effect does adding solute have on the solute potential component of the solution? Why? It makes it more negative 7. Consider what would happen to a red blood sell placed in distilled water: A) which would have the higher concentration of water molecules? Distilled Water B) which would have the higher water potential? Distilled Water C) what would happen to Essay, the red blood cell? Why? It would leak, because it would take to much water. Conclusion: In Exercise 1A the data collected helped tell which molecules can and generator can not move across a cell membrane.

IKI, we know because of its color change, was able to move across a membrane. Starch, although, is too large to move across a membrane. Glucose was able to move freely, along with the water, across the cell membrane. In 1B, it was proven that water moves faster across the Essay on Should Gun Control Laws be Stricter?, cell membrane then sucrose. The water moved to help reach equilibrium between the 2 solutions. The sucrose molecules are too big to move across the apa citation, membrane as fast as water can.

In experiment 1C showed that the potatoes contained sucrose. The sucrose in the potato raised the solute potential, which lowered the Essay Traits and Types, water potential. The cup of distilled water had a high water potential water moves down the concentration gradient, causing the potato cores to take on water. Generator. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to Online Car Sales Essay, get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

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Monads in for article Haskell and other languages. We design and implement a library for adding backtracking computations to any Haskell monad. Inspired by logic programming, our library provides, in addition to the operations required by the MonadPlus interface, constructs for fair disjunctions, fair conjunctions, conditionals, pruning, and an expressive top-level interface. Implementing these additional constructs is well-known in models of catcher in the rye quotes backtracking based on streams, but not known to apa citation for article be possible in continuation-based models. We show that all these additional constructs can be generically and monadically realized using a single primitive which we call msplit . We present two implementations of the library: one using success and failure continuations; and the other using control operators for manipulating delimited continuations.

It seems that something similar (but not identical) to Car Sales Essay msplit has been discovered at apa citation least twice before: under the names unbuild (Andrew Gill, 1996) and destroy (Josef Svenningsson, ICFP02). Our function reflect is also related to unfoldr . One of the earlier versions of Kanren did indeed implement something like destroy , internally using regular list constructors to split a stream. However, the Essay Gun Control Laws, present function msplit is significantly more general: it has nothing to do with Haskell lists and apa citation, never uses any lists constructors, even internally. The functions msplit and reflect operate over any backtracking computation over any base monad. The presence of the base monad makes things trickier as we now must assure that we do not repeat effects. Therefore, the equivalent of the destroy/infoldr rule of Josef Svenningsson's destroy . unfoldr === id is, in ``small-step semantics'': One can read mzero and mplus as generalized list constructors [] and (:) , and read (=) as a flipped application. The more complex laws assure that effects are not duplicated. It is Gun Control, fair to say that whereas foldr/build and destroy/unfoldr fusion techniques work for apa citation for article Haskell lists, msplit/reflect in the LogicT paper is Essay Leadership Traits and Types, a fusion law for apa citation a general backtracking computation over arbitrary, perhaps even strict, base monad. Augustine Book! That computation may look nothing like list; in fact, the LogicT paper gives an example with delimited continuations, with abort playing the role of nil and shift the role of cons . Version The current version is 1.3, September 2010.

References LogicT.pdf [186K] Backtracking, Interleaving, and Terminating Monad Transformers. The Functional Pearl paper with Chung-chieh Shan, Daniel P. Friedman and Amr Sabry, presented at ICFP 2005. The Haskell Symposium 2015 paper describes in Sec 5 the extensible-effect implementation of LogicT. The Haskell code accompanying the apa citation generator, paper.

The code includes two implementations of LogicT : based on the two-continuation model of streams, and the direct-style implementation with first-class delimited continuations, using CCCxe or CCExc libraries. The code has two larger examples: Missionaries and cannibals problem, and playing Tic-Tac-Toe with minimax search and two heuristics. Essay! The latter code is rather heavily based on the code by generator for article Andrew Bromage. A brief and de-sugared explanation of splitting a functional stream. Josef Svenningsson: Shortcut Fusion for Accumulating Parameters and Zip-like Functions. On Should Gun Control Laws! Proc. ICFP'02, 2002, pp. 124-132. Simple fair and apa citation generator for article, terminating backtracking Monad Transformer. The function runM :: Maybe Int - Stream a - [a] of our monad takes an extra argument: runM (Just n) m runs the computation m for at most n ``backtracking'' steps.

This limit is another way to on Should be Stricter? improve termination. In the present monad the laws are satisfied modulo the order of the answers: we should treat the apa citation, result of runM as a multi-set rather than a list. This issue is discussed in the LogicT paper. I used to to kill a mockingbird with number think that this monad is less capable than those described in the LogicT paper. It turns out that FBackTrackT implements the LogicT interface -- rather trivially. Thus FBackTrackT is an implementation of LogicT, with quite a good performance. Version The current version is 1.1.0.1, Oct 31, 2005; added LogicT: January 2014. References FBackTrack.hs [3K] The complete Haskell source code for the plain monad, and an example.

The corresponding monadic transformer (in Haskell98), with examples. Purely Functional Lazy Non-deterministic Programming. Functional logic programming and probabilistic programming have demonstrated the broad benefits of combining laziness (non-strict evaluation with sharing of the generator for article, results) with non-determinism. Yet these benefits are seldom enjoyed in functional programming, because the existing features for non-strictness, sharing, and non-determinism in about Leadership Traits functional languages are tricky to apa citation for article combine. We present a practical way to write purely functional lazy non-deterministic programs that are efficient and perspicuous. We achieve this goal by embedding the programs into existing languages (such as Haskell, SML, and OCaml) with high-quality implementations, by making choices lazily and representing data with non-deterministic components, by working with custom monadic data types and search strategies, and by providing equational laws for the programmer to reason about their code. This is exodus book, joint work Sebastian Fischer and Chung-chieh Shan.

Purely functional lazy nondeterministic programming. Journal of Functional Programming 21(4-5):413--465, 2011. Copyright Cambridge University Press 2011 doi:10.1017/S0956796811000189. This is the greatly extended, journal version of the paper first published in the Proc. of ICFP 2009, pp. Apa Citation! 11-22.

GitHub/Hackage package of explicit sharing of monadic effects. explicit-sharing on Hackage. The ICFP paper derives and explains the code. Exodus Book! The code is maintained by Sebastian Fischer. Executable small-step semantics based on apa citation for article, an alternative set of book 7 laws. The laws of non-determinism with explicit sharing described in the paper are concise but not constructive because of pattern-matching on bottom. The present code introduces an alternative set of laws. The code implements small-step semantics of a small monadic language with non-determinism and apa citation generator, sharing. The semantics is based on to kill page, the oriented version of the alternative equational laws.

The code is hence the proof that the laws are constructive. The datatype MP a represents the apa citation for article, syntax of the language. The clauses of the function step define the in the, reduction relation, in apa citation generator for article the declarative form. The semantics is Essay, executable; there are functions to evaluate a term, observing intermediate results if desired. Apa Citation! The code includes the extensive test suite. Memoization of Online Car Sales non-deterministic functions in HANSEI is implemented using thread-local storage, according to the principles explained in the paper.

A different way to for article share possible intermediate results of non-deterministic computations. The need for such a type-state indexed `monad' has been observed on many occasions. For example, we can introduce monadish LIO p q a where p and q are either Locked or Unlocked , representing the state of quotes with page number a particular lock. Just by looking at the type of a computation, we can see if the apa citation, computation acquires the lock (its (inferred) type is exodus book, LIO Unlocked Locked a ), acquires and releases the generator for article, lock (its type is LIO Unlocked Unlocked a ), or does not use the lock (its type LIO p p a and polymorphic over p ). It becomes easy to statically ensure that the Essay Traits, lock can be released only if it is being held. Apa Citation! The locking problem can also be solved with the ordinary monad (by defining a function like with_lock which uses the monad in a contra-variant position). The latter solution is more cumbersome, and becomes increasingly cumbersome as we wish to represent more complex effects, such as control effects due to delimited control operators with answer-type modification. The variable state, parameterized `monad' has been thoroughly investigated by Robert Atkey, MSFP2006. The message below is an independent discovery. The complete Haskell98 code defining the parameterized monad and using it to implement a variable-state monad and the IO-like monad that statically enforces a locking protocol.

The first part of the on Should Gun Control Laws be Stricter?, code was originally posted as Simple variable-state `monad' on the Haskell mailing list on Mon Dec 18 00:02:02 EST 2006. Robert Atkey: Parameterised Notions of Computation. MSFP2006. Using Monadish to statically track ticks so to enforce timing and generator, protocol restrictions when writing device drivers and confessions book 7, their generators. The genuine shift/reset control operators are implemented in terms of the generator for article, parameterized monad. Matthieu Sozeau: Type-safe printf using delimited continuations, in Coq. The implementation of the parameterized `monad' (called GMonad) in Coq. The Coq code not only defines the operations gret and gbind but also states their laws, which Coq will verify for each GMonad instance. Section 6 of the Leadership Traits, paper describes a Haskell library for manual resource management, where deallocation is explicit and safety is apa citation generator for article, assured by a form of linear types.

We implement the linear typing in Haskell with the help of phantom types and a parameterized monad to statically track the quotes number, type-state of resources. The tagless-final encoding uses the variable-state `monad' to track resources associated with bound variables, to enforce the linearity of generator variable references. It is often claimed that mplus must be associative and mzero must be its left and right unit. That is, supposedly mplus and mzero should satisfy the same laws as list concatenation and the empty list -- that is, the monoid laws. It should be stressed and on Should Gun Control be Stricter?, stressed again that the Haskell Report says nothing about the laws of MonadPlus . Absent any other authority, the status of the MonadPlus laws is apa citation generator, undetermined. Do we want the monoid laws for MonadPlus ? The answer is surprisingly complicated. In a short and confusing form, it may be reasonable to use the commutative monoid laws to to kill page contemplate non-determinism and to approximate the result of a program. If one objects to the commutativity of apa citation for article mplus , the associativity should not be a requirement either. This article shows simple examples of this complex issue.

Along the way, we discuss why we may want equational laws to start with. An equational law is a statement of equality: for about Leadership and Types example, the left-unit monoid law for MonadPlus states that mzero `mplus` m and m must be `the same'. This may mean that given the generator for article, particular definitions of mzero and Traits and Types, mplus , the apa citation generator for article, expression mzero `mplus` m reduces to m for any m . Such a fine-grained, intensional view of exodus book equality is most helpful when writing implementations and proofs. Apa Citation! Let's take the following simple model of non-deterministic computation: with One a standing for the deterministic computation whose result is a , Fail denoting failure and Choice representing non-deterministic choice. If we implement mzero as Fail , then the left-unit monad law, on the fine-grain reading, immediately gives us one clause in the implementation of mplus : the associativity of mplus gives the second clause: The remainder is trivial: Thus the monoid laws gave us an implementation of MonadPlus . Building a prototype, an confessions 7 `executable specification', is one, very good reason to specify equational laws. Hinze's ICFP 2000 Functional Pearl is the apa citation generator for article, most elegant and inspiring example of using equational laws to derive and improve an implementation -- of, as it happens, backtracking monad transformers. One does not have to take equational laws too literally. For example, with the following, even more lucid instance. the expression mzero `mplus` m reduces to Choice Fail m , which is clearly different from m . One may still insist that these expressions should be treated as `morally' the same. That is, replacing mzero `mplus` m with m , in to kill a mockingbird any context and for any m should be observationally equivalent : should not change the results of a program.

We now have to define `the result' of generator for article our program: how to observe an NDet computation. Commonly, see Hinze (2000) again for an example, a program of the form return v `mplus` m is catcher in the rye quotes about, regarded as resulting in v ; mzero is to be observed as failure. (To generalize, one may take return v1 `mplus` (return v2 `mplus` m) as having two results: first v1 and then v2 .) Therefore, the observation function for NDet , typically called run , is to be defined as follows: If we insist that replacing mzero `mplus` m with just m should preserve the apa citation generator, observations, we have to add the following clause to run : The associativity of mplus lets us complete the definition: To recap, in this implementation, mzero `mplus` m does not reduce to m . Likewise, m1 `mplus` (m2 `mplus` m3) , which is (Choice m1 (Choice m2 m3) , is Online Car Sales Essay, a structurally different NDet value than m1 `mplus` (m2 `mplus` m3) . Still, as programs, mzero `mplus` m and m produce the same results. For Article! Furthermore, replacing the former expression with the latter, as part of any larger expression, preserves the Car Sales Essay, result of the overall program. (That claim, while intuitively true for our implementation, is very hard to prove formally.) The same can be said for m1 `mplus` (m2 `mplus` m3) and for article, (m1 `mplus` m2) `mplus` m3 . This preservation of the exodus book, results, the observational equivalence, lets a compiler, a programmer or a tool to optimize mzero `mplus` m to m . Deriving and justifying optimizations is another compelling application of equational laws. Finally, the equational laws can be used to predict and understand the behavior of a program without regard to any particular implementation. Let consider the programs ones and main : Recall that in our notion of observation, return v `mplus` m is regarded as resulting in v . Apa Citation Generator For Article! Thus ones has 1 as the result -- as the first and all the following results. As for main , That chain of equational re-writes brought out nowhere. Online Car Sales! Clearly, no other chain does any better: there is no way to apa citation generator convert main either to the form return v `mplus` something or mzero . Our intuition agrees: ones keeps offering 1 , which main rejects. Now consider onestoo and the program maintoo : If mplus is Car Sales, associative, onestoo can be re-written to.

Absent any other laws, we must regard maintoo just as diverging as main . This time the conclusion goes against our intuitions. We would like to apa citation for article interpret m `mplus` return 2 as a non-deterministic choice that includes 2 . Confessions 7! There is therefore a chance that maintoo may produce that result. If MonadPlus is meant to for article represent non-determinism and to exodus book implement non-deterministic search, a search procedure ought to apa citation generator for article be complete: if it is exodus book, possible maintoo may produce 2 , it should be found sooner or later. Apa Citation! A MonadPlus instance with the associative mplus cannot be an implementation of a complete search procedure, unless we assume some sort of commutativity. To derive the result 2 in our maintoo example, we have to to kill a mockingbird number posit additional laws for mplus , at the very least, m `mplus` return v === return v `mplus` m . One can even take mplus to be commutative for arbitrary arguments. The commutative and associative mplus agrees with our intuitions of non-deterministic choice. But it violently disagrees with the notion of generator for article observation used so far: return v `mplus` something is to be observed as resulting in v . With the commutative mplus , return 1 `mplus` return 2 is to be equal to return 2 `mplus` return 1 , which are observed as 1 and Online Car Sales Essay, 2 respectively.

It is not reasonable to treat 1 and apa citation, 2 as the same observation. We have to re-define observation and treat return v `mplus` m as a program that might produce the result v in Essay on Should Laws one particular run. The program may finish with some other result. Intuitive as it is, such notion of generator observation is weak, feeling like a typical disclaimer clause: the program we sold you may do nothing at all. It feels, well, non-deterministic.

It is still reasonable to assume the commutative monoid laws as a over-broad specification . If a MonadPlus implementation produces one of Online Essay possibly many answers predicted by the specification, the apa citation, implementation should be deemed correct. We have to be, however, explicit about such an interpretation. To avoid the confusion with the common notion of observation -- what the program actually returns -- we should not be saying that a MonadPlus is confessions book, required to for article be be associative and commutative. A program m1 `mplus` (m2 `mplus` m3) may still print different results from (m1 `mplus` m2) `mplus` m3 . Thus which laws MonadPlus is to obey? It depends on what we want to use the laws for, and how precise we want to be about the program behavior. As specification, mplus may be regarded as associative. It should also then be commutative, otherwise it does not represent non-deterministic choice. If it is commutative we have to Online Car Sales Essay significantly weaken the notion of observation. Generally, a specification is supposed to be an approximation of the apa citation generator, behavior of exodus book a real program. What is special about MonadPlus is just how imprecise the commutative monoid specification is. A reasonable alternative -- non-associative mplus -- is described in ICFP05 and JFP2011 papers below, with many examples of equational reasoning with such monads.

Version The current version is January 2015. References Ralf Hinze: Deriving Backtracking Monad Transformers. Monte Carlo Monad: arithmetic of probabilistic numbers The problem is more complex than it appears. An apparent solution is to represent fuzzy numbers as distribution functions. For Article! Operator + should be generalized to take two distribution functions as arguments and yield the distribution function of the sum. Other arithmetical operators and functions should be lifted as well. In The Rye Quotes! As Jerzy Karczmarczuk noted, this naive approach is fraught with problems. Generator For Article! For example, fuzzy numbers cannot be an instance of the Num class as the catcher innocence, latter requires its members to belong to the Eq class; comparing functions is in general undecidable. A more immediate problem is generator, that the arithmetic of distributions is far more complex.

Distributions are not linear: the distribution of a sum is book 7, a convolution of the distributions of its terms. Division is especially troublesome, if the apa citation for article, denominator has a non-zero probability of being zero. The following article develops a different approach. Essay About Traits! The key insight is that we do not need to ``symbolically'' manipulate distributions. We represent a random variable by for article a computation , which, when executed, generates one number. If executed many times, the computation generates many numbers -- a sample of its distribution. We can lift the standard arithmetical operators and functions (including comparisons) to such computations, and write ordinarily-looking arithmetical expressions over these random computations. We can then execute the resulting expression many times and obtain a sample distribution of the resulting quantity. The sample lets us estimate the exodus book, mathematical expectation, the variance and other moments of the resulting quantity. Our method is generator for article, thus a Monte Carlo estimation of a complex distribution.

As an example, we compute the center and Car Sales, the variance of sqrt( (Lw - 1/Cw)^2 + R^2) which is the impedance of an electric circuit, with an inductance being a normal variable (center 100, variance 1), frequency being uniformly distributed from 10 through 20 kHz. Resistance is also uniformly distributed from generator for article, 10 through 50 kOm and the capacitance has the square root of the normal distribution. (The latter is just to make the example more interesting.) In the follow-up, summarizing article, Jerzy Karczmarczuk designed a complementary approach, based on approximating a distribution by linear combinations of normal distributions. The arithmetic of normal distributions is well-understood. Re: Non-local arithmetic. The article with the source code and examples, posted on a newsgroup comp.lang.functional on exodus book, Wed, 31 Oct 2001 17:48:33 -0800. The following article demonstrates proving associativity for a particular Error monad.

Filinski's `star' notation and a variable-free formulation of the associativity law turned out apa citation quite helpful. The article with the complete proof. It was originally posted as Re: proving the monad laws on about, the Haskell mailing list on apa citation generator for article, Tue, 2 Sep 2003 19:26:39 -0700 (PDT) Monadic reflection and reification. The article was originally posted as Re: monads and reflection [was: overloading] on the newsgroup comp.lang.scheme on to kill a mockingbird quotes page, Tue, 26 Aug 2003 12:00:45 -0700. Another discussion of monadic reflection and for article, reification. Is there a way to solve the to kill quotes with, problem purely functionally and elegantly? The article proposes one solution. It relies on monads to apa citation for article effectively hide the Essay about Leadership and Types, counter that uniquely tags every node. Building a tagged tree now looks just as simple as building an untagged one.

The counter variable is well-hidden. And yet it is there, invisibly threading through all computations. The article with the source code. It was originally posted as Re: How to do this functionally? on the newsgroup comp.lang.functional on Tue, 9 Oct 2001 22:42:03 -0700. The discussion thread shows, in particular, an implementation of the serially-numbering monad in terms of GHC's State monad.

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Race at the seaside: What shapes British seaside culture? Daniel Burdsey explains why British seaside towns are markedly less multicultural compared with other urban areas in the nation. We never went to Blackpool except to see the apa citation generator, lights and then, of course, we spent the whole time going up and down the Golden Mile in a Crosville coach and so we never actually set foot on what my mum probably regarded as contaminated ground. Instead, we went to Lytham St Anne's, it was only a few miles down the coast but it catered more for 'nice people' - for our sort of people. Class seemed to play a pretty big part in all our family seaside decisions, because we went to a mockingbird quotes number, - we went to Paignton rather than Torquay; Bridlington rather than Scarborough; Colwyn Bay rather than Rhyl and generator for article, Port Erin, all the way over to the Isle of Man, Port Erin rather than Douglas. I suppose we were trying to avoid this sort of happy vulgarity: Ices, Ices, Winkles, Whelks and Crabs , The Two Ronnies' gentle rather loving parody of the working class seaside holiday.

But it's not class at the seaside which is going to concern us now, but colour. A new research paper called Strangers on the Shore in the journal Cultural Sociology looks in quotes with detail at the whiteness of the British seaside - not just the apa citation generator for article, lack of Essay black faces among the residents and visitors but also the whiteness of seaside popular culture. And its author is Daniel Burdsey, who's senior lecturer at - well, where else - the Chelsea School of Sport at for article, the University of Brighton and he's with me now. Daniel, that Two Ronnies little bit of music suggest that really the British seaside is a place of Online Essay pleasure, fun and escape but here you are taking another perspective, what set you off on this one? Sure, well my interest in this area I guess was a sort of a collision of apa citation generator for article a variety of research interests.

The first one being an interest in the relation between race, space and augustine confessions book, place and particularly the way in for article which race and multiculture is lived and experienced in non-urban locations. I'm also a sociologist of sport and leisure cultures, so I've always had this interest in popular culture and entertainment and a mockingbird page number, amusements. But I guess it's also a classic case of the influence of the sociological imagination. I was born in a seaside town, I still live in generator for article a seaside town and I work in another seaside town - so these things are very [close] to me. You walk around and think this place - how white this place is. Tell me a little tiny bit about the sort of demographic factors which have produced this whiteness. I actually have some figures here, I'm just looking at Brighton, I looked it up because I knew you were from there, and Online Essay, ethnicity - this is a 2001 census: White 94.2%, Black or Black British 0.76% - it is, as you say, a very white place, isn't it?

Sure, seaside locations remain overwhelmingly white places. [There's] a number of apa citation for article reasons for this, I think. Traditionally minority ethnic communities have lived in urban locations of the Traits, bigger towns and cities and we can trace that back to the mass migrations of the 1950s and '60s to places of industry. And in many cases, of apa citation generator course, they're coming in Essay on Should Gun Control Laws and arriving and joining families who already are living in urban locations, aren't they, because of the apa citation for article, work? Absolutely, absolutely. And more peripheral coastal locations tend to Leadership Traits and Types, have relatively immobile populations who tend to live for apa citation generator for article, generations without perhaps moving in or out. There's also an over-representation of older populations which does tend to contribute to a whiter demographic in these places. Laws! Simon Carey under CC-BY-SA licence under Creative-Commons license Welcome to Brighton for everyone? And you'd want to say, I think, that at the coast or in seaside towns there's an association somehow between being in a seaside town, being by apa citation generator for article the sea, and what people who are perhaps white feel about national identity - this place is somehow 'for' them? Yes, I think you're right.

I think the seaside is Essay about Traits and Types, still embedded in apa citation for article aspects of the national psyche and survey evidence suggests that people do still closely associate the seaside with aspects of national identity. I think there's a geographical issue here: the coast or the catcher in the about innocence, seaside is apa citation for article, literally a place on the edge, the edge of the augustine confessions, nation, it's a finite border and so it's habitually associated with notions of invasion and generator for article, defence - both the white cliffs of Dover are the. And it fits nicely. It just suddenly came to me this, that [I think] Paul Theroux wrote about the number of sort of Brits who go and drive their cars to the edge of the country and sit there staring out to sea, which he said, really they are imaginatively seeing themselves as the exodus book, old imperialist, they see themselves, like their ancestors, sailing away. Possibly, that's a bit fanciful but anyway. Very interestingly though, after having analysed the demographic facts of apa citation generator this, you turned to the ways in which really the social attractions of seaside towns [are], if you like,[. ] white attractions. Yes, I identified a number of themes within the seaside amusements and entertainments and augustine book 7, other aspects of popular culture and the things I identified, firstly, was the way in generator which these amusements and entertainments promote and exoticised and/or orientalist representation of the ethnic or racial other; The way in which representations of white bodies are juxtaposed against black ones;

And finally the exodus book, way in apa citation which seaside amusements and entertainments engage in ideas of exploring and conquering sort of non-Western primitive landscapes, whether that be the jungle or the wild west or ancient Egypt. So a lot of these old amusements, these arcades, these museums, these galleries or whatever, in many cases black faces are absent, but if they're present they're present in a rather stereotypical fashion? Absolutely. Confessions Book 7! I mean there's strong historical reference to apa citation for article, this, you can trace this back. But I suppose many people listening would say well it's a lot of old kitsch and it's stuck there and no doubt it has some of these resonances, I mean would you want to say however, if people came to look at this they would feel themselves sort of absent or would they feel themselves offended by it? I think the bottom line is that most people engaging in augustine book 7 seaside leisure, entertainments, amusements perhaps don't appreciate the generator for article, signifying attributes of these things. It is exodus book, a place for fantasy, of fun, adventure, escapism but I think just because they don't perhaps have these sort of functioning connotations for people we shouldn't ignore the apa citation generator, sort of. Are we talking about attraction or repulsion? That black people decide that they don't want to go to places like this because they feel of Online Car Sales them as white, or do you feel that the apa citation generator for article, sort of white people there are actively hostile? When you've looked at these towns are there other aspects of those towns and the way they behave, the political decisions they make, which suggests to you that really there is some ideology lurking behind these representations?

I think that might be a tenuous link. I think the issue around the way in which these environments are racialised from the sort of subsequent research is Essay about Leadership and Types, more about the sort of control and dominance of apa citation generator for article social space with certain parts of seafronts, towns, being seen as sort of safer spaces and others not. But what was clear I think which came out of this and Essay Laws, some of the subsequent research is that what is often seen as innocent tradition for some people can actually have quite racialised and excluding connotations for other groups. But you would want to say that when arguments break out about asylum seeking and immigration that [. ] more emphasis is likely to be placed on them in for article seaside towns? Well, I think this is related to the sort of Car Sales Essay changing demographics of migration and also issues around the dispersal of asylum seekers, refugees and people of apa citation generator a regular migration status. Essay Be Stricter?! The policies may be hammered out in government but it is in seaside towns where the actual implications are being felt by . And you reference actually specific campaigns insulting, for example, against temporary housing and people who are asylum seekers.

Just a last question. What is apa citation for article, happening now - I mean there are changes occurring now, you already refer to the fact that there are sort of ethnic minority groups who've often gravitated to Essay about Traits, the seaside, you've talked about sort of Italians and others who've found a place in the seaside town quite naturally, but there is a shift, a change, going on generator for article, now, isn't there? Very much so and I think this is characteristic of Online Car Sales what's happening in the UK more generally. What we're seeing is diversity appearing in generator more and more sort of peripheral places. So what's been labelled in Essay the literature as new spaces of multiculture or new gateways to immigration are being found in rural and coastal spaces. And with the seaside I think the key dynamics are increasing migration, also people who may have migrated in the '50s and '60s from the apa citation, Caribbean or the Indian subcontinent to the bigger cities are now retiring to the seaside, and also an increasingly youthful population of minority ethnic people who were born at the seaside.

Good, thank you so much. It would be interesting, wouldn't it, to hear from - to hear from people who have - from to kill quotes black people, from others, other minority groups, who spend time at the seaside and felt, if you like, the apa citation, type of catcher in the about innocence - the type of not discrimination, we want to apa citation generator, call it, what would we want to call it, perhaps the sort of the a mockingbird with number, type of distance which is maintained by those who live at the seaside to those sorts of outsiders. Daniel Burdsey thank you very much. With more difference within, rather than between, human groups, we ask how are children growing up with ideas of apa citation race? Sally Novello takes a nostalgic look at the British seaside of her youth.

Body text - Copyright: BBC Image 'Sign welcoming visitors to Brighton and Hove' - Creative-Commons: Simon Carey under CC-BY-SA licence under Creative-Commons license. Tags, Ratings and Social Bookmarking. We invite you to discuss this subject, but remember this is a public forum. Please be polite, and avoid your passions turning into contempt for others. We may delete posts that are rude or aggressive; or edit posts containing contact details or links to other websites. If you enjoyed this, why not follow a feed to find out when we have new things like it? Choose an RSS feed from the Essay Leadership Traits, list below. Generator! (Don't know what to do with RSS feeds?) Remember, you can also make your own, personal feed by combining tags from around OpenLearn. For further information, take a look at to kill with number, our frequently asked questions which may give you the support you need.

Health, Sports Psychology. Is there enough being invested in for article education for older people? Health, Sports Psychology. What does being 'old' really mean? In this debate, we look at the idea that age has nothing to do with how old you are. TV, Radio Events. What caused the summer 2011 UK's riots? Start the debate by putting your views across.

TV, Radio Events. Crematorium and cemetery registrar Angela Abbot talks to us about memorialisation and the emergence of to kill quotes number fairy villages as well as the generator for article, sustainability of burials. Society, Politics Law. Media and the arts in an interdependent world. A panel of experts discuss what the implications an interdependent world has for the media and arts. Health, Sports Psychology. Jolene : 'A Time to Live' - Extended Interview. Jolene, featured on the co-production 'A Time to Live', discusses her experiences of being diagnosed with a terminal illness.

Health, Sports Psychology. Nigel : 'A Time to Live' - Extended Interview. Nigel, featured on the co-production 'A Time to Live', discusses his experiences of being diagnosed with a terminal illness. Dominic Weston, a seasoned series producer of exodus book natural history programming, discusses the place of storytelling in natural history filmmaking, whether environmental messages can be packaged as entertaining television, and the future of wildlife television. Caroline Underwood - Earth in Vision. Caroline Underwood, award-winning series producer for apa citation, Canadian television, looks back at how the landscape of environmental and natural history programming has transformed over the last few decades, and the challenges it faces today and moving forward into the future. Laurie Taylor was formerly professor of sociology at Online, York. For Article! He presents BBC Radio 4's Thinking Allowed and is a columnist for the Times Higher Educational Supplement.

Dan Burdsey is senior lecturer in the Chelsea School of Sport at the University of Brighton. Amongst his research interests is race, ethnicity and identity in coastal environments. OpenLearn Search website. OpenLearn works with other organisations by providing free courses and Online, resources that support our mission of opening up educational opportunities to apa citation generator for article, more people in more places. 2017.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Whether you've never thought about ACT Writing strategies or have worked hard on the ACT essay, you can benefit from knowing more: about the essay itself, and what really matters when the graders are reading your essay. In this article, we offer a number of for article ACT Writing tips as well as a foolproof template for putting them into practice. The ACT essay is a very short assignment - you only get 40 minutes to write a full-fledged essay - and it can pass in a flash if you don't have a method for a mockingbird number, attacking it. It requires a very specific approach that's unlike the essays you've been writing for English class. The goal of apa citation for article this strategy is to on Should cram in as many as possible of the desired components in the 40 minutes you've got. Apa Citation For Article! We'll give you the 4 main elements the ACT asks for, the top 3 things they don't tell you, and a bulletproof template for your ACT Writing essay format.

Here we go! What ACT, Inc. Does Tell You: 4 Elements to Remember. ACT, Inc. explains the main components of the successful ACT Essay in its scoring criteria. Here they are, condensed and explained: 1) Ideas Analysis : A 12-scoring essay includes an argument that critically engages with multiple perspectives on in the rye quotes innocence the given issue. The arguments thesis reflects nuance and generator, precision in thought and augustine book 7, purpose.

The argument establishes and employs an insightful context for analysis of the issue and generator, its perspectives. The analysis examines implications, complexities and tensions, and/or underlying values and assumptions. It's fine to copy the exact words from the Gun Control be Stricter?, prompt into your thesis statementin fact, this guarantees that the graders will see that your thesis is there and on for article topic. You must, however, make it obvious which side you are arguing for about Leadership Traits, . If you can, it's great to put the argument in terms of apa citation generator for article a larger debatewe'll discuss that later. 2) Development Support : In a 12-scoring essay, [d]evelopment of ideas and support for catcher in the rye quotes about, claims deepen insight and broaden context. An integrated line of skillful reasoning and for article, illustration effectively conveys the significance of the argument.

Qualifications and complications enrich and exodus book, bolster ideas and analysis. 3) Organization : A 12-scoring essay exhibits a skillful organizational strategy. The response is unified by a controlling idea or purpose, and a logical progression of ideas increases the effectiveness of the writers argument. Transitions between and within paragraphs strengthen the relationships among ideas. 4) Languag e Use: A 12-scoring essay uses language in a way that enhances the argument. Word choice is skillful and precise. Sentence structures are consistently varied and clear. Stylistic and apa citation generator, register choices, including voice and tone, are strategic and effective.

While a few minor errors in grammar, usage, and to kill a mockingbird page, mechanics may be present, they do not impede understanding. This can be the hardest area for students to improve in (particularly if English is not their native language). Apa Citation For Article! Word choice is skillful and precise does include using fancy vocabulary, but it also means not repeating yourself. Using consistently varied and Essay about, clear sentence structures means not only not starting every sentence the same way (e.g. Machines are helpful to apa citation humans. Machines can also cause problems. Machines are the answer to our future), but also making sure your sentences are clear and further your logic (rather than making it more difficult to understand). It's better to be clear than to be fancy. This is something you can fix when you revise your essay in the last 2-4 minutes of the essay section. What ACT, Inc.

Doesn't Tell You: 3 Secrets. Even though the ACT essay has some clear published guidelines, there are a few secrets that most students don't know and that can give you a major advantage on the test. These are facts that ACT, Inc. doesn't want to be too well-known because it helps us develop ACT Writing strategies that may give us an edge over Online Car Sales people who haven't prepared. Apa Citation For Article! 1) You Don't Need to Know the Facts. You can make up whatever information you need to support your point. Really. As with the tip above, if you know the real facts, that's great (since the grader will probably know them too), but it's not required. This might sound crazy. To Kill A Mockingbird Quotes With Number! You could write about how Germany won World War II, and the ACT graders are not allowed to generator penalize you. Why is this? ACT, Inc. doesn't have the resources to do fact-checking on every single essay.

With over Online a million students taking the test every year, graders only have a few minutes to put a score of 1-6 to each of the 4 essay scoring domains. They can't check whether Martin Luther King was born in 1929 or 1925. Generator! Thus, ACT essay scoring uses a simpler rule--all statements are taken as truth. The important point is that the evidence needs to Essay about Traits support your thesis. (Of course, ACT, Inc. For Article! doesn't want people to to kill a mockingbird quotes with page know about this - that would make the ACT essay sound silly.) If you're short on examples to prove a point, make up something realistic-sounding (you can even pretend a newspaper or politician said something they didn't), and slap it in there. It's much better than trying to generator for article write a vague paragraph without concrete evidence. On Should Laws Be Stricter?! 2) You Should Write More Than a Page. This is one of the most important ACT Writing tips. There is a strong relationship between essay length and score - the longer your essay, the apa citation, better your score.

In a short essay, it's difficult for you to develop your points well enough to earn a decent score. Book 7! Really, you should write a page and a half if at all possible. Although ACT, Inc. never explicitly mentions that length matters in ACT essay scoring, it does. And if you can write more than a page and a half without repeating yourself or digressing from your point, you'll be in really good shape. 3) Your First Paragraph and Conclusion Matter More Than the Middle. The introduction and conclusion are the bookends of the essay: they hold it together and apa citation for article, are guaranteed to be read more closely than the Car Sales Essay, rest of the essay. Apa Citation Generator For Article! ACT graders have to a mockingbird with number read a lot of essays very quickly, and they give most of them a 3 or a 4 in each domain. The fastest way for them to score an essay is to find the apa citation for article, thesis (to make sure that it's there, that it answers the prompt, and that the on Should be Stricter?, rest of the apa citation generator for article, essay supports it) and then skim the first and Online, last paragraphs. Apa Citation! Here's why: if a student's introduction and conclusion paragraphs are well-written and logical, it's likely the rest of the essay will be too. Leadership Traits! By reading these parts, the grader can usually tell with confidence what the score will be. They'll scan the middle to make sure it makes sense, but they probably won't read every word as closely.

On the apa citation for article, other hand, if you don't have time to catcher in the rye quotes about innocence write an apa citation for article introduction or conclusion, you will be heavily penalized. It'll be hard to on Should Gun Control score above an 8 without an introduction and generator for article, conclusion, particularly if you don't make your thesis, or point of view, clear in the first paragraph. Confessions 7! This might be the most important ACT essay tip we can give you. A strong ACT writing strategy includes preparing enough time to write and generator, revise your introduction and conclusion paragraphs, as we explain below. Traits! Key Strategy: How to Write A Successful ACT Essay in 40 Minutes. Because you only have 40 minutes to write the ACT essay, you need to have a game plan before you start the apa citation for article, test. Here's a step by step guide on how to write an effective ACT essay. Overcoming the Biggest Obstacle: Planning Your Argument Methodically. One of the things that students often find hardest about the Car Sales, essay is quickly thinking of for article support for the thesis. But it can be done in a simple, methodical way, which we explain below.

Let's start with a sample prompt. Exodus Book! Many of the goods and services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies. We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the apa citation, help of a human cashier. To Kill Number! Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is apa citation lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and catcher in the, meaning of their presence in our lives. Read and generator for article, carefully consider these perspectives. Each suggests a particular way of thinking about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by exodus book, machines is some part of our own humanity.

Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Apa Citation Generator! Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at catcher in the about high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and apa citation generator, machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the increasing presence of intelligent machines. In your essay, be sure to: clearly state your own perspective on the issue and analyze the exodus book, relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Your perspective may be in full agreement with any of the others, in partial agreement, or wholly different. In the prompt above, they give you three viewpoints so that you know what to mention in your discussion of various perspectives.

But you'll need to elaborate on these as well. Let's look at the viewpoints this prompt gives us. Conservative: Intelligent machines lead to problems, which is bad. Utilitarian: Intelligent machines allow us to be more efficient, which is good. Progressive: Intelligent machines lead to progress, which is apa citation generator for article good. Supporting each viewpoint is a slew of possible reasons, and these are what you want to lay out clearly in your essay. You can, of course, choose any side of the argument, but one is usually easier to argue than the Leadership Traits, other (because it is opposite for article the other two perspectives). Essay Leadership Traits And Types! For this prompt, it's easier to argue against intelligent machines than to argue for their efficiency or progress, so we'll look at generator potential support for the conservative argument, which is that Intelligent machines lead to problems. To argue against any change, we can point out its assumptions and how they are false, or its consequences and how they are bad: This method works for any argument.

If you find yourself supporting the proposal in the prompt, say (to use a real ACT example) that a right to on Should Gun Control Laws be Stricter? avoid health risks is a more important freedom than the apa citation, right to do whatever you want, then you just need to think of ways it would be positive. That can be much simpler. But you can still use the augustine, assumptions-and-consequences method above for the paragraph in which you address at least one other perspective. This is a tried and for article, true structure for earning a great score on the ACT essay. Just by following this template and keeping in mind the ACT writing tips above, you're pretty much guaranteed a 6 or higher out of exodus book 12 (equivalent of an 18 or higher out of 36 on the September 2015-June 2016 Writing test) . Do a decent job and you'll easily get an 8 or higher.

Here are a few real ACT prompts to keep in mind as we go through the steps: Intelligent machines : they're not good, they're good and practical, or they're good and lead to progress. Public health and individual freedom : freedom is more important than physical health, society should strive for the greatest good for the most people, or the right to generator for article avoid health risks is more important than individual freedom. Decide on exodus book your thesis, choosing one of the three sides. You can try to form your own, fourth perspective, but since you have to compare your perspective with at apa citation generator for article least one of the in the innocence, perspectives given you might as well argue for one of them and save some time for writing. Quickly brainstorm two or three reasons or examples that support your thesis. Brainstorm counterarguments for or analyses of at apa citation least one other perspective and your responses.

Organize your essay. Exodus Book! Make sure you order your points in a way that makes sense. Apa Citation For Article! Check your time . Try to catcher have 30 minutes left at this point so you have enough time to write. If you don't, just keep in apa citation for article mind that you might have to cut out one of your supporting points. 1. Paragraph 1: Introduction Thesis. A) Write your introduction. If you can think of an interesting first sentence that brings your thesis into a larger discussion (say, of how intelligent machines have changed the way people interact with each other), start with that. B) Narrow down from the larger context to your specific response to the question (your thesis), which should be at or near the end of the first paragraph. C) It can be helpful to the reader to have your reasons and examples previewed in the introduction if it fits in well.

2. Exodus Book! Paragraph 2: Transitions Opposing Perspective. A) When you start paragraph 2, try to apa citation think of a first sentence that refers back to the first paragraph. B) In contrast to augustine book 7 my perspective, Perspective [X] claims that is apa citation for article a simple example of an effective way to Laws be Stricter? transition into the second paragraph. C) Then address one of the perspectives opposing yours and why its supporters are wrong or misguided. In the example about intelligent machines above (where we've chosen to argue Perspective 1), you could argue against perspective 2 OR 3 in this paragraph. 3. Body Paragraphs (those remaining before the conclusion): A) Introduce your first reason or example in support of the perspective you'll be discussing.

B) In 3-5 sentences, explain your reasoning as to how this perspective relates to your own (using explanations of your thinking or specific examples to support the point). C) Connect your example to the thesis and then state that it supports your thesis. D) Check your time . Try to have 7 minutes left by this point. AA) (Optional) Relate your two or three examples back to your thesis. Add one or two sentences if you want.

A) End with a restatement of your thesis or a return to your first lines to wrap up the essay. Hopefully, you still have 2-4 minutes to read over your essay. In this time, you can do several things. A) You can, of course, correct mistakes. B) You can replace dull words with fancier words.

C) You can make sure that your introduction and conclusion match by stating the same thesis (in different words, of course). For Article! Notice the two bolded time-checking steps. It's very easy to get caught in the planning stage and exodus book, run out of time on your actual essay, which is easy to avoid if you practice checking your time. If you have to make a choice between explaining a perspective or writing a conclusion paragraph, always choose the explanation. You can get by apa citation for article, with a short sentence for a conclusion, and you can make a strong essay with a clear thesis in your introduction, but if you leave out the analysis of the relationship between your perspective and and Types, one of the ACT's perspectives in your essay, you'll lose a lot of points. Now you practice. Print out the template above, consult our ACT Essay Prompts Article (or think of any controversial issue in the world today), and get to work. You may find that many issues can be argued using the apa citation for article, same reasoning or examples.

For instance, the argument that the benefits of the changes happening in the world don't necessarily outweigh the exodus book, problems they create can apply to many of the new ACT prompts. You can research concrete information to support this kind of useful argument, like a newspaper article about how the Industrial Revolution led to increased environmental destruction. For Article! More like Industrial Re-POLL-ution, am I right? Remember: the more you practice, the easier it gets, as you learn how to reuse information to suit different purposes and catcher in the rye quotes, your brain becomes used to apa citation thinking in this way. Hungry for more practice ACT Writing prompts? Look no further than our article containing links to all the catcher in the rye quotes, freely available official ACT Writing prompts that have been released so far, as well as bonus prompts I constructed.

Want to generator improve your ACT score by exodus book, 4 points? Check out our best-in-class online ACT prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your ACT score by 4 points or more. Our program is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to your strengths and weaknesses. We also have expert instructors who can grade every one of your practice ACT essays, giving feedback on how to improve your score. Apa Citation Generator For Article! Check out our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Car Sales Essay Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College.

She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and apa citation generator for article, GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. Leadership Traits! You should definitely follow us on social media. Apa Citation Generator! You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and Essay, we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to generator for article Get to 600 on to kill with page number Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the for article, latest articles and exodus book, test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. SAT is apa citation a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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Free Essays on Future Aspirations. The Lessons Learned in for article My Career and My future Aspirations In last several decades, people can see constantly development of exodus book, technology. This has affected a lot of aspects of society such as education, defence, industry and so on, especially in economy. The development of economy goes a long side. The Charlie Bell Scholarship for generator Future Leaders 2013 Application Form Information In recognition of the contribution made by the former McDonalds Corporation CEO, Charlie Bell, a scholarship for future leaders has been created in his name. The Scholarship, administered by the Charlie Bell School of. NIGERIA YOUTHS AND THE CHALLENGE OF FUTURE LEADERSHIP. The Youths they say are the future leaders. The questions that readily come to mind is; are the youths really ready for the future leadership? Are they trained and cultured for Essay Leadership Traits and Types the desired future leadership? Which precedence are we bequeathing.

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In that sense, nationalism. ?ASH NEW MGT 450 Week 2 Develop a Vision Statement New. ?ASH NEW MGT 450 Week 2 Develop a Vision Statement New The vision statement describes the long term goals of the apa citation organization. What are the future aspirations of the business? Develop and submit a one- to exodus book two-page paper (excluding cover page and references) that establishes a vision statement and apa citation generator, its.

A Day in a Life of augustine confessions book, a 16 Year Old Chef. then where I have to go to school or practicing I also have where I want to generator go from to kill, here. The last thing I am going to talk about is my future aspirations . The first plan of apa citation for article, mine is to own my own fine dining restaurant. To Kill A Mockingbird Quotes With Number. My restaurant will be family orientated. As soon as you walk in your kids will. Education - the Best Means of Preparing Us for the Future. preparing us for generator the future and a nation for development and progress. Among the levels of education, it is something we work hard for.

It does not only test us mentally, but puts us through several emotional, physical and even through spiritual ordeals. Fulfilling our aspirations with one our purposes. Going Back to School and My Future Looks Brighter. at least 5 months until he found suitable housing so that we can be together, military had became a part of our lives. Looking forward to great aspirations in exodus book 1976 Upward Bound accepted me back into the program.

From that day forward things begin to look up though it seem. That morning was a day that. will hear a piercing ill-omened outcry a heartbreaking veil of a lifes canvass grounded by apa citation generator, hostilities. Lives lost in gray, hope mislaid and the future is vanished- turning back the Essay on Should be Stricter? tide of time beyond the for article beginnings. Incredulity? let us not be unsighted by quotes with page, our faith. If our counsel recite that.

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controversy homework J. K. Rowling's best-selling Harry Potter children's book series topped the most frequently banned books last year. The books about sorcerers may head up the list again, for the second year in a row, if the generator, shift in Online Car Sales, censorship cases continues to apa citation generator for article focus on books about fantasy. This week, National Library Week, Education World examines the issue of to kill quotes, book banning. Included: Resources for establishing procedures in your school system to handle challenges to popular books. Look out, Harry Potter!

Your mystical adventures aren't sitting well on bookshelves in some school libraries and classrooms. In 1999, the focus on wizardry and magic in J. K. Rowling's best-selling children's books made them the generator for article, most challenged books in 1999, according to the American Library Association (ALA). The Harry Potter series is keeping company with such frequently banned classics as John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men and J. D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye. Last year, there were 26 challenges to a mockingbird quotes with page number remove the Harry Potter books from generator bookshelves in Essay, 16 states, said Beverley Becker, assistant director for the American Library Association's Office of Intellectual Freedom. Reasons for book banning have shifted over the past decade, said Mark West, a professor of English with a specialty in children's literature at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte and author of Trust Your Children: Voices Against Censorship in Children's Literature. Apa Citation Generator? During the 1980s, most of the censorship cases were anything that pertained to the body, sex, and Gun Control swear words. [Now], although books like those written by Judy Blume are still under attack, what has taken over are fantasy stories, West said. Opponents of the Harry Potter series believe that anything that mentions a witch or a magic spell is equated with evil, West said. They don't see it as fantasy, he said. They see it as real. Apa Citation Generator? A small group of Americans can't accept fantasy that way. They really do care [about the book's impact], so they go against others' legal rights.

CHRISTIAN WRITER SAYS POTTER CONFUSES KIDS. Berit Kjos, a Christian author of several books, including A Twist of rye quotes innocence, Faith and Brave New Schools, doesn't see it that way. Although she is neutral about banning books in for article, schools, she points out that schools have permitted information about other religions because of the a mockingbird page, prevalent multicultural emphasis. Times have changed, Kjos said, noting that children today are more vulnerable to fantasy stories such as Harry Potter because they may view the imaginary world as much more fun compared with the generator for article, real world. There has been a paradigm shift from the social context that was the Laws, old biblical view, she said.

That shift makes it tougher for children, with less biblical knowledge today, to evaluate good and evil or to resist such threats to their faith, Kjos maintained. She has responded to parental concerns about the Harry Potter series by apa citation for article offering parents guidance on her Web site. Christianity clashes with a love for witchcraft, Kjos said. The biblical God doesn't fit into Potter's world of wizards, witches, and other gods. The Harry Potter series teaches an Essay on Should, Earth-centered spirituality, the same religion as what the witch religions teach in the San Francisco area, she said. It is a religion that is very real and is spreading throughout the apa citation generator, country. It makes me very uncomfortable when [children] are immersed in topics that make witchcraft very exciting. It can be very confusing for them.

Arch Priestess Tamara Forslun, of the Church of Online Car Sales, Wicca Australia, doesn't agree that books based on differing cultures and belief systems should be removed from schools based on individual fears. For generations, we have had books based on fairies, witches, goblins, magic, all with differing views, she told Education World in response to apa citation the controversy regarding the Harry Potter series. We cannot remove something from this world because of fear and ignorance. These are children's books, and as long as they are not nasty, cruel, ridiculous in any way or show witches as evil, obscene creatures, then there is no cause for mudslinging or legal retaliation. Although controversy about the Harry Potter series has raised recent awareness about censorship cases in public schools, the total number of book challenges has dropped to its lowest level since the American Library Association began keeping track of them in 1991. In 1999 there were 472 challenges, compared with 762 in 1995, when the largest number of on Should Gun Control Laws, challenges were reported to the ALA. The ALA defines censorship as the suppression of apa citation generator for article, ideas and information that certain persons -- individuals, groups, or government officials -- find objectionable or dangerous. It occurs when expressions -- such as books, magazines, films, videos, or works of art -- are removed or kept from public access. West credits the exodus book, decline in the number of challenged books to the fact that most schools provide parents with alternative options for assignments, respecting individual parental objections to certain materials. Most schools also have established a policy and procedure regarding book challenges.

His advice to school administrators, if they don't have a policy, is to apa citation develop one now, before the school district faces a censorship challenge. (See the sidebar What You Can Do Before and Car Sales After a Challenge.) Nowadays, with the apa citation for article, opt-out possibilities, it is very difficult to Online Essay make a case that your child is being hurt, since they can read something else, West said. During the early part of the 1980s, he believes, parents who challenged school materials had fewer options available compared with the opt-out choices they have today, such as home-schooling or providing alternative reading assignments. Parents then were sincerely motivated and operated under religious convictions they truly believed in and wanted their opinions accommodated in apa citation generator for article, the public school situation for exodus book what was best for for article their own children, West said. If parents find a book they object to, they usually have an opt-out alternative, West said. If they persist in having that book removed from the school, it seems to me there are more complex motivations at work. He believes with the alternatives available to in the innocence parents, those waging a censorship battle cross the line from parent and move into the role of censor. DO TEACHERS AND LIBRARIANS SELF-CENSOR? Most teachers and for article librarians won't acknowledge [that they self-censor], so we don't know how deep or widespread [censoring] is, said Nat Hentoff, author of several First Amendment books, including The Day They Came to catcher innocence Arrest the Book and apa citation generator Living the Bill of Rights: How to Be an Authentic American.

Talking to teachers and school librarians, they do self-censor, Hentoff added. They are aware of the list of Gun Control Laws be Stricter?, books that are in trouble, and if they use those books, it gets them in trouble too. Generator For Article? A lot of the time, they think, 'What is the use?' he said. Discussion about the Harry Potter series across the country prompted school superintendent Gary L. Feenstra to a mockingbird quotes number direct teachers in Zeeland, Michigan, to for article stop using the book for Car Sales Essay read-a-loud purposes and for school librarians to apa citation remove it from library shelves in November 1999. Online Car Sales? He decided not to ban the book; however, he placed restrictions on its use and determined the school district would no longer purchase future Harry Potter books for the school libraries. Existing copies of the books would be made available for check out to students with parental permission. Feenstra stated in a letter to the school staff that he had reached his decision after reading the first Harry Potter book in the series, discussing the issues with educators, and reading critiques of it from all sides. Although the apa citation generator for article, school district has a process regarding challenged books, Feenstra made his decision outside that process. Essay On Should Laws Be Stricter?? According to Jim Camenga, communication specialist for the school district, Feenstra defends his decision, claiming the school district's procedure pertains only to curriculum materials, not to books used as resources.

Four months following Feenstra's directive, the Zeeland Board of Education voted to establish a committee to look into the matter. The committee comprises parents and educators from each school in generator for article, the district not involved in Essay Gun Control, the current debate and is expected to render its recommendation about the generator for article, book series by May 2000. Perhaps teachers are self-censored because they felt the chill [from the controversy], said Charles Suhor, a field representative for the www.ncte.org National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE). Suhor disagrees with Feenstra that he didn't ban the Harry Potter books: It is outrageous that [Zeeland School administrators] claim [Feenstra's] directive is Essay on Should Gun Control be Stricter? not censorship. The corner of censorship is when you take a book that is used out apa citation for article, of the school or library.

Spells and magic aren't the Essay, only concerns that are stirring up controversy about Harry Potter. Since the for article, Columbine tragedy in April 1999, parental concern has increased about violence in books and in other school materials, Suhor said. People all over confessions book the country started worrying about [Harry Potter books]. Some of those who want it banned claim it teaches violence. Teachers who use this [series] say it just doesn't compute, said Suhor. ALA'S LIST OF BANNED BOOKS CENSORED.

Censorship cases in the public schools aren't only about Harry Potter books. A current censorship case in a U.S. district court case in Virginia pertains not to a particular book, but to apa citation for article a list of books. For five years, 1997 Secondary Reading Teacher of the Year Jeffry Newton posted the Essay, American Library Association's Banned Books pamphlet outside his classroom door. According to court papers, he posted the pamphlet and apa citation generator for article other materials pertaining to related censorship controversies outside his classroom door to Essay make students aware of censorship issues. What You Can Do. Before a Challenge. Establish a method for communicating with the community.

Keep the community informed of the for article, selection policy as well as educational objectives, curricula, school programs. Provide opportunities for public review and comment on materials being considered for exodus book selection. Define clear procedures for dealing with complaints. Establish guidelines to be used for a formal review of challenged material. Create a detailed form for complainants to request a review. Identify who will comprise a committee of apa citation for article, parents, school personnel, and catcher in the rye quotes about other community members to apa citation review challenged material. After a Challenge. Meet with the complainant to Essay about hear the reasons for the challenge and the complainant's recommendations. Explain to the complainant how and why the challenged material was selected.

Try to generator resolve the complaint informally. Provide a formal request-for-review form if the complainant still wants to exodus book challenge the material. Start review procedures immediately upon receiving a written request for review. Apa Citation? Inform the confessions book, school board of the generator for article, details of the complaint. Follow established procedures throughout the review process. Communicate openly with the community throughout the review. Newton's principal at Spotswood High School in Essay be Stricter?, Rockingham County, Virginia, required Newton to apa citation generator remove the pamphlets in September 1999. The principal was responding to a directive by the school board chairman, who was in turn responding to a complaint from a parent. The parent asked Newton in an e-mail: Just curious why would you want a child to read a book that contains objectionable material? Newton responded that the school had a policy and procedure that respected the rights of all parents to never require children to read books parents find objectionable.

None of the books listed in the pamphlet were books being used in his class. The American Civil Liberties Union took up Newton's cause and is co-council in Online Car Sales, his court case. It's very unusual, said Rebecca K. Goldberg, an attorney representing Newton. Generator For Article? It's not any book that was removed. It was a list of books put together by the American Library Association to Online publicize the issue of censorship that was removed. Initiating a censorship case with no expectation of winning is a good tool to get publicity for your cause, said West, the apa citation generator, professor at the University of North Carolina in Essay about and Types, Charlotte. West believes many similar cases are used to apa citation generator for article provide a catalyst around the book-banning movement. Although the ALA keeps track of the number of challenges, it has little information about exodus book, organizations that mount campaigns to ban books, said Judith Krug, the association's director of the Office for apa citation Intellectual Freedom.

Certainly such campaigns have occurred from time to time, but they are not limited to the right-of-center groups. Left-of-center groups have also conducted campaigns. What has remained constant is on Should Gun Control that for every challenge reported to us, there are four or five that were not reported. Videos are also subject to challenges. Movies could be a useful tool for teachers, regardless of the motion picture industry ratings, added NCTE's Suhor. Movies like Schindler's List, although rated R by the motion picture industry, could teach children about apa citation for article, relationships and society, he said. Suhor warns educators not to use the motion picture industry ratings, since those are not determined as a standard for education purposes. Using their rating system is an easy fix, he said. Although sexual content has taken a backseat to fantasy in censorship cases, educational materials that include alternative lifestyles also raise concerns with some parents. Currently, Concerned Women for America, a national women's organization, is augustine confessions 7 alerting its members about an educational family video series, That's a Family!

Rita Thompson, spokeswoman for for article the organization, said parents have contacted the confessions, organization out of sincere concern about the appropriateness of the video. For Article? In turn, the organization is Online alerting its members about the soon-to-be-released video series, which focuses on all types of families, including single-parent families, extended families, and apa citation generator those headed by gay and lesbian parents. That whole hysteria with two people [of the same sex] living together is enough to Gun Control Laws be Stricter? get a book banned is apa citation a primitive sort of politics, said West. It's cheap politics. West points to Families, a children's book written by Meredith Tax, that was the subject of a censorship case in 1994. The Christian Coalition in in the rye quotes about innocence, Fairfax, Virginia, targeted the book because it glorified divorce and there was a lesbian couple in the book, he said. Tax briefly mentions at the end of her book that the apa citation generator for article, main character, a little girl named Susie, lives not only with her mother but also with her godmother. The coalition interpreted that relationship as a lesbian relationship, West explained.

It seems to me if you get hyper, you could find a homosexual on every corner if you want to get that way. Book challenges come from all political directions. People characterized as politically liberal challenge books because they object to racial slurs or language that is politically incorrect, West said. Racial epitaphs in Mark Twain's The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn made it the fourth most frequently banned book during the last decade. Samuel Clemens was so against racism, he used words such as nigger to show how bigotry came out in language, said Nat Hentoff, whose children's book The Day They Came to Arrest the Book is a fictional account of confessions book, censoring The Adventures of apa citation, Huckleberry Finn. Hentoff believes Twain's book can be an in the, excellent teaching tool about racism, depending on how the teacher handles it in the classroom. In fact, Hentoff's Free Speech for apa citation for article Me, but Not for Thee is quotes page number used in many schools as a resource to teach high school students about the First Amendment. Although the book is now out of print, Jim Campbell, a high school teacher at McDonough High School in apa citation, Charles County, Maryland, developed classroom activities for his elective law class for juniors and seniors based on different topics in Hentoff's book. One topic is the 1984 Indianapolis anti-pornography ordinance. Campbell shares the key aspects of this law, with which most of his students find it difficult to confessions book disagree. Afterward, he tells them a story.

This story is pretty disturbing and pretty clearly violates the Indianapolis ordinance, he said. Apa Citation Generator For Article? The book containing the story is the Bible. I then point out to them that I'm not saying that the Bible is pornographic, only that we have to be careful any time we set out to censor someone or something. Adapted from the National Coalition Against Censorship (NCAC). The NCAC information is Laws be Stricter? based on recommendations made by the Association of American Publishers, the apa citation generator, American Library Association, International Reading Association, and the Association for Supervision and augustine book 7 Curriculum Development. Banned Books On-Line This site has information about apa citation for article, objects of censorship and censorship attempts. National Coalition Against Censorship This organization, founded in 1974, is an alliance of more than 40 national nonprofit organizations, including literary, artistic, religious, educational, professional, labor, and civil liberties groups. This site provides resources for in the rye quotes about schools about censorship cases in addition to apa citation generator information and guidance about how schools can handle censorship cases. Related Articles from Education World. Please check out our other articles this week: Article by Diane Weaver Dunne.

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