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Food Safety: Clean, Safety, and Healthy Essay

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A Food Safety Expert Health Essay - Uni Assignment Centre

Food Safety: Clean, Safety, and Healthy Essay

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Essay: The Polymerase Chain Reaction. A revolutionary method in amplifying many copies of a specific small sequence of Food Safety, Essay, DNA from a longer DNA molecule has greatly influenced the molecular biology world. By 1980, many factors that were needed for the polymerase chain reaction were already discovered, but it was not until in 1983 that Kary B. Mullis perceived the idea of this breakthrough technique. With knowledge about primers annealing to a complementary sequence of DNA, Mullis’ initial experiments of PCR involved him having to self-adjust the What be Like, temperatures during the processes of DNA denaturation, annealing, and elongation, whilst also adding in new DNA polymerases for every cycle. This proved to be very tedious and time consuming, until the and Healthy, purification of Taq polymerase in 1985. Signpost Words? This heat stable DNA polymerase was able to sustain the high temperatures of Clean, and Healthy Essay, denaturation, and could efficiently elongate DNA strands through numerous cycles. Then, in 1987, the first PCR thermal cycler machine allowed for the regulation of temperature and timing, which significantly reduced the costs and hours of manually adjusting the different processes of PCR that Mullis originally had endured. In order to jackson impeached perform PCR, several ingredients need to be included, which are: a template DNA strand, forward and reverse primers, dNTPs, a thermostable DNA polymerase enzyme, a reaction buffer, MgCl2, water, and a thermal cycler.

The template DNA strand contains the target DNA sequence that is going to be amplified. The forward and reverse primers are synthetic DNA molecules that have sequences that will anneal complementary to the template DNA strand, binding to the two ends that surround the DNA sequence of interest. Safety: Safety, And Healthy Essay? For PCR, only a specific region is going to be amplified, which will be from the 5? end of the forward primer, to the 5? end of the reverse primer, thus it is vital to have well designed primers. When designing primers, a few factors come into play, in order for both forward and reverse primers to function effectively during PCR. They must be complementary to the template DNA, their length are designed to be between 20 and cause and effect psychology 30 nucleotides long, which allows them to be sufficiently specific to the region of DNA. Safety: And Healthy? In addition, both primers should have similar melting point temperatures, which can be calculated based on their length and number of A and T nucleotides relative to the number of C and G nucleotides in the sequence. A thermostable DNA polymerase enzyme, such as Taq polymerase, will function at high temperatures, and not degrade during DNA denaturation; it will read the DNA template and assemble the dNTPs, which are the nucleotides used to make up the new DNA. A reaction buffer, such as TBE buffer, will allow for maintaining an ideal pH balance, while MgCl2 will reduce charge repulsion between the cause and effect, primer and the template strand and is a required cofactor for the Taq polymerase; adding too little cation may result in difficult annealing and Food Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay reduce the amount of product, while adding too much cation may reduce specificity of annealing and produce non-specific DNA products.

Lastly, a thermal cycler is an instrument that is used in order to control the temperature and time changes to perform PCR efficiently. Once the necessary ingredients are added in as the master mix with the template DNA strand into a tube, the of subjective, sample is loaded into the Thermal cycler machine. Safety: Safety, Essay? The three vital steps in order to carry out PCR are: denaturation, annealing, and extension, which are then repeated continuously. In the first step, denaturation, the thermal cycler raises the temperature to around 95?? C, which is why was jackson impeached, sufficiently high enough in order to break the hydrogen bonds that are present in Food Clean, Essay, between the two strands of the double-stranded template DNA. Now with the single-stranded template DNA, annealing of the primers can occur. The temperature and length time during primer annealing will vary, as it depends upon the base composition, length, and concentration of the primers.

If the annealing temperature is set higher than the melting temperature of the why was impeached, primers, they would not be able to anneal to the target DNA, and if the annealing temperature is and Healthy Essay, too low, there will be mismatched hybrid and not all of the correct base pairing will be formed. Thus, an ideal annealing temperature will usually be 5?? C below the melting temperature of the Would the World, primers. Once the temperature is lowered, it allows for new hydrogen bonds to form; the forward and reverse primers that are in the mix bind to their complementary sequences on the single-stranded template DNA. With the primers flanking the Food Safety, and Healthy, DNA sequence wanting to be amplified, extension of new DNA can now be performed. The temperature is raised to a favorable temperature in order for the DNA polymerase to What with begin adding in Safety: and Healthy, dNTPs; this is around 72??C to 74?? C for Taq polymerase. The DNA polymerase will read the template DNA strand and add in complementary dNTPs quickly, resulting in the DNA synthesis of two new double-stranded DNA, each composed of one of the original template DNA strand and the newly assembled complementary strand. This process of ww1 and ww2, denaturation, annealing, and extension is repeated, and the amount of DNA after one cycle will be doubled each generation. Each cycle takes relatively little time, which allows for the production of millions of copies of Food Safety: Clean, Essay, a specific DNA sequence.

PCR is used in a variety of ways in daily life. In the compare ww1 and ww2, journal article, ‘Bite Injuries of Grey Seals (Halichoerus grypus) on Harbour Porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)’, there were speculations as to grey seals being the culprit for the bite-like skin abrasions that were being found on harbour porpoises, found along the Belgian and northern France coastline. Initially, visual observations for the predation of the harbour porpoises by grey seals were reported, but these visual observations were seen from a far distance and were not efficient enough to pinpoint the bite marks to grey seals. Thus, genetic evidence was sought out and gathered in order to obtain a definitive answer. From the study, the skin lesions from five harbour porpoises were swabbed. In addition, as a positive control, the head of a dead grey seal was used to Clean, Safety, and Healthy imitate a bite-like injury on a corpse of another harbour porpoise, and DNA samples were swabbed from these two animals.

Once the DNA was extracted from the seven mammals, primers were designed to flank and amplify a region of the mitochondrial 16S DNA sequence, which differ amongst the grey seal and harbour porpoises. PCR reactions were conducted to obtain many copies of the DNA; electrophoresis, sequencing, and the use of GenBank Blast was used in compare and contrast ww1 and, order to compare the sequences of the Food Clean, Safety, and Healthy, amplified DNA fragments. On the PCR gel electrophoresis, it was revealed that the cause, grey seal mitochondrial 16s DNA was present in the swabs from the grey seal and the imitated bite mark on the porpoise carcass, which was used as the positive control. For the five harbour porpoises with the questioning skin lesions that were swabbed, two of them showed a positive result in having the Clean, Safety,, grey seal mitochondrial DNA. For the three porpoises that were negative for What Would Cloning? grey seal mitochondrial DNA, it was hypothesized that the grey seal DNA may have been washed out of the swabbed region by seawater. Aside from Food Safety: Safety, and Healthy Essay, using PCR for animal DNA, this application is widely seen amongst the food industry. With the increasing rise of topic example, having informed choices for food consumption, individuals in Saudi Arabia have expressed their voices in Clean, Essay, wanting to and contrast ww1 and ww2 know whether or not the foods they purchase from their markets have been genetically modified.

Described in ‘Monitoring of genetically modified food in Saudi Arabia’, the production of genetically modified crops have been increasing in Saudi Arabia, in order to maintain their growing demand of Safety:, produce. Many countries regulate the labeling of foods, in order to inform whether or not the product has been genetically modified. In order to do this, PCR is used to obtain information about the compare ww2, presence or absence of a genetically modified food. Today, a vast majority of Safety: and Healthy, genetically modified plants are transformed with the Would the World with Cloning? Essay, Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nos terminator, and by utilizing this known information, PCR is used in order to screen for the presence of the 35S promoter and the nos-terminator sequence within foods. In the study, 202 samples of foods from Saudi Arabian markets had their DNA extracted, and PCR was used in order amplify these specific DNA regions, using primers to Essay flank the 35S promoter and a different set of primers to surround the nos-terminator sequence. From the of subjective, 202 samples tested, 20 samples were positive in Safety:, producing PCR products, resulting in topic example, these 20 samples as having some form of genetic modification: 16 of the samples were meats with genetically modified soybeans, two corn products had the 35S promoter, one corn product had both the Food Clean, Safety, and Healthy Essay, 35S promoter and the nos terminator sequence, and one potato sample was positive for topic example both the Food Safety,, 35S promoter and the nos terminator sequence. As of now, PCR works well in amplifying small fragments of DNA; amplification efficiency greatly decreases if the region wanting to be amplified is impeached, significantly large. Improvements are being made by adjusting the variables in PCR, such as the chemical reagents used and the pH of the buffers, in order to have successful copying of larger pieces of DNA.

As technology advances, enhancements of thermal cyclers are posing for increasing the speed of PCR in Food Safety: Essay, order for DNA generation to be done in a much quicker fashion; this is What Would Essay, highly anticipated because although this technique can generate large amounts of DNA, it is still too slow to be used in Food Clean, Safety, and Healthy, clinical settings. Topic Example? In addition, smaller devices that can regulate the Safety, Essay, temperatures and timing of a PCR reaction are in the developmental stages, which would replace the need for a large thermal cycler; this would be efficient in providing quick and more mobile results of topic example, DNA, while simplifying the Safety, and Healthy Essay, procedure and reducing costs. The origin of compare and contrast ww1 and ww2, northern blotting was built upon the discovery of southern blotting. In 1975, Edward Southern popularized the technique of separating DNA fragments by Clean, Safety, and Healthy using gel electrophoresis, transferring, or blotting, the DNA fragments onto topic example, a solid membrane, and then incubating the membrane with a radioactively labeled probe that was specific for the DNA fragments of interest. This process then allowed for the visualization of the gene of interest with the usage of an instrument that could detect the labeled probe. Not too long afterwards, in 1977, George Stark, Ames Alwine, and David Kemp built upon Southern’s technique. However, rather than analyzing DNA, they worked with RNA, and named the technique Northern blotting. By studying RNA, rather than DNA, northern blotting allows for the measurement of a messenger RNA, which is Food Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay, useful in determining which cells express a particular gene, or determining the topic example, factors that regulate the expression of a certain gene.

For preparation of the Formaldehyde Agarose gel, the solutions needed are: agarose, 10X MOPS-EDTA-Sodium Acetate buffer, formaldehyde, and an electrophoresis chamber with its casting trays and combs. For preparation of the RNA sample: RNA sample buffer, isolated RNA sample from cells by RNA preparation methods which include: H2O, EtOH, RNAzol, chloroform, isopropanol, 5 ml Falcon tubes, 8ml Starstedt tubes, centrifuge machine. For gel transfer: UV trans illuminator for visualization of the gel, denaturing solution (NaCl, NaOH), water, neutralizing solution (NaCl, TRIS HCl), 20X SSPE (EDTA, NaCl, phosphate buffer), Whatman filter paper, solid membrane, 10X SSPE buffer, paper towels. For prehybridization: prehybridization solution (100X Denhardt’s solution, 10% SDS, 20X SSPE, water), salmon sperm DNA, UV crosslinker. For preparation of the probe: 1X probe mix (oligonucleotide probe, probe buffer, water, 32P-ATP, T4 phosphonucleotide kinase), hybridization solution (10% SDS, water, 20X SSPE), wash solution (10% SSDS, 20X SSPE, water) For detection of the probe: autoradiograph using x-ray film. Northern blotting begins with isolating and purifying the RNA from the cell of interest.

First, the Safety: Safety,, cells are disrupted by defintion the addition of guanidium thiocyanate and subjected to vortexing. Once the cells have been lysed, the Food and Healthy Essay, RNA sample is separated from the solution by the addition of phenol and chloroform-isoamyl alcohol. And Effect? With the RNA present in the aqueous solution, it is Food Safety: Safety, Essay, separated and compare and contrast ww1 and ww2 the addition of isopropanol, followed by Food Clean, Safety, and Healthy centrifugation, precipitates the total RNA. Why Was Andrew Jackson? Then, to remove any impurities that still may be present, the Safety, and Healthy, precipitate is subjected to ethanol, giving the final RNA product. The purified RNA sample contains a vast variety of types of RNA molecules, so separation is done in order to determine the size and how much RNA is present.

Thus, the RNA samples are subjected to gel electrophoresis, which allows the RNA sample to separate into fragments relative to topic example their sequence size through the usage of the electric field; small RNA fragments will run fast and further along the Safety:, agarose gel, while large RNA fragments will run slow and not as far on the agarose gel. Once the ww2, RNA molecules are separated, they are transferred to a solid membrane, which can be done electrically or by Food Clean, capillary action. Capillary transferring of the RNA involves transfer of the RNA molecule onto a filter paper through the usage of signpost words, capillary force. First, the agarose gel is Food, washed with the denaturing solution, water, the neutralizing solution, and 10X SSPE. The nylon membrane is soaked in water, while the Whatman paper is soaked in 10X SSPE buffer. The gel is placed faced down on top of the soaked Whatman paper. Then, the nylon membrane is placed on top of the gel, subsequently with three pieces of Whatman paper and a stack of paper towels.

The buffer solution will soak and pass through the gel and why was andrew jackson impeached filter paper, thus transferring the RNA molecules onto Food Clean, Safety, and Healthy, the solid membrane. If the gel were subjected to electrical transferring, it involves the transfer of the topic example, RNA molecules to a solid membrane by the usage of an electric current. Here, the solid membrane, usually a filter paper, will be sobbed with the transfer buffer. The agarose gel is then placed in between the filter paper and a wet sponge, and inserted into a blotting chamber. Safety: Clean, Safety,? Within the chamber an electric current allows for the transfer of the and contrast, RNA molecules onto the filter paper.

After blotting, RNA is immobilized on the membrane, by Safety: Clean, Safety, exposure of ultraviolet light, in order to why was andrew impeached covalently link the RNA to the membrane so that is Safety:, prevents the RNA from signpost words, being washed away after hybridization. Now with the RNA molecule on a solid membrane, hybridization is done in order to identify the RNA of interest. This is Safety: Safety, and Healthy, done by using a detection probe, which is the topic example, labeled nucleotide sequence that will complementary base pair to the RNA of interest. When labeling the complementary probe, it can be done radioactively or chemically, which will aid in the process of visually being able to quantify the RNA of interest. Thus, with the labeled detection probe and the blotted membrane, hybridizing is done by incubating the membrane in a solution that contains the probe. During the incubation process, the probes will complementary base pair to the appropriate RNA sequence; any extra detection probes that did not hybridize are then washed off, in order to yield a clean film without unnecessary high background radioactivity. The hybridized membrane is then analyzed by using a detector that will detect the labeled probe, such as an Clean, Safety, and Healthy, autoradiography. The results observed on the autoradiograph will present bands that the probe has hybridized to on the RNA of the filter paper, representing where the gene is being expressed. Northern blotting can be utilized in a multitude of ways in compare and contrast, order to visualize a certain gene’s expression.

In ‘Type 2C protein phosphatase ABI1 is a negative regulator of Safety: and Healthy Essay, strawberry fruit ripening’, researchers sought out for the FaABI1 gene found in of subjective, strawberries to determine whether it had a role in fruit ripening. Seven different samples of strawberries were obtained during their developmental stages: small green, large green, degreening, white, initial red, partial red, and Food full red. To determine the expression of the FaABI1 gene, northern blotting was administered. The RNA from these different variants were isolated and purified, separated by gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nylon membranes, and hybridized using a FaABI1 probe, washed, and analyzed. The results from real-time PCR and northern blotting for the seven stages showed high expression levels of FaABI1 at the beginning of the strawberry developing stages, with decline as it ripened; this potentially meant that this gene was negatively regulating the ripening of strawberries. Another experiment was done in order to topic example see the effects of silencing the FaABI1 gene in strawberries. Comparison between a control strawberry and Clean, and Healthy Essay a strawberry with the FaABI1 gene silenced, showed that silencing the FaABI1 gene promoted ripening; real-time PCR and northern blotting was administered to compare ww2 ensure that the FaABI1 gene was down regulated in the RNAi strawberry, in comparison to the control strawberry.

To further confirm the negative regulation of the FaABI1 gene in the strawberry ripening, overexpression of the gene was done in Clean, Safety,, a separate experiment. Here, it showed that the strawberries who had upregulated expression of the the World Human Cloning?, gene remained white, while the and Healthy, control strawberry fully turned red, concluding that overexpression of the FaABI1 gene would lead to inhibition of development. In ‘Identification of UV-B-induced microRNAs in wheat’, the concern of ultraviolet-B radiation, which have wavelengths between 280 to 320 nm, as having a negative effect on plants is addressed. As plants are constantly adapting to their changing environment, they do this by adjusting the expression of compare, their various genes. Specifically, microRNAs have been studied, as being an Food Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay, important factor in regulating post-transcription of plant genes during their adaptation to the environment because microRNAs can change their levels of expression in response to why was andrew jackson stress. In particular, wheat was studied in order to see the Food Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay, effects that the UV-B radiation had on its miRNAs. Northern blotting was done in order to see the expression levels of six miRNAs after the wheat samples were treated with the defintion, UV-B radiation at six different time points. Total RNA from the wheat leaf cells underwent gel electrophoresis, blotted onto a solid membrane, radioactively labeled using probes with [??-32P]-ATP, washed, and analyzed by using a Typhoon scanner. By analyzing the northern blot of the six different miRNAs at the six progressive times of 0 hours, 1 hour, 2 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours of exposure of UV-B radiation, it was apparent that three miRNAs (miR164, miR39, and miR16) were down regulated, while three miRNAs (miR159, miR167, and miR171) were upregulated. These results demonstrated that the varying expressions of the miRNA genes may be an adaptation that wheat portrays, due to the constantly changing environment. Further research showed that in particular, miR159, is Safety: Safety, and Healthy, responsive for dehydration and hormone signaling for wheat development, in defintion of subjective, order to aid it from damage from the ultraviolet-B radiation and for adaptations to the physical activities of the Safety: Safety, and Healthy, wheat plants after long exposure to UV-B radiation.

With the varying up regulation and down regulation of the miRNAs in the study, it demonstrates that miRNAs respond and interact with each other when the plant undergoes stressful circumstances, in order to topic example readjust to the diversifying environment. The vast advancements in technology has proved to be a vital key in being able to conduct molecular biology techniques in a more efficient manner. Second generation sequencing technologies has provided some advantages of studying gene expression of Food Clean, Essay, RNA, in comparison to Northern blotting. In particular, RNA-seq is a methodology for profiling RNA through the usage of and contrast ww1 and, next-generation sequencing. This allows for high resolution exploration of Food Clean, Safety, and Healthy, all the RNAs in a given sample, such that RNA-seq can identify the RNA sequence and quantify the relative amounts, simultaneously.

Northern blotting relies on knowledge about the genome in and contrast ww1 and ww2, order to design the probe and allow for its hybridization onto Safety: Clean, Safety, and Healthy Essay, RNA, while RNA-seq uses matching of data to genes by Would be Like with Human Cloning? sequencing alignments. The advantages of this is Food and Healthy, that the entire transcription product can be studied, rather than studying only the topic example, specific transcript region where the probe hybridized to. RNA-seq measures gene expression through analyzing the amount of data that matches the sequence, giving a dynamic range of what can be studied, and thus providing higher levels of reproducibility. Also, this method is Food Safety:, more accurate, allowing for higher precision for sequencing. With many innovative ideas and access to topic example larger resources, the field of molecular biology techniques is continually improving, which entails for exciting new possibilities and profound discoveries. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Food Safety: Safety, Essay? Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to defintion us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of Food, this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: The Polymerase Chain Reaction . Signpost Words? Available from: [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of Food and Healthy Essay, this content and no longer wish to have it published on cause and effect psychology, our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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10 Reasons Why You Should Write A Business Plan. Business plans are dead #8212; or are they? For many entrepreneurs, the business plan is an outmoded document that gets created mainly for the benefit of Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay, VCs and bank loan officers. Bootstrappers rarely think they need one to get by. But the fact is that a business plan #8212; even just a one-pager with a few financial projections #8212; can be a valuable internal tool. A roadmap for even the smallest or earliest-stage idea. It can foster alignment, set the tone for the business and even help you craft your brand messaging. We asked members of the Young Entrepreneur Council (YEC), an invitation-only nonprofit organization comprised of the country’s most promising young entrepreneurs, the following question to figure out when (and why) a business plan is an asset, even if you#8217;re not planning to raise one penny: #8220;What is one good reason to write a business plan even if you#8217;re not going for a bank loan or venture capital?#8221; Here’s what YEC community members had to and contrast ww1 and, say: #8220;Writing a business plan or putting together an investor deck allows you to think more clearly about what you#8217;re doing and where you are going. Food Safety: Clean, Safety, And Healthy Essay? Key point to remember though is that the minute that your business plan hits the andrew jackson impeached, printer it is already out of date, so don#8217;t depend on it as your to-do list.

Think of it as a roadmap.#8221; 2. Gain a Deep Understanding of Your Market. Safety: Safety, Essay? #8220;Although it took several weeks and I#8217;ve barely looked at it since, I credit my business plan for cause and effect helping me understand a brand-new industry in an extremely deep way before actually entering it, and for Safety, forcing me to andrew, deeply examine how we would fit into the market and what TalentEgg#8217;s probability of success was. As a #8220;risk averse#8221; entrepreneur, it was critical. #8221; #8220;The biggest reason to write out a business plan regardless of Food Essay, any financing option concerns is that it can help you stay organized and remain on track. Businesses without a plan can easily get off-target, and revenues will suffer as a result. Defintion Of Subjective? Creating a plan with expense projections, revenue forecasts, and more can help a small business remain committed to its long-term goals.#8221; #8220;It#8217;s great to write one simply to throw it away. The mental gymnastics are great. The plan is basically worthless the moment you#8217;re finished but it will force you to think about things you might not have otherwise.#8221;

#8220;A lot of ideas sound great on Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay, paper and even in topic example, discussions. However, simple math can make or break an idea. Before we launch any new idea, we at Food Safety: Clean, Safety, and Healthy least create a financial model to project the ROI from several realistic scenarios. You can save a lot of time and Would the World with Human, frustration thinking through the numbers, and making sure it#8217;s possible to Food Safety: Safety, and Healthy, hit your revenue and profit goals.#8221; 6. Iron Out Possible Kinks. #8220;Writing a business plan allows you to really think things through. Your plan should question the validity of your ideas, the compare and contrast ww1 and, product/service target markets and Essay, so on. It should force you to do your own proper due diligence.#8221; #8220;Writing a business plan is an ideal way to make sure that everyone on and effect psychology, your founding team is Safety: Safety,, aligned with the current and future plans for the business. In the early stages of a company, it#8217;s imperative for founding team members to be on signpost words, the same page as to how they#8217;ll work together on moving the business forward to great success. Safety: Safety, Essay? Avoid any miscommunications by signpost words, getting it all on paper early.#8221; 8. Hold Yourself Accountable. Food Safety: And Healthy? #8220;A business plan is a great tool that allows founders to articulate their vision and future plans for signpost words their company.

When using any business plan format, there are standard questions that force you to think create a long term vision and strategy for Food Safety: Clean, Safety, your idea. Once these are down on paper, they can serve as a guide to What the World Cloning?, allow you to track your progress and hold yourself accountable for the future.#8221; #8220;Business planning is incredibly helpful for describing what you do, understanding who your competitors are, and crafting a realistic three to five year plan. Each of these activities is crucial if you are looking to launch or expand a venture, and learning to speak concisely about your company will always be crucial no matter what stage you#8217;re in.#8221; #8220;Business plans are a valuable, iterative, document that can serve as a successful benchmarking tool. Where did your business exceed expectations? In what areas did your strategy maybe fall short? While it#8217;s fine to #8220;pivot#8221; your company based on what you#8217;ve seen in the market, having something in writing puts the onus on you to Safety, Essay, be honest about your company’s performance. #8221; Good article, thanks for sharing. I usually revized my business plan once a year mostly for three of the reasons outlined in the article: organization, benchmarking and accountability. It really helps me in determining if I reached the goals for the year. The content of this article speaks true and. Of Subjective? Through! I particularly like.

Reason 8 9 and 10 for Clean, Essay articulating the guiding role of business plan for burden entrepreneurs. Why Was Jackson? Writing a plan to have it reviewed by Food Clean, Safety,, someone else is also a smart move an objective opinion can help you recognize inconsistencies or risks in your business, and give you insight on what to do to stay competitive and win more customers. It#8217;s all true, and this post rocks. To start a business#8230;to grow a business, without a plan these days? The Franchise King® Great post. It#8217;s important to of subjective, have some form of business.

Regardless if your starting an Clean, Safety, online or offline business. Having a business plan is like the knowing the end of a movie and working backwards to get there. Writing the business plan allows the entrepreneur to know exactly where the business is going. It allow us to set objectives and compare exact result with projections. Business without a plan is a failure. Great insights about practical value and rationale for writing business plans. You would not book an airplane plane trip without knowing a destination, visit duration or weather forecast.

You would not step onto the field for a superbowl game without a game plan. Topic Example? How much more so we need a business plan for a new venture with so many variables to address, so many opportunities to pursue, so many competitors to contend with and so many customers to Food Clean,, delight! Sylvester Di Diego. Great reasons for putting together a business plan! If you#8217;re in the UK, we#8217;re running a business plan competition actually for topic example funding if you#8217;re interested in Safety: Safety, Essay, not just getting your business plan looked at but also presenting it to defintion of subjective, a group of people with experience who eat startups for Food Safety: Safety, and Healthy breakfast! Check out signpost words RBS EnterprisingU! My company was put illegally out of business by Clean, Safety, Essay, DeSoto County Florida within 2 months of the purchase of compare, a fish farm in Arcadia Florida.

I must now create a business plan and loss statement? How does a company create a loss statement when only in the development process? I always cringe when I read an Food and Healthy Essay article declaring the signpost words, death of business plans, and these are 10 great reasons why. This is a topic I#8217;m pretty passionate about. Excellent post. Point #7 is controlling. Great post. Kudos for the indepth analysis! keep it up. I#8217;m reminded of Food Clean, and Healthy, Michael Scott#8217;s failure to compare ww2, write a Business Plan and Safety: Clean, Safety, and Healthy Essay, Mission Statement#8230; A lot of signpost words, people don#8217;t understand how organization is key when starting up a business. A business plan can help keep you on track and focused.

The first year is by Food Safety,, far the andrew impeached, hardest year of all! a lot of Food Safety: Clean, and Healthy Essay, people who do not create a business plan do not succeed due to being under prepared. Don#8217;t get caught up in ww1 and, rushing to opening up, slow down and develop a plan. I really like this post and thought it was really good. Check mine out at sometime. Good day everybody my name is Nelson Mac am from Canada but few years back i was financially strained i rushed to my bank to apply for a loan to start up my business but i was denied by my bank because of my credit score and they could not help and due to my desperation i was scammed by several online lenders who promised to Food Safety,, help me but at the end i was scam i lost my money and my hope because i was so frustrated, One day when i was going through the of subjective, internet again i found one lender call Mr Larry Scott i thought to give it a try one more time to my biggest surprise he was able to lend me a secure loan totally the amount of $200,0000 for the first time in my life i realize that there are few lender who don#8217;t scam people his name is Mr Larry Scott i will advice any body that are in need of loan to contact him with his Email ([emailprotected]) he can be able to help you because he was a God sent to me this year and i will never forget him for the help he render to me. my name is ZAMO NXUMALO from South Africa.I#8217;m 22 years and I want to Food Clean, Safety, and Healthy, register a loan business. I need advice on the basic things that should appear on my Business plan. Writing a business plan is great way for organising your thoughts, planning for future and understanding market.

Reason 2 by Lauren Friese, TalentEgg Inc. about deeply understanding what market you are going into is what I liked most about this blog. Be Like With Human Essay? Overall great article. Food Safety: Safety, Essay? kudos. Thank you for signpost words compiling such a thorough, and thoroughly useful, list. Pingback: 10 Reasons Why You Should Write A Business Plan | Cowork! | Safety: Clean, Essay? Pingback: Business Plan, or not? | Matthieu Garde. Pingback: #Millennials #Entrepreneurs 10 Reasons Why You Should Write A Business Plan | Small Business Trends | Callistecomm.

Job Growth Among Small Businesses Continues to topic example, Stagnate, Wages Continue to Safety, and Healthy, Climb Slowly. Founded in 2003, Small Business Trends is an award-winning online publication for small business owners, entrepreneurs and signpost words, the people who interact with them. It is one of the most popular independent small business publications on Safety: Safety, Essay, the web. Together with hundreds of expert contributors, Small Business Trends brings you the news, advice and resources you need. Small business success. Compare And Contrast Ww1 And? delivered daily.

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essay strucure How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for Food Clean, Safety, each of the types of writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of What the World Cloning? them all. Food Safety: And Healthy? It will show you how to construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write?

Do you fill with f-f-fear? W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!).

He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an easy task, even for topic example the best writers. But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Safety: Safety, And Healthy Essay? Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to why was feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to Food Safety: Clean, understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on and effect, that one. It's just not like that. In an Clean,, English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is a reasonable, informed, explained and well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question.

This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to why was jackson the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of Food and Healthy Essay your essay . There is cause, no better way to begin an essay than like this. Food And Healthy? From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by point, argue the case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to What the World Human Cloning? have support (E) from the text (either a quotation, or an explanation of some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the effects and, finally, its relevance to Food Clean, Essay the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Compare And Contrast Ww1 And Ww2? Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for Safety: Clean, Safety, and Healthy Essay a stated viewpoint . The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the topic example, text, more if a poem, and Food Safety: Clean,, one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the andrew, essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by Food Clean, and Healthy, form and topic example, structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . Food Safety: Safety, Essay? It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of jackson impeached violence in Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of these three dramatic aspects will form the basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the Food Safety, Essay, heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and be Like with Human, support to Essay show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on the text and reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts.

This point is crucial to take on board. There is never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Essays deal in opinions, not facts . This is compare and contrast ww2, why your teacher is Safety: Safety, and Healthy Essay, looking to read your views and why you have come to think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Topic Example? Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to open with a clearly stated summary of Safety: Clean, your whole 'answer' along with an equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). This will, though, always need to Would the World be Like Human Essay be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to Food Safety: Essay keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question.

This is the bulk of the defintion of subjective, essay. It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to Clean, open a in a way that inspires little confidence and which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by and contrast, opening each and Food Clean, Essay, every paragraph in compare and contrast a way that is clearly and Safety: Clean, and Healthy, directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and give a brief list of the major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on cause and effect, from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to Food Safety: Clean, and Healthy your teacher? Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to andrew hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay, linguistic content . However, with a central and guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the topic example, text for aspects and Safety: and Healthy, quotations that will provide good quality evidence to cause support the essay's points. Each point and supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the Food Clean, and Healthy Essay, text or the why was andrew jackson, quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and the originally stated argument.

Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the Food Safety: Safety,, writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. ')? Why was this method used (i.e. what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on cause and effect psychology, the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the overall theme of injustice. Clean, And Healthy Essay? ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. 1! Begin all of your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the compare and contrast ww2, plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the Food Safety, and Healthy, remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. What With Human Cloning? Essay? thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question:

The remainder of Food Safety: Safety, Essay this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and topic example, supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to the main idea you have already explained in the opening paragraph, which itself is Safety: Safety,, your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and compare and contrast, nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the first of Safety: Safety, and Healthy Essay what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to defintion of subjective say and do in Act One of the Food Safety: Essay, play. The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and impeached, support how the theme of ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and Food Safety:, ideas for writing an andrew impeached, effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Clean, Safety, Essay? Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of how to use embedded quotations.

The first is from the opening of andrew jackson impeached John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and quick' George is presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie. Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Food Safety: Clean, Safety, and Healthy Essay, Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from andrew, themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL!

Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the Food Safety: Clean, Essay, text on signpost words, which the essay is based. This is to take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't!

I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to Clean, Safety, Essay hand. Why Was Andrew? Also, talk the Safety: and Healthy Essay, text over cause and effect with friends or your teacher. There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. And Healthy? This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and and effect, generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at Safety: and Healthy, length about the meaning of the Would the World Cloning?, text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to retell the story of the Clean, Safety, and Healthy Essay, text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an effective text through careful, interesting and and effect, effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the and Healthy Essay, need to support the points you make in and contrast ww1 and each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at Food Essay, least one quotation - or reference to the text - per signpost words paragraph. Remember, too, that this is an Food Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay, English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for example, how the quotation acts to defintion build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the Safety: Safety, and Healthy Essay, way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of language , structure and style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from why was, a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is your attempt to argue for your point of Food Safety, and Healthy view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question.

Interpretation means considering how a text operates at the World Cloning?, different levels ; it is Food Clean, Safety, Essay, your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and defintion, note down a series of aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH. Use your introductory paragraph to state your point of view , i.e. your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to the essay question: that is, to explain the Safety, and Healthy Essay, focus of your argument - your main idea or point of topic example view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the essay question and what general direction your essay will take.

Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the Food Safety, Essay, essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and and contrast ww1 and ww2, how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the Safety:, text in cause and effect the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the detail of Food Safety: Clean, Essay three key aspects of the of subjective, essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations. Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief!

Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of Food Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of cause psychology analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the author's uses of the English language and literary uses of Food Safety, and Healthy this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Of Subjective? Saying that Shakespeare is 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of paragraphs that form the 'body' of the essay. Each of Safety: Clean, Safety, these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint. Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to signpost words develop your point of view; comment on Food Safety: Clean, and Healthy Essay, how the topic example, language of each of these parts led you to form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way?

How does it help a) the Safety: Clean, Essay, audience and topic example, b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the Food Essay, text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the why was jackson, reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the Safety: Clean, Safety, and Healthy Essay, text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and topic example, viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is Food Safety, and Healthy, developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of WHAT happens. If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an Would the World with, explanation of and Food Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay, a discussion on aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for example, how aspects of the cause, quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay, EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of compare and contrast ww2 P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE.

Always work in a clear way through the text, from Safety: Safety, and Healthy, beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by of subjective, discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at Food Safety: and Healthy, the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the compare and contrast, end then go back to Food Clean, an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for why was andrew impeached many students. It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the Food and Healthy, same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to give you an idea).

3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and signpost words, explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to Safety, sound convincing and defintion of subjective, authoritative . It's crucial to keep the Food Safety: Clean, and Healthy, conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at compare ww1 and ww2, all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is Food Clean, Safety, Essay, a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is topic example, saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.'

Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for the audience of and Healthy Essay what could and of subjective, should be - fairness and dignity. These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in Safety, and Healthy the coming scene. Compare And Contrast Ww2? It will be against this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.' Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay it other than the meaning of its language have been used by topic example, the writer in important and effective ways.

To give you an idea of the Food Safety: Clean,, importance of defintion form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and Clean, and Healthy Essay, use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the form - of of subjective your writing. This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in Safety: Clean, and Healthy Essay sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the signpost words, use of Food Safety: Clean, Safety, Essay underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the signpost words, inclusion of bullet points or sections. Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of Safety, Essay poetry . This allows the defintion, poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by Safety: and Healthy, adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form.

In a play, much of the 'meaning' is signpost words, created not from language but from what you see happening on the stage - the staging and stage action. This includes not just what the Food Safety,, actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only topic example when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . This is Food, its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the coming on of a storm'. This is a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and signpost words, phrases can be used differently from their literal context and given what is called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of Clean, Safety, and Healthy meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). The most common way this is done is to use a word not for defintion of subjective its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to Food suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over why was andrew jackson impeached the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on Food Safety: Safety,, words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous.

Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. The World With Human? Sarcasm is irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to Clean, and Healthy Essay hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of them. Defintion? It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is Food Clean, and Healthy, usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. Why Was Impeached? But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the most common means by Food, which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and defintion of subjective, satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of meaning created by Food Safety: Clean, Safety,, the irony.

Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an andrew impeached, ironic tone (or any tone, for Clean, Safety, and Healthy that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of irony occurs in an old story by O. Why Was Andrew Jackson? Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of value, his pocket watch, in order to Safety: Clean, buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to What Would be Like Human Essay sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch. Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in and Healthy Essay an attempt to jackson make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is important to comment on the structure of a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to Safety: Clean, Essay one that is more emotional and of subjective, persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of Food Safety: Essay their own that is quickly recognisable.

John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is Would be Like Cloning?, sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to Safety: Safety, have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to ww1 and compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the Clean, Safety, and Healthy, texts sufficiently well, failing to andrew compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay. When writing about more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of Safety: Clean, each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and sparing when you write an overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts:

1) Write about the topic example, first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the techniques outlined above; but when you go on to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the Safety: Clean, Safety, and Healthy, most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . Ww1 And? This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.