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Brandeis University International Business School. The profile was last updated on August 3, 2017. Island Essay! If you have any questions, please contact our general manager . The International Business School at theory Brandeis University is unique among business schools: its most popular degree is not the MBA, but rather a Master of Arts in International Economics and Finance. Named after early Brandeis benefactor and real estate executive Samuel Lemberg, the program was launched in 1987—11 years before Brandeis offered an MBA degree in Ellis Island 1998. The two-year program is distinctive largely for its internationally focused curriculum and the merging of economics and finance topics.

For the past two years, The Financial Times has ranked it first in the U.S. among programs that do not require work experience. Herzberg's Theory! Currently, 167 students are enrolled in it. Four years ago, the school launched what it calls a “Global Green MBA,” a program for aspiring leaders in the field of corporate sustainability: the Ellis MBA in Socially Responsible Business. The concentration, part of the school’s Green Global Initiative, integrates issues such as economic development, social development and corporate governance, into tropical important the core MBA program. Ellis Essay! In August of 2012, Brandeis debuted four new MBA specializations in asset management, corporate finance, risk management, and marketing. Those new specializations add to its existing real estate concentration. Magid says he is about a year away from launching a new life sciences MBA to leverage Brandeis’ reputation in science.

A Master of Finance degree program has 78 enrolled students. Dean Bruce Magid believes the specializations give students the opportunity to signpost words develop specific skill sets that will make them immediately marketable. Most of Brandeis’ specializations are a direct result of feedback from the Island companies that hire MBAs. “A couple of years ago, I went to Cooking an Article by recruiters and asked them what they needed to make sure our students were ready to bring the right skills to the market.” Of course, he’s building these programs under the name of a relatively small liberal arts university but one with a world-class brand. U.S. Ellis Island! News ranked Brandeis University 33 rd among national universities in the U.S.

Like ‘Ted’ Snyder at Yale, Magid believes strongly that the business school should take greater advantage of the intellectual resources of the Essay Medieval to Today rest of the university. Ellis! “The business model for most business schools has been a standalone model,” he says. “I believe in a more integrated approach where students get the ability to leverage the university. Signpost Words! They can take courses in other departments and speakers from all over the university come into the school.” Several courses in the school’s green MBA program, for example, have been jointly developed with Brandeis’ Heller School for Social Policy and Island Essay, Management. In March of 2013, the business school is co-sponsoring a symposium on Brazil with its International Center for Ethics, Justice, and Public Life. In the fall of 2010, moreover, the tropical rainforests important business school started an undergraduate business major, which has since tripled in enrollment to Island 400 students. Between the business major, a business minor and a five-year BA/MA program, Brandeis IBS touches nearly one out of every ten undergrads at Brandeis University. Waltham, MA 02454-9110.

From Brandeis University International Business School: Brandeis International Business School (IBS) prepares students to become World Ready. You will learn from our international faculty of respected scholars and theory, seasoned practitioners as you study alongside students from over Island, 60 countries. In addition, you will gain hands-on experience along with a global perspective, practical skillset and vibrant international community. Whether your goal is to join a multinational consulting firm, lead a technology startup or launch your own business, you will leave the MBA program with the skills and global network to make an impact across continents and cultures. “Brandeis IBS takes a broad world view. A lot of automated what I learned was structural thinking, how to Essay analyze strategic issues and how to work with other people through effective cross-cultural communication. All these skills are important in both the government and private sector.” – Daniel Goldsmith, USA, MBA ’06 , Director of Business Development, Eduventures. Brandeis IBS MBA Program.

The MBA Program at Brandeis IBS doesn#8217;t merely teach functional skills. It develops a framework for understanding international competition through the study of globalization and Chivalry, Ages to Today, economic interdependence. Students leave with a fresh perspective on the global economy, strong technical skills, international experience, and Island, contacts needed to launch an exciting career. Program Length: 2 years (21 months) Credits: 64 (Average of is Freedom by Jim Sollisch Essay 16 courses) Entry Term: Fall Tuition (2014-2015): $45,748 (Annual) Specializations: Asset Management, Business Economics, Corporate Finance, Data Analytics, International Economic Policy and Analysis, Marketing, Real Estate, Risk Management, Sustainability. Flexible Curriculum Brandeis IBS offers the ability to customize your MBA to Island match your interests and signpost words, career aspirations through nine optional specializations Case Method Rigorous, practical approach where you adopt the role of decision-maker in real-world scenarios Boston Location Concentration of thriving industries: finance, venture capital, technology and pharmaceuticals.

To ensure you#8217;re on the fast-track to global business and leadership success, the MBA curriculum is: Challenging, broadly applicable and considers all business topics – from corporate communication to data analysis – through a global lens Diverse from global dexterity and transnational negotiations to international corporate finance and the global economic environment. Continually updated to reflect the latest developments in global business and Island, world affairs Specialized to give you the technical training you need in our Bloomberg Lab and with other “must-have” industry technologies. Because of the signpost words range of options available to meet the requirements of the MBA Program, you will have the Ellis opportunity to discuss your individual course plan with a Program Advisor during Orientation and throughout the Essay on Theories in The by Freud year. You’re focused on your future — and so is Brandeis IBS. Before you arrive on campus, our team of career professionals works with you to Ellis develop a customized career plan that addresses your goals.

Support includes state-of-the art online search tools, career fairs, company visits, one-on-one counseling, assistance with resumes and cover letters, networking events with alumni, and meetings with our Executives-in-Residence. More about Brandeis University International Business School. From Brandeis University International Business School: Brandeis International Business School (IBS) prepares students to become World Ready. You will learn from our international faculty of respected scholars and seasoned practitioners as you study alongside students from over automated, 60 countries. In addition, you will gain hands-on experience along with a global perspective, practical skillset and vibrant international community.

Whether your goal is to join a multinational consulting firm, lead a technology startup or launch your own business, you will leave the MBA program with the skills and Essay, global network to make an impact across continents and Cooking an Article by Jim Sollisch Essay, cultures. Essay! “Brandeis IBS takes a broad world view. A lot of what I learned was structural thinking, how to Essay on Theories Content in The Interpretation of Dreams analyze strategic issues and how to work with other people through effective cross-cultural communication. All these skills are important in both the Ellis Island government and private sector.” – Daniel Goldsmith, USA, MBA ’06 , Director of Business Development, Eduventures. Brandeis IBS MBA Program. The MBA Program at Cooking Jim Sollisch Brandeis IBS doesn#8217;t merely teach functional skills. It develops a framework for understanding international competition through the study of globalization and economic interdependence. Students leave with a fresh perspective on the global economy, strong technical skills, international experience, and contacts needed to launch an exciting career. Ellis! Program Length: 2 years (21 months) Credits: 64 (Average of 16 courses) Entry Term: Fall Tuition (2014-2015): $45,748 (Annual) Specializations: Asset Management, Business Economics, Corporate Finance, Data Analytics, International Economic Policy and tropical, Analysis, Marketing, Real Estate, Risk Management, Sustainability. Flexible Curriculum Brandeis IBS offers the ability to customize your MBA to match your interests and career aspirations through nine optional specializations Case Method Rigorous, practical approach where you adopt the role of decision-maker in real-world scenarios Boston Location Concentration of thriving industries: finance, venture capital, technology and Ellis Island Essay, pharmaceuticals. To ensure you#8217;re on the fast-track to global business and leadership success, the MBA curriculum is: Challenging, broadly applicable and considers all business topics – from corporate communication to data analysis – through a global lens Diverse from From Ages to Today global dexterity and Island Essay, transnational negotiations to international corporate finance and the global economic environment.

Continually updated to reflect the latest developments in global business and Content in The of Dreams, world affairs Specialized to Essay give you the technical training you need in our Bloomberg Lab and with other “must-have” industry technologies. Watering! Because of the range of options available to meet the requirements of the MBA Program, you will have the opportunity to discuss your individual course plan with a Program Advisor during Orientation and Essay, throughout the year. You’re focused on your future — and so is Brandeis IBS. Before you arrive on campus, our team of career professionals works with you to develop a customized career plan that addresses your goals. Support includes state-of-the art online search tools, career fairs, company visits, one-on-one counseling, assistance with resumes and cover letters, networking events with alumni, and meetings with our Executives-in-Residence. By Freud! By their first summer after graduation, more than 4/5 of our MBA graduates are already working in their chosen fields. More than half of our MBA alumni work outside of the U.S. in sought-after positions in financial institutions, consulting firms, multinational companies, start-ups, government agencies, NGOs, and more – in locations ranging from the Ellis Island United States and why are tropical rainforests important, United Kingdom to Germany, Japan, and Kazakhstan. Recent Brandeis IBS MBA Placements. Banking Finance: Bank of America, Fidelity Investments, JP Morgan Chase, State Street Corporation Consulting Professional Services: Bain Company, IHS Global Insight, McKinsey Company, PricewaterhouseCoopers Corporate Technology: Dell Computer, EMC, Hewlett Packard, IBM, Lufthansa, Government Nonprofit: African Development Bank, U.S. Federal Reserve, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, IMF.

Online application Application fee Transcripts (from all post-secondary institutions attended) GMAT or GRE score Essays (2) Resume’ (2 years of Island Essay work experience preferred) Letters of recommendation (2) TOEFL, IELTS, or PTE academic score, if applicable. Brandeis IBS supports U.S. and international students with a wide variety of both need- and merit-based financial aid and scholarships. Signpost Words! At the center of our academic experience is the faculty – thought leaders who create new financial models for understanding complex markets, conduct award-winning research on macroeconomic policy, and Island, spearhead fields of Essay Medieval Ages to Today scholarship like cross-cultural fluency and microfinance. Their expertise ranges across disciplines, from market microstructure to Latin American trade. Island! Professors edit esteemed journals, earn awards from the likes of the Essay in The of Dreams by Freud Review of Ellis Finance and receive grants from major research bodies across the globe. Our faculty consists of a combination of system researchers and Island Essay, adjunct professors with extensive real-world experience, from successful entrepreneurs to strategists at major investment firms. At Brandeis IBS, students take advantage of our rich globally-minded offerings and opportunities, from signpost words our more than 15 study abroad partners and immersion opportunities to our network of Ellis 2,500 alums located in signpost words more than 20 countries around the world. To us, global fluency means more than language. It means having a firm grasp of cultural nuances; recognizing the interplay of Island economic, political and social forces; understanding the dynamics of cross-border commerce; and finding opportunity in volatility across global markets. Brandeis University, a private research university in automated the United States, is recognized for its academic excellence and commitment to Ellis Island social justice.

Brandeis has especially strong programs in Essay on Theories of Dream Content in The the life sciences, history, economics, business and other fields. Founded in 1948, the University is named for Louis Dembitz Brandeis, a distinguished United States Supreme Court justice. Island Essay! With early faculty members such as Eleanor Roosevelt and Leonard Bernstein, Brandeis quickly established an international reputation. Thirteen years after its founding it was accredited by Phi Beta Kappa, and in 1985 it was elected to the Association of why are rainforests American universities, the exclusive #8220;club#8221; of the 61 leading research universities of the U.S. and Canada. The University#8217;s 30,000 alumni include chief executives Leonard Asper (Anthem Media Group), Christie Hefner (Playboy) and Suk Won Kim (Ssangyong Group), bankers Barry Kaplan (Goldman Sachs) and Louis Perlmutter (Lazard Freres), journalists Thomas Friedman (New York Times), Walt Mossberg (Wall Street Journal) and Bill Schneider (CNN), and Island, government leaders Nikolai Vassiliev (Deputy Prime Minister, Bulgaria) and automated watering system, Dimitrij Rupel (Minister of Foreign Affairs, Slovenia).

Brandeis has approximately 3,600 undergraduate and 2,100 graduate students. Ellis! Its 504-member faculty includes former labor secretary Robert Reich, historian David Hackett Fischer, three MacArthur #8220;genius#8221; award winners, and 30 members of leading scientific academies. Brandeis is ranked 35th among US universities in US News and World Report, and 9th in a study by Graham and Diamond ( The Rise of American Research Universities ) based on automated, quantitative measures of the impact of faculty research. Brandeis occupies 96 buildings on an attractive 235-acre campus. Landmarks include a one-million-volume library (Goldfarb), an outstanding sports complex (Gosman), a new campus center (Shapiro), a celebrated museum of Essay modern art (Rose) and a theater (Spingold). Brandeis is located in suburban Boston and is connected to Boston and Cambridge by a 20-minute train ride. When you choose to study at Brandeis, you#8217;ll find yourself in a special metropolitan area with many world-class cities at your fingertips.

The center of Boston is just ten miles from Waltham. Known to locals as the #8220;Hub of the Universe,#8221; Boston offers some of the most sophisticated cultural, educational, social, and business opportunities available anywhere in the United States. Across the Charles River from Boston is Cambridge. Best known for its academics, this is also a top choice among Brandeis IBS students as a place to live and visit. Boston is known as one of the most vibrant, student-friendly cities in America with more than 600,000 people in its twenty diverse neighborhoods another 3.5 million in the wider metropolitan area as well as 250,000 students at its nearly three dozen colleges and universities. So, what exactly is this reputation based on? It is that despite its rich history, Boston remains a youthful city and a center of contemporary culture. It is it#8217;s combination of skyscrapers in the financial district with brick row houses in Cooking is Freedom an Article the Back Bay and the trendy shopping on Newbury Street, coupled with the vibrant ethnic neighborhoods in Ellis Island the Italian North End and Chinatown. Boston has countless historic sites and world-class cultural institutions such as the Freedom Trail, the Museum of why are tropical rainforests important Fine Arts and the John F. Kennedy Library.

Those looking to enjoy the Ellis Essay city’s nightlife can visit its restaurants, clubs and concert venues. Herzberg's Of Motivation! And, of Island course, for sports fans, Boston boasts some of the why are important country’s best teams in Ellis baseball, football, basketball, soccer and hockey. Public transportation allows students to signpost words easily access most parts of the city. Boston also presents a gateway to the many vacation opportunities of New England from the Essay sandy beaches of Cape Cod to watering system nearby mountains for Ellis Essay hiking and skiing. No matter what students are looking for, Boston has it all. Theory Of Motivation! http://www.cityofboston.gov Detailed information about Boston http://www.boston-online.com Find out Island Essay about everything from automated system Boston English to Ellis Essay the best public restrooms. http://www.searchboston.com A directory of what Boston has to offer. http://www.mbta.com Take a look at on Theories by Freud public transport maps and timetables. Ellis Island! http://www.boston.com Read The Boston Globe online. http://www.massport.com Everything you need to know about Logan Airport. No stranger to innovation, Waltham gave birth to Cooking an Article by Jim Sollisch the Industrial Revolution with the Ellis Island Essay invention of America#8217;s first power loom. This reputation thrives today: Waltham is part of the #8220;Route 128#8221; complex, one of the nation#8217;s major centers of innovation in why are rainforests investment management, computers, telecommunications, and Island Essay, biotechnology. Nostalgically known as #8220;The Watch City#8221; for the Waltham Watch Company of the 1800#8217;s, Waltham offers affordable residential neighborhoods within walking distance of Brandeis with a train line connecting Brandeis and Waltham to is Freedom by Jim Sollisch Essay Boston and Cambridge. Waltham is situated on the banks of the Charles River, where students can enjoy walks and canoe trips. Its central business district has undergone a wave of renewal.

Its heart today is an area locals call #8220;Restaurant Row,#8221; one of the Island Boston area#8217;s best collections of small, inventive restaurants that offer foods from every corner of the world. Information about Waltham: Cambridge is the home of rainforests important Harvard University, MIT, and many high tech and biotech companies. No other city in the nation can claim to have cultivated more U.S. presidents and Nobel laureates. Due to its stimulating academic environment, Cambridge has become a magnet for young people seeking opportunity and Ellis Essay, fun. The city has: The largest concentration of biotechnology companies on the East Coast Over 200 software companies 448 restaurants representing thirty cultures 30% of the workforce has a professional or graduate degree. More bookstores per capita than any other city in watering system America The birthplace of the first analog computer, instant photograph and the Internet. Most Brandeis IBS students visit Cambridge often, and Island, some choose to live there. There are many eclectic neighborhoods, ranging from on Theories of Dream Content of Dreams by Freud those with modest rents to Essay very expensive ones. North Cambridge and neighboring Somerville are especially popular because they are connected by a short train ride to the campus. Cambridge is also a #8220;walker#8217;s city,#8221; with easily accessible shopping and cultural attractions.

Information about Cambridge: http://www.cambridge-usa.org Get helpful visitor information. http://www.cambridgechamber.org Information about living, and of motivation, doing business in Cambridge. Brandeis International Business School - World Ready. See The Full Archive Of Over 50 Handicapping Features. 2017-2018 MBA Application Deadlines. Average GMAT Scores At The Leading MBA Programs.

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Revealed: Gautam Adani's coal play in the state facing global-warming hell. The extraction of mammoth coal deposits in Queensland's Galilee Basin will only Ellis, exacerbate climate change. Watering System! Who supports the mines - and why? SHARE Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Link Adani Group founder and chairman Gautam Adani meets with Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull in Delhi in April. Photo: AAP. The day I arrived in Townsville, late last year, a group of 30 people gathered on the wall of the Ross River Dam and prayed for rain. Island! After three failed wet seasons, it was at less than 15 per cent capacity and the city was paying $30,000 a day to why are rainforests, pump water from the Burdekin Dam. Gautam Adani has also seen his share of petitioning up here. Against a glum backdrop of young adults standing beside main roads holding placards begging for work, this Indian billionaire, relatively unknown in Australia, is touted as the Island man who will turn things around. It seems Townsville's falling-out with another mining magnate, Clive Palmer, casts no shadow. Clive wouldn't be able to walk the streets here, one local told me, proudly and bitterly.

Palmer, who gave away 55 Mercedes-Benz cars and 700 overseas holidays to his employees at the Yabulu nickel refinery in 2010, is watering system now a local pariah. The refinery that he took over from BHP in 2008 is in limbo, while Townsville City Council is pursuing Palmer for $700,000 in unpaid rates. Last year, the federal government paid $73 million to Palmer's former workers. Island Essay! State bureaucrats, firefighters and police are now managing the risky refinery – where one smokestack is at risk of collapse and toxic sludge from its storage dams have seeped into on Theories of Dream in The by Freud, waterways. But that was Palmer; this is Adani. SHARE Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Link Despite Adani's early promise of Ellis Essay, its coalmine and signpost words, port providing 10,000 jobs, its own expert, Jerome Fahrer, estimated in 2015 that it would generate 1464 jobs. Island! Photo: anatchant. It was December 2016 when Gautam Adani flew into Townsville to meet Queensland Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk and the city's mayor, Jenny Hill. Yes, there was some animosity: a couple of hundred people gathered on the foreshore to protest against Adani's proposed coal mega-mine, and two native-title owners, Carol Prior and Ken Dodd, were also on tropical rainforests important his trail. But for the nation's kingmakers, Adani may as well be Midas.

That very morning he had nipped down to Ellis Essay, Melbourne to meet Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull to discuss the signpost words Coalition's conditional offer to chip in a $1 billion loan to his project. Island! After the meeting in the Townsville City Council chambers, there was the obligatory handshake photo with the Queensland premier, and then he was gone – a fly-in, fly-out billionaire. You can't get the smile off my face, Annastacia Palaszczuk told the gathered reporters. Townsville was going to be the base for rainforests Adani's regional headquarters and remote operations centre. But there was more. Palaszczuk continued: I'm pleased to announce today, that following the meeting, I have got an iron-clad guarantee from Island Mr Adani that there will be no 457 visas as part of the workforce for this major project.

I secondly have a guarantee of a Queensland-first policy for jobs and especially for regional Queensland. You will now receive updates from Breaking News Alert. Get the latest news and updates emailed straight to your inbox. By submitting your email you are agreeing to Fairfax Media's terms and herzberg's theory of motivation, conditions and privacy policy . Not that it was in writing. The only assurance Queenslanders truly had was a photo of a handshake. The premier ought to Ellis Island, have stopped there, but she kept going. The project, she said, would generate 10,000 jobs.

The life of this project will be anywhere between 50 and 60 years. Queensland Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk with Adani Group chairman Gautam Adani at the Port of Townsville last December. Photo: Supplied. In 2013, a television commercial for Adani Australia was broadcast across the state. A warm European woman's voice asked, What does Adani mean to signpost words, Queensland? A fresh stake in the global economy …Adani means 10,000 jobs for Queensland workers [cue image of young man in Island hi-vis vest unspooling cables, smiling boyishly] … Adani means $22 billion in royalties and taxes invested back into Queensland communities [cue hospital corridor and stretchers]. Here's hoping Palaszczuk doesn't pin all her policies on the commercials she watches. Is it possible she is unaware of evidence given under oath by Adani's own hand-picked expert, Jerome Fahrer, in why are tropical rainforests the Queensland Land Court? A former Reserve Bank economist, Dr Fahrer works for consulting firm ACIL Allen, contracted by Adani to analyse the Ellis Island Essay mine project's numbers. Fahrer was critical of Adani's previous consultants. The figure of 10,000, he told the court, was extreme and unrealistic.

At the peak of construction, Dr Fahrer estimated, there would be about 2400 workers. But there was a catch. Signpost Words! He found that these jobs would come at the expense of around 1500 jobs in manufacturing, agriculture, and from other mines. This is Ellis Island Essay important. For a premier under pressure to Cooking is Freedom an Article by Jim Sollisch, create jobs in a state with a population of 4.6 million, of Island, whom more than 160,000 were unemployed in herzberg's May this year, supporting a coalmine that will see job losses from elsewhere seems a serious folly. Overall, Fahrer said the Island Essay Adani mine and railway would create on average around 1464 employee years of Essay Medieval Ages, full-time equivalent direct and indirect jobs. In other words, a drop in the ocean. Ellis Island! Supporters of the project are quick to point out that Fahrer did not include jobs associated with the watering system port expansion at Ellis Island Abbot Point; however, Rod Campbell of The Australia Institute noted in The Australian that a large coal port expansion in Newcastle was expected to create no more than 80 jobs. We need Adani.

It’s the next big thing. Townsville mayor Jenny Hill. As for $22 billion in royalties and taxes invested into why are rainforests important, Queensland communities, The Australian 's Sarah Elks wrote that Adani estimates this will be generated over the proposed mine's first three decades – amounting to Ellis Island, $730 million a year. From Ages To Today! However, the equation that led to this estimate is, of course, commercial in Essay confidence – and the myriad companies that make up the Adani conglomerate make it nearly impossible to signpost words, follow the money. What tax on profits will be paid in Australia? How much will be siphoned off to Adani's marketing hub in Singapore and the Adani family company in the Cayman Islands? A mural of Adani and Turnbull by artist Scott Marsh in Chippendale, Sydney. Photo: Facebook.

A similar mystery surrounds royalties, which is Island what the of Dream mining sector pays to Island Essay, the state for the stuff in the ground. The Minerals Council of Australia, a hefty lobbying group, refers to of motivation, royalties as part of the total tax burden. Considering that it is paid on Essay the product, can it really be called a burden? Recent reports revealed the Queensland Labor government had split over automated watering, an offer to Adani of Essay, a royalty-free holiday of up to $320 million in concessions. In response, Adani announced it would postpone the decision to push ahead with the Carmichael project. In late May, Labor agreed to offer Adani a reduced royalty rate for the first few years, after which the system company will have to repay the deferred royalties, plus interest. With the tiniest tug, the Ellis Island Essay promise of 10,000 jobs, $22 billion back into Queensland is easily unravelled. Perhaps the simplest question is: will the Adani project put back into of Dream Content in The Interpretation of Dreams, the economy what has been spent to support it – $10 billion on coal-related infrastructure from the state government in the past decade alone? Palaszczuk continued with practised emphasis: That means generational jobs. That means you can work on Island this project and why are rainforests important, your son or daughter may have the opportunity to also work on this project.

Um, remote operations centre anyone? A few weeks earlier, the Australian CEO of Adani Mining, Jeyakumar Janakaraj, had confirmed all mining operations from pit to port would be fully automated. In our minds, this is the Island mine of the future, he said. And it is; Rio Tinto and BHP already remotely operate extensive parts of their mines and rail connections. Journalists and watering system, academics Guy Pearse, Bob Burton and David McKnight reveal in Essay their book Big Coal that in 2012, Rio Tinto replaced 380 train drivers with computers and Perth-based operators, proudly announcing at an investor seminar that robotics had so far saved the company from employing 900 people. Guardian journalist Oliver Balch this year described the odd sensation of watching driverless trucks in Rio Tinto's Pilbara mines: Huge trucks trundle along the mines' reddish-brown terraced sides laden with high-grade iron ore. Back and forth, almost endlessly. Essay On Theories Of Dream In The Interpretation Of Dreams! Watch for long enough, however, and you'll see that no one ever steps out of the cab.

No lunch stops. Island Essay! No toilet breaks. No change of shift. A driverless haul truck on the move in Western Australia's Pilbara. Photo: Louie Douvis. Gautam Adani arrived on the Australian mining scene in 2010. His flagship company, Adani Enterprises, purchased Linc Energy's massive deposit of thermal coal in the Galilee Basin in western Queensland. Adani is automated watering system one of India's most powerful men, and his company's vast influence is Ellis often linked to his proximity to Prime Minister Narendra Modi.

Perhaps the most cited example of this is signpost words a photograph published in May 2014, on the day Modi was to be sworn in. In The Citizen , an Ellis, Indian news site, Paranjoy Guha Thakurta explained: The photo depicted Modi leaving Ahmedabad, the biggest city in Gujarat, the state where he had been Chief Minister for nearly 12 years from October 2001 onwards, to travel to New Delhi to be sworn in as Prime Minister of India. His stretched hand waving (presumably to an adulatory home crowd), the colourful logo of the private aircraft he was about to Cooking an Article, enter was clearly visible in the picture. It said: Adani. It is no secret Adani and Modi are close, but Modi did not make Adani: after all, one has to have millions to Ellis Island Essay, make billions. The businessman's rise from sorting diamonds as a 16-year-old in watering his cousin's Mumbai business to Ellis Island Essay, earning his first million in the trade by Chivalry, Medieval Ages, the time he was 20 is the stuff of legend.

From there, Adani went into Ellis, the plastics business with his brother and, by 1988, had started an import and export company that soon expanded into infrastructure and power generation. Today, he owns a dizzying array of companies: interests in herzberg's theory India include ports, property development, oil and gas exploration, coal mining and trading, coal-fired power stations, and cooking oil (think palm, soy-bean, cottonseed, nut plantations). Recently, Adani has also become India's largest producer of solar power. Now the proud owner of Essay, a coal deposit in Australia, Adani plans to build a 388-kilometre railway from Abbot Point port to Essay From Ages to Today, the Galilee Basin, under which lies one of the world's largest untapped coal seams. Adani plans to produce up to 60 million tonnes of coal from the Carmichael mine every year for 60 years. It would be the biggest coalmine in Australia. The coal is Essay thermal, which is signpost words mostly used to Ellis Island Essay, generate electricity. The company's plan is to ship it through the system Great Barrier Reef to its private port in India and feed it into its power stations. Waiting in the wings for Adani to start shifting overburden – mining-speak for bushland, gums and bottle trees, red dirt and Ellis Essay, aquifers, layers of roots and sediment that compressed the Permian-age plant matter into herzberg's of motivation, coal in the first place – are five more mining companies. The Galilee Basin has been divided into nine proposed mega-mines.

Australia is the world's second-largest exporter of coal. At full production, the Galilee Basin is expected to double Australia's coal exports to Island, more than 600 million tonnes a year. The coal seam would, when burned, blow up to one-tenth of the world's total carbon budget – the amount scientists say we have left if we want to herzberg's theory of motivation, stop at Ellis Island Essay 2 degrees Celsius of warming (see breakout). In their way, holding the line, are a scattering of traditional owners and a grazier. Behind them is Essay on Theories of Dream Interpretation of Dreams a vast network of willing activist bodies, conservation groups, academics and marine scientists.

The stage is set. Adani Australia chief executive Jeyakumar Janakaraj (third from left), met with local politicians and Ellis Island, business leaders last December including Queensland Premier Annastacia Palaszczuk (on his right) and Chivalry, Ages, Townsville Mayor Jenny Hill (on his left). Photo: Supplied. These cells multiplied in Island Essay the oceans and Essay on Theories of Dream Content Interpretation of Dreams, some put out oxygen and Ellis, this oxygen changed everything. I was confused. Cooking Is Freedom By Jim Sollisch Essay! I'd asked the Ellis mayor of Townsville, Jenny Hill, if she accepted the science of global warming. Hill has a background in science, so I was aware the mayor could run rings around me if she wanted to, but I was trying to keep up. Are you talking about the herzberg's beginning of life on Earth? I asked in a squeaky voice. Hill nodded – a little sheepishly, I thought. Three and a half billion years ago seemed pretty far down the garden path to lead me.

There had been a couple of Ellis Island Essay, these moments. Near the beginning of our interview, Hill had thrown in Aboriginal Australians for good measure. She had just visited Palm Island, she told me, where the automated locals were keen to Ellis, work on Adani's mine in is Freedom by the Galilee Basin. Indigenous people want to connect with their homeland, she said. By digging it up? I asked – and honestly I did not say this to be a smart-arse.

Australia's Indigenous people are long overdue a fair share of the nation's growing economy. But this argument, often thrown in the path of anti-coal activists, was all muddled up in Hill's office. I wasn't sure that the desire to connect with one's traditional land was the same as mining it. Ellis Island Essay! As for the number of jobs Adani was going to is Freedom, provide in Townsville, Hill would not be drawn on an exact total: I have a number I am comfortable with. Then I asked Hill about her moral responsibility to future generations of Townsville residents if the demise of the Great Barrier Reef is unchecked. Island Essay! In 2013, the federal government released a study on the Great Barrier Reef's contribution to Australia's economy. It found the reef generated 69,000 jobs and $5.68 billion in of motivation annual turnover in 2011-12.

Snorkellers looking at bleaching corals off Port Douglas in March this year. Island! The Great Barrier Reef generated 69,000 jobs in 2011-12, according to a 2013 Federal Government study. Is Freedom An Article Essay! Photo: Dean Miller. Beyond this, cyclones, floods, fires and drought have always been a way of life in the north, but events in recent years have been relentless. Following floods in 2009 and 2010-11 that claimed the lives of 38 people, Queensland's then premier, Anna Bligh, noted: Every time we settle into the task [of recovery] we get a new task added to our plate. The federal government poured $5.6 billion into reconstruction after these Queensland floods. What about those responsibilities? Hill, in Essay response, looked me straight in signpost words the eye.

I've a community with a high rate of unemployment and a huge spike in youth crime. Island! What about my moral responsibility to tropical important, Townsville today? The city is certainly on an uneven keel. The image of a spaghetti-western town came to mind as I passed big nightclubs, closed, some permanently, the odd shop doing limited trade – one closing down had a couple of backpackers picking over African trinkets. There were vacant and shuttered buildings, teenagers' names written in the dust and grime, a huge chain chemist, inscrutable office blocks, a pub or two – tumbleweeds waiting for the next boom. A smattering of restaurants, most so sprawling that even with customers they looked empty. Occasionally, sliding doors opened as I passed, cool air gushing out, and I detected activity inside. Perhaps Townsville was like the Ellis Island desert, I thought, the wildlife bunkering down in the day and emerging at night.

The crime statistics suggest as much. Last year a spike in youth crime saw an extra 30 police deployed at night. The local inspector had urged the theory vigilante groups that patrolled the streets to disband. A petition was circulated, demanding a curfew for teenagers under 16. Ellis Island Essay! A cab driver told me about the constant car theft.

Life, according to Hill, would be breathed back into Townsville through two projects. During the federal election last year, the council lobbied for a new rugby league stadium. In the 2013 election it had been all about western Sydney; this time it was all about Essay on Theories Content Interpretation by Freud regional Queensland. Bill Shorten folded first, pledging $100 million. Ellis Island! Turnbull followed suit, matching Labor's figure. The second life-giving source was Adani. We need Adani, Hill told me. Signpost Words! It's the Essay next big thing. Hill is pleased with the recent Adani announcement that Townsville will be the of Dream Content in The site of the mine's regional headquarters. It was hard won.

Last year saw a bun-fight among mayors up and down the coast vying for a piece of the action. The Whitsunday regional mayor had in October been given the green light at a council meeting to immediately contact Adani chiefs and Ellis Island Essay, offer a parcel of land in Bowen, just south of watering, Abbot Point. Further south, Rockhampton's mayor offered to build Adani its very own airport to the tune of $22 million. Ellis Essay! Countering this, the on Theories of Dream Content in The Interpretation mayor of Mackay proposed providing Adani with the city's own, already existing, airport terminal. The previous state government had offered $450 million to help Adani build its railway.

During the 2015 Queensland election, the Labor opposition promised to protect the Great Barrier Reef and pledged to withdraw any state funding of Adani's railway. Queenslanders swung behind Labor and voted out Ellis Island Essay Campbell Newman's Liberal Nationals. After six months in office, though, as Fairfax's Lisa Cox reported, the new state Labor government was considering alternatives to assist Adani, such as the previously mentioned royalty holiday, proposed in defiance of its own treasury's advice that the Adani project was unbankable and inherently risky due to Essay of Dream of Dreams by Freud, the company's opaque corporate structure and offshore entities, such as those in the Cayman Islands. A year later, the state threw the mine another lifeline, this time giving the Adani project critical infrastructure status, which in turn grants the government power to speed up assessments and block appeals. How much more convincing does a boom need? Well, in March this year, Premier Palaszczuk invited eight regional mayors to join her on a visit to India. The mayor of Gladstone, Matt Burnett, even overcame his fear of flying to go. There is a photo of them all wearing blue hard hats inside Adani's Mundra Port. Ellis Island! Three weeks later, Prime Minister Turnbull met with Adani in Essay of Dream Content in The Interpretation by Freud New Delhi and assured the Indian businessman that native-title obstacles would be removed.

Now, sitting in the Townsville Council chambers, a huge modernist concrete building, Mayor Hill said, We have offered to provide Adani with a temporary office while they look at real estate for their headquarters. It may have been the look on my face that did it, but Hill quickly added that Adani had declined the offer. In New Delhi at the Global Natural Resources Conclave this year, Australian mining magnate Gina Rinehart stood on stage, clasping her book From Red Tape to Ellis Island, Red Carpet and Then Some to her chest. The title, she explained, was borrowed from Prime Minister Modi, who once said, No red tape, only From Medieval Ages to Today, red carpet, is my policy towards investors. Rinehart went on to congratulate India on its soaring success under Modi's guidance. Low inflation, vast foreign investment – What an exciting country for entrepreneurs! In Australia, however – Rinehart's tone became grave – it was a case of the emperor fiddles while Rome burns. She wished it weren't so. Rinehart then spoke about Essay all the watering system permits and approvals she needed to get for her Roy Hill project in Ellis Western Australia's Pilbara. On a projector she screened a video of her friend Jim Viets, who played on his guitar a country song, Mining Permit Blues . Essay Content In The Interpretation By Freud! It's very good.

So is red tape holding back Australia? Or is it holding back Rinehart? Three years ago, when iron ore prices began to slump, Rinehart issued an Ellis Island Essay, alert: red tape, approvals and burdens had to why are rainforests important, be cut. Jobs and revenue were in peril. Australia, it seemed, was in peril. Ellis Island Essay! Somehow she'd conflated her fate with Australia's. Herzberg's! She was yet to send off her first shipment of iron ore from Roy Hill, and Island, the market had finally peaked and begun its descent. After a record stint of high prices, there was a glut, and her bargaining power was significantly reduced.

Roy Hill had missed the boat. System! Sure, it was still going to make money, but not the sort of sums Rio Tinto, BHP and Fortescue Metals had been raking in. It was Australia's fault. All those permits. But red tape is Island not merely an aspect of governance. It is Content of Dreams by Freud a crisis point of Island Essay, two world views.

Holding one view are those who see global warming as a profound threat and feel a responsibility to mitigate it. Within this is Chivalry, Medieval to Today also a palpable sense of excitement about the opportunity this crisis may bring to reset global priorities so that profit is not centre stage. It is this latter notion that those holding the other world view fear. Ellis Essay! They do not feel threatened by climate change, but by the proposed solutions to it. So just how important is the mining industry to automated system, our economy? In February this year, economics journalist Ross Gittins asked this question in The Age . Short answer: not nearly as much as it wants us to believe, and has conned our politicians into believing. The next question is: why? Here Gittins took a hit for Essay the team: Because people like me have spent so much time over the past decade and more banging on about the resources boom, we've probably left many people with an exaggerated impression of the sector's importance. Couldn't have put it better myself.

Gittins went on to give the herzberg's of motivation numbers: the mining sector accounts for 7 per cent of Australia's total production of Island Essay, goods and services (GDP) and employs 230,000 people, which is 2 per cent of Australia's workforce. Nothing to scoff at. If we imagined employment as a body, you could say mining is the hand. I like my hand. Yes, mining has a flow-on effect; but then again, so do I. Gittins points out herzberg's that much of the profit and income generated by the mining sector goes offshore, which is fine, it's allowed – obviously. But that the mining sector is Island Australia's economic heart is rainforests less an argument than a pea-and-thimble trick. Queensland is Australia's largest coal exporter. It has five working coal regions. There are 50 coalmines currently operating and a further 21, including in the Galilee Basin, in the pipeline. As well as the billions spent on coal-related infrastructure, there have been concessions made on water and electricity supplies and substandard bonds for mine rehabilitation.

The government has also waved through three LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) facilities on Essay Curtis Island, in the Great Barrier Reef near Gladstone, and approved a rapid, at Medieval Ages to Today times shonky, rollout of coal-seam gas wells across the state, and Island Essay, unconventional gas projects, which ignite underground coal seams to generate gas, with sometimes tragic results. Herzberg's Of Motivation! The revenue must be huge. Island! But it isn't. Sometimes it's a good innings and sometimes it's a very bad innings. Last year, royalties came in at $1.59 billion, 3 per Essay Chivalry,, cent of the Ellis Essay state's revenue. To compare, car registrations came in at $1.63 billion. But the state is herzberg's expecting good things this year; politicians are hoping for around $3 billion. It still doesn't make sense – but it all adds up, and it has to keep adding up. Island! Spending has been locked in, promises are made, factions are formed, donations are made. This is, thundered Prime Minister Tony Abbott in herzberg's theory 2015, a project that will create 10,000 jobs.

Yes, even after Fahrer's evidence that figure this was a gross overestimate. Ellis Island Essay! He may as well have dug a hole and whispered his evidence into the ground. This is an edited extract of Anna Krien's Quarterly Essay 65, The Long Goodbye: Coal, Coral and Australia's Climate Deadlock , out on Tuesday; quarterlyessay.com. 'Horrendous enemy, terrific friend': What drives AOC head John Coates? Laura Brown: the Aussie turned NYC fashion powerhouse. Dusty Martin: how a young cub 'pulled his head in' 'I never, never spent such an evening': Queen Victoria's wedding night. How social media changed everything for teen girls. A champagne-drenched lifestyle goes flat. Belinda thought she had won $190,000.

Then she read the in The Interpretation of Dreams fine print. 'We haven't got a crime': Personal problems investigated as search for Elisa Curry continues. A 'personal' chat then silence - Elisa Curry disappearance has cops baffled. Treatment of Carlton CEO Steven Trigg shameful. Copyright 2017 Fairfax Media. Save articles for later. Subscribe for unlimited access to news. Login to save articles.

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2 sql DBA resume samples, examples - download now! 34 street, Gandhi road, Contact no. 8749****** To associate with an innovative organization, this allows me to put my competencies to the best use contributes to my overall growth as an individual. Operating System:Window NT 4.0, Solaris, Red Hat Linux 5.0, 5.4. RDBMS:SQL Server 2005, 2008, 2008 R2, 7. Script: Having knowledge of Ellis Essay, UNIXLinux shell script. Language:Having Knowledge of SQL, PL/SQL, Java, VB.

Web Technology:Having Knowledge of HTML, XML. Virtual Machine:VM Ware server 2.0 to 2.2, Oracle VM Virtual box 4.0. BPM:Adept Knowledge of leading tool PEGA 5.5v. -Excellent Communication skills. Cooking Is Freedom By. -Time management skills. Ellis. Key Responsibilities Handled: -Coordinated physical changes to computer data bases; and codes, tested and herzberg's implemented SQL data base, applying knowledge of data base management system. Ellis Island Essay. -Established physical data base parameters. -Coded SQL data base descriptions and specified identifiers of SQL data base to data base management system or directs others in coding data base descriptions. -Calculated optimum values for SQL data base parameters, such as amount of computer memory to be used by data base, following manuals and using calculator. -Specified user access level for each segment of one or more data items, such as insert, replace, retrieve, or delete data. -Specified which users can access data bases and what data can be accessed by user. Why Are Tropical. -Tested and Island corrected errors and Essay on Theories Interpretation by Freud refined changes to data base. Island. -Entered codes to create production data base. By Essay. -Selected and entered codes of utility program to Ellis monitor data base performance, such as distribution of records and signpost words amount of available memory. -Directed programmers and analysts to make changes to data base management system. -Reviewed and corrected programs. -Confered with coworkers to determine impact of data base changes on other systems and staff cost for making changes to data base.

-Modified data base programs to increase processing performance, referred to as performance tuning. Ellis Essay. -ASJ as SQL data base administrator from 20** till date. -AKP as Jr. DB administrator from 20** to 20** -Won best developer award in ASJ Pvt Ltd. -President of RSK association in signpost words, year 20** -Best student of the year during graduation. -Languages known- English,Kannada,Hindi. -Hobbies: Reading, Para Sailing. Ellis. 2. Theory. Sql DBA resume - Posted by Ellis Essay Anupriya Niranjan. Automated Watering System. - More than X years of extensive experience in design and development and Ellis Configuration of why are important, Servers for various Enterprise class applications. - Overall Application Development experience using (Forms Reports 6i, 11g with web logic), Oracle 10/11G, PL/SQL is seven and half year. Ellis Island Essay. - Having expertise in designing, coding and testing of Essay on Theories by Freud, variety software applications. Ellis Island. - More than X years of automated watering, experience in Ellis Island, design, development, Installation and Configuration of Oracle Application Express (Apex). - Presently working as a Manager (IT) with XXXX Pvt Ltd. for handling the in-house development of ERP software of XXXX. Chivalry, From Medieval Ages. - Previously successfully implemented Online ERP System for 95 Distributors for XXXX Pvt. Ltd. - Have successfully implemented ERP System for XXXX. - Have successfully developed software for different small business organizations while working with Global Solutions (Faridabad). - Languages: Pl/Sql, java. - RDBMS: Oracle 10/11g. - GUI Tools: Form 6i Reports, Forms Reports 11g with web logic server, Oracle Application Express (Apex), Qlick View (BI) - Installation: Installation and Complete setup of Oracle Database /Weblogic Server with Forms and reports 11g Deployment and Development Server. - Strong learning ability. - Willing to take up responsibilities both as individual and in group. Key responsibilities handled. - I have developed and enhanced several areas of ERP like Procurement, Accounts Payable, Inventory Management, Order Processing System (Quotation to Dispatch), and Costing Product price management, Accounts Receivables, General Ledgers, Fixed Asset other modules using Form 6i , Reports ,Oracle Database 10g, Packages, Procedures, Functions, Triggers. Build various reports using Report Builder, Text IO package and DDE Package. Currently working on new Project for Centralization of our Zonal Distributors Area Distributors. All distributors could be able to work on this Software through internet or MPLS. Key Projects Undertaken.

1. Present Employer: XXXX Pvt. Ltd. Employment Period: June 01, 20XX to till Date. Designation: Manager (IT) Job Profile: Development implementation of Centralized ERP Modules using Citrix metaframe. Employment Period: May 01, 20XX to May 31,20XX. Designation: Software engineer (on one year Contract) Job Profile: Design, Development implementation of Centralized ERP in India for XXXX Pvt.Ltd. using Form 6i, Reports Builder and Oracle 10g. - Awarded for the Solution on Inventory Management System in Inter Zonal Meet held in June 20XX. - Awarded for the Best Presentation on Simplification of Purchase Management System in Island Essay, Inter Zonal Meet held in July 20XX. Why Are Rainforests. - Awarded as a team member of Ellis Essay, IT Department of herzberg's theory, XXXX this won the ‘CIO100 Awards” in India. 1. Company Name: XXXX IT solution and Ellis Island Essay services Pvt.Ltd.

Duration: June 01, 20XX to rainforests important till Date. Designation: Manager (IT) 2 Company Name: XXXX. Duration: May 01, 20XX to Island May 31,20XX. Designation: Software Engineer. - B.Tech in IT from XXXX with 68%. Academic Project Undertaken. 1. Done two month summer project on “XXXX at ABC. 2. Presented an international paper on why are tropical, “**** in 20XX. 3. Undertook one month Industrial training at XXXX. Ellis Island. Date of Birth: 2.04.19XX. Automated Watering. Language Known: English, Urdu Hindi. - Performed Upgradation / Installation of SQLSERVER applications, Configuration of Application server.ssss. - Performed Patch Applications, Database Environment refreshes and Project Migration across various instances. - Supporting around 15 MS SQL database servers,50 IIS Web Servers of Ellis Essay, Microsoft Test environments in (India and Redmond).

My Profile includes ensuring response time and resolution time of the work requests raised by users through front end application Is responsible for DBA activities like restores of databases, trouble shooting security issues, performance issues, clustering, replication, monitoring of herzberg's, space utilization and adding space as required, Log shipping patching and installations. Applying the SQL Server Security updates into servers. - Has Provided DBA support for application development and maintenance. - Can manage database performance, and tune the Island Essay, database when necessary. - Languages : SQL, PL/SQL, C, C++ - Databases : Oracle 8x,9x,10g, PLSQL. - Tools Utilities : SQL SERVER 2005,2008,windows server 2008 R2. - OTHERS : SQL SERVER2005 installation ,2008. - Performed Disk and Hardware resource planning for 3 Node Cluster. - Performed Windows 2008 Cluster configuration and SQL Server 2008 Cluster Installation. - Planned and done log shipping for migration of huge database within 30 min downtime window. - Did backup and restoration of smaller databases. Theory. - Scripted all user and jobs and applied the same on the new production Box. - Redirecting all the applications to new SQL Server Production BOX (virtual name), testing the connectivity and data retrieval and Ellis Island Essay report generation. - Securing the user and business sign-off (for UAT Production). - Documented SOP for signpost words database Migration (SQL Server 2005 SQL Server 2008). - Configured 3 node cluster with storage on SAN on Windows Server 2008 E.E. - Installed SQL Server 2008 with SP1 on the entire 3 node cluster. - Restored the Database on all the Ellis Island, nodes depending upon their resource utilization. - Setup DB Mail and SQL Server Alerts (Disk Space, TLog Full, Replication, Backup, Schema Change, CPU, Indexing Fragmentation etc.) - XXX - SQL DBA Administrator - from May 20XX - Apr 20XX. SQL DBA Resume 12-24-2012 01:02 AM. -An IT professional with 4+ year’s active experience in Database Administration on SQL Server 2000. -Worked with major IT companies on projects for Multinational clients. -Possess 3 months onsite experience on client side WMC mortgage Corporation (USA). -Quick learner and result- oriented individual with strong analytical aptitude and signpost words effective interpersonal and communication skills. -DBMS Designing Tools : MS SQL Server 2000/2005, Oracle 8i, MS Acess. -Technology Languages : C, C++, Visual Basic 6.0. -Operating Systems : Windows 9x/NT, 2000, 98, 95, UNIX, MS-DOS. -Software Package : MS Office 97, 2000. -Concepts : Operating Systems, RDBMS. -Quality : Six Sigma, CMMi, QMS, Kintana. Designation : Software Engineer - SQL DBA.

Duration : Feb XXXX – Till date. -At present responsible for 4 different projects carried under WMC account i.e. LQ, AU, ME and Web. -Installation Configuration of SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition. Ellis. -Mainly working on Chivalry, From Medieval Ages to Today, the Change management process for all the Projects, like Code review and Program deployment in different regions like Test, QA, Stage and Prod. -Monthly Production Deployments. -Backups and Restores. -Creation of Ellis Island, Logins and Role. -DTS Packages Design and Development. Signpost Words. -Stored Procedures Verification for optimal performance. -Index Creation and Ellis Island Essay Maintenance. -Performing sensitive DMLs as and when required. -with 3 months Onsite Experience at client site WMC Mortgage Corp, Burbank, CA, USA. Designation : Software Developer - SQL DBA. Duration : Dec XXXX – Feb XXXX. -Responsibilities as Software Developer includes handling the Microsoft SQL serve 2000 analysis services (OLAP), cubes and MDX application, modification/Handling reports and Essay Medieval Ages to Today writing MDX queries for projects handled by Ellis ABN-AMRO Bank. Designation : Executive IT - SQL DBA. Duration : Apr 2004 – 12-12-2005. -I worked with clients like JP Morgan Chase, Thomas Cook MBNA, Citibank and Discover etc. -Installation Configuration of SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition. -Designing deploying databases for various front-end applications. Signpost Words. -Creation of Logins, Roles and granting rights. -Design and develop DTS Packages for various data movement tasks. -Checking Stored Procedures for optimal performance. -Index creation and maintenance. -Carry out Ellis Island, BCP activities for development team. Chivalry, Medieval. -Backup and restore on daily, weekly and monthly basis of Ellis Island Essay, SQL and IIS Servers. -Performing sensitive DMLs as and when required. -Performing End Of Day (EOD) Activities For All Projects. Designation : Software Developer. Duration : July XXXX – Dec XXXX. -It was based on client-Server relation and important acts as front end for company's object i.e. Essay. timepictra. -An interface called Manager SDK was used for interaction between User and Server. Cooking By Jim Sollisch. -It enables the user to send Requests and Ellis receive Responses.

-Received responses needed to be displayed back in the required and automated watering predefined designed formats. -Masters Degree in Computer Application from XXXXX University.

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Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. Cisco Wireless Intrusion Prevention System Configuration Guide, Release 7.4. wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. View with Adobe Reader on a variety of devices. Chapter: wIPS Policy Alarm Encyclopedia. The addition of WLANs to the corporate environment introduces a new class of threats for network security. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. Rogue access points installed by employees for Ellis Essay, their personal use usually do not adhere to the corporate security policy. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at risk for outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the watering, threat of the rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and Island, intrusions such as mis-configured and unconfigured access points and DoS (Denial of Service) attacks. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS (wIPS) is designed to help manage against security threats by validating proper security configurations and detecting possible intrusions.

With the comprehensive suite of security monitoring technologies, the Essay Content in The Interpretation, wIPS alerts the user on more than 100 different threat conditions in the following categories: User authentication and traffic encryption Rogue and ad-hoc mode devices Configuration vulnerabilities Intrusion detection on security penetration Intrusion detection on Ellis Island Essay DoS attacks. To maximize the is Freedom Jim Sollisch Essay, power of the wIPS, security alarms can be customized to Ellis Essay, best match your security deployment policy. For example, if your WLAN deployment includes access points made by a specific vendor, the product can be customized to generate the rogue access point alarm when an Cooking Jim Sollisch Essay access point made by another vendor is detected by the access point or sensor. Intrusion Detection—Denial of Service Attack. Wireless DoS (denial of service) attacks aim to disrupt wireless services by Ellis, taking advantage of various vulnerabilities of Ages to Today WLAN at Layer one and two. DoS attacks may target the physical RF environment, access points, client stations, or the Essay, back-end authentication RADIUS servers.

For example, an is Freedom an Article Essay RF jamming attack with a high power directional antenna from Ellis Island, a distance can be carried out automated watering from the Ellis Island Essay, outside of why are rainforests your office building. Island Essay. Attack tools used by intruders leverage hacking techniques such as spoofed 802.11 management frames, spoofed 802.1x authentication frames, or simply using the Essay on Theories Content in The of Dreams by Freud, brute force packet flooding method. The nature and protocol standards for wireless are subject to some of these attacks. Because of this, Cisco has developed Management Frame Protection, the basis of 802.11i, to proactively prevent many of these attacks. (For more information on MFP, see the Cisco Prime Infrastructure online Help.) The wIPS contributes to this solution by Ellis Island Essay, an early detection system where the attack signatures are matched. The DoS of the wIPS detection focuses on WLAN layer one (physical layer) and two (data link layer, 802.11, 802.1x).

When strong WLAN authentication and encryption mechanisms are used, higher layer (IP layer and above) DoS attacks are difficult to execute. The wIPS server tightens your WLAN defense by validating strong authentication and encryption policies. In addition, the intrusion detection of the wIPS on denial of service attacks and security penetration provides 24 X 7 air-tight monitoring on potential wireless attacks. Denial of service attacks include the following three subcategories: Denial of Service Attack Against Access Points.

DoS attacks against on Theories Interpretation, access points are typically carried out on the basis of the following assumptions: Access points have limited resources. For example, the per-client association state table. WLAN management frames and authentication protocols 802.11 and Ellis Island, 802.1x have no encryption mechanisms. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by emulating large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of these emulated clients attempts association and why are tropical rainforests, authentication with the target access point but leaves the protocol transaction mid-way. Ellis Island Essay. When the access points resources and the client association table is filled up with these emulated clients and theory, their incomplete authentication states, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. This creates a denial of service attack. The wIPS tracks the Ellis, client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures against the access point. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the attack detection and statistical signature matching process.

Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms, which includes the automated watering, usual alarm detail description and target device information. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and device spoofing. For more information on Essay MFP, see the Prime Infrastructure online Help. DoS attacks against access points include the following types: Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the signpost words, access point with a large number of emulated and Island Essay, spoofed client associations. Cooking Jim Sollisch. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to Ellis Island Essay, authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of clients to flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is committed.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects spoofed MAC addresses and tracks the follow-up 802.1x actions and is Freedom Jim Sollisch Essay, data communication after a successful client association to detect this form of DoS attack. Ellis Island Essay. After this attack is reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, you may log on to this access point to inspect its association table for the number of client associations. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against frame and theory of motivation, device spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to Ellis Essay, the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of watering system Service Attack: Association Table Overflow. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Wireless intruders can exhaust access point resources, most importantly the client association table, by imitating a large number of wireless clients with spoofed MAC addresses. Each one of these imitated clients attempts association and authentication with the target access point. Ellis. The 802.11 authentication typically completes because most deployments use 802.11 Open System authentication, which is basically a null authentication process. Association with these imitated clients follows the authentication process. These imitated clients do not, however, follow up with higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN, which would leave the protocol transaction half-finished.

At this point, the attacked access point maintains a state in the client association table for each imitated client. Once the access point's resources and client association table is filled with these imitated clients and their state information, legitimate clients can no longer be serviced by the attacked access point. This creates a DoS (denial of Cooking is Freedom by service) attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the Island Essay, client authentication process and identifies a DoS attack signature against an access point. Incomplete authentication and association transaction trigger the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS's attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Flood.

Alarm Description and important, Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement such a state machine according to Essay, the IEEE standard (see illustration below). On the access point, each client station has a state recorded in the access point's client table (association table). This recorded state has a size limit that can either be a hard-coded number or a number based on Chivalry, Ages the physical memory constraint. A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack floods the access point's client state table (association table) by imitating many client stations (MAC address spoofing) sending authentication requests to the access point.

Upon reception of each individual authentication request, the target access point creates a client entry in Ellis Island Essay State 1 of the watering, association table. If Open System authentication is used for Island, the access point, the access point returns an authentication success frame and moves the client to State 2. If Shared-key authentication is used for the access point, the Essay Ages to Today, access point sends an authentication challenge to the attacker's imitated client which does not respond. Ellis Island Essay. In this case, the access point keeps the client in State 1. In either case, the access point contains multiple clients hanging in either State 1 or State 2 which fills up the access point association table. When the table reaches its limit, legitimate clients are not able to authenticate and associate with this access point. This results in a DoS attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form a DoS attack by tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: EAPOL-Start Attack. Alarm Description and Essay Ages to Today, Possible Causes.

The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame sent by the client station to Ellis Island, begin the automated watering system, authentication transaction. Island Essay. The access point responds to system, an EAPOL-Start frame with a EAP-Identity-Request and Ellis Island Essay, some internal resource allocation. An attacker attempts to bring down an access point by signpost words, flooding it with EAPOL-Start frames to exhaust the Ellis Island, access point internal resources. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack by tracking the 802.1x authentication state transition and particular attack signature.

Denial of Service Attack: PS Poll Flood Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Power management is probably one of the automated system, most critical features of Ellis wireless LAN devices. Power management helps to conserve power by enabling stations to signpost words, remain in power saving state mode for longer periods of time and to receive data from the access point only at specified intervals. The wireless client device must inform the Ellis Essay, access point of the length of tropical important time that it will be in Ellis the sleep mode (power save mode). At the automated, end of the time period, the client wakes up and checks for waiting data frames. After it completes a handshake with the access point, it receives the data frames. The beacons from the access point also include the Delivery Traffic Indication Map (DTIM) to inform the client when it needs to wake up to accept multicast traffic. The access point continues to buffer data frames for the sleeping wireless clients. Using the Traffic Indication Map (TIM), the access point notifies the wireless client that it has buffered data buffered. Multicast frames are sent after the beacon that announces the DTIM.

The client requests the delivery of the buffered frames using PS-Poll frames to the access point. For every PS-Poll frame, the Ellis Island Essay, access point responds with a data frame. Is Freedom An Article Jim Sollisch Essay. If there are more frames buffered for the wireless client, the access point sets the data bit in the frame response. The client then sends another PS-Poll frame to get the Island, next data frame. This process continues until all the buffered data frames are received.

A potential hacker could spoof the MAC address of the wireless client and send out a flood of PS-Poll frames. Cooking An Article Essay. The access point then sends out the buffered data frames to the wireless client. In reality, the Ellis Essay, client could be in the power safe mode and on Theories of Dream Content Interpretation of Dreams, would miss the Island Essay, data frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can detect this DoS (denial-of-service) attack that can cause the wireless client to lose legitimate data. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against Essay on Theories of Dream Content of Dreams by Freud, frame and device spoofing.

For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or the Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Probe Request Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows the Ellis Essay, attacker to force the target AP into a constant stream of wireless packets intended to serve nonexistent clients. During a Probe Request Flood, the attacker will generate large quantities of probe requests targeted at a specific AP. Typical wireless design specifies that an AP will respond to a probe request by sending a probe response, which contains information about the corporate network. Due to the volume of probe requests transmitted during a flood attack, the AP will be stuck continuously responding, thus resulting in a denial of Essay Medieval service for Ellis Island Essay, all clients depending on that AP.

The wIPS server monitors the levels of probe request frames detected and will trigger a Probe Request Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Even in cases where the requests are valid, the volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Consequently, the source(s) of the offending frames should be located and removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of herzberg's theory Service Attack: Re-association Request Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Island Denial-of-service attack is to exhaust the AP's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the herzberg's theory, AP with a large number of emulated and Ellis Island Essay, spoofed client re-associations. At the 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used any more. The only other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on higher level authentication such as 802.1x or VPN.

Open authentication allows any client to authenticate and herzberg's of motivation, then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can emulate a large number of clients to flood a target AP's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Island. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients will not be able to get associated thus a denial-of-serve attack is committed. The wIPS server monitors the levels of re-association requests on the network and triggers this alarm if the threshold is exceeded. Denial of Service Attack: Unauthenticated Association. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack is to exhaust the access point's resources, particularly the client association table, by flooding the access point with a large number of imitated and spoofed client associations. At the herzberg's of motivation, 802.11 layer, Shared-key authentication is flawed and rarely used. Ellis. The other alternative is Open authentication (null authentication) that relies on a higher level of authentication such as 802.1x or VPN. Open authentication allows any client to Essay Chivalry, Ages, authenticate and then associate. An attacker leveraging such a vulnerability can imitate a large number of clients to flood a target access point's client association table by creating many clients reaching State 3 as illustrated below. Once the client association table overflows, legitimate clients are not able to get associated causing a DoS attack.

Denial of Essay Service (DoS) attacks are unique in that most ways to signpost words, contain them will not work. Unauthenticated Association Attack is no different. You have an attacker that is randomly generating hundreds if not thousands of MAC addresses and crafting those as Association frames and sending them as fast as possible to the target Access Point. Wireless containment on this type of attack is clearly not possible. What are your options? Locating the source of the attack is your best option. Using a wireless analyzer, lock onto Ellis Island Essay, the channel where the attack is coming from. Since you will see Association Frames streaming by, take note of Cooking is Freedom an Article by signal strength readings from those frames.

Using these signal strength numbers, try to locate the source of the attack by walking around the area where you think the attack is Ellis being generated from. Denial of Service Attack Against Infrastructure. In addition to attacking access points or client stations, the wireless intruder may target the RF spectrum or the back-end authentication RADIUS server for DoS (denial of service) attacks. The RF spectrum can be easily disrupted by injecting RF noise generated by a high power antenna from a distance. Back-end RADIUS servers can be overloaded by a DDoS (distributed denial of service) attack where multiple wireless attackers flood the RADIUS server with authentication requests. This attack does not require a successful authentication to perform the attack. DoS attacks against infrastructure include the following types: Denial of Service Attack: Beacon Flood.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Denial of Service attack allows an attacker to inhibit wireless activity for the entire enterprise infrastructure by preventing new associations between valid APs and stations. Typically, an enterprise AP will broadcast beacon frames to all recipients within range to notify users of the network's presence. Signpost Words. Upon receipt of this beacon, stations can consult their configurations to verify that this is an appropriate network. During a beacon flood attack, stations that are actively seeking a network are bombarded with beacons from networks generated using different MAC addresses and SSIDs. This flood can prevent the valid client from detecting the beacons sent by the corporate APs, and thus a denial of service attack is initiated. The wIPS server monitors the levels of beacon frames detected and will trigger a Beacon Flood alarm when the threshold is exceeded. Ellis. Even in cases where the beacons are valid, the volume of the frames could cause problems with wireless activity. Consequently, the signpost words, sources of the offending frames should be located and Island, removed from the enterprise environment. Denial of Service Attack: CTS Flood. Attack tool: CTS Jack.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control the station access to the RF medium. The wireless device ready for transmission sends a RTS frame in order to acquire the right to the RF medium for on Theories Content Interpretation of Dreams, a specified time duration. The receiver grants the right to Ellis Island Essay, the RF medium to the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same time duration. All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the tropical rainforests, media to the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial-of-service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to the CTS frame to reserve the Ellis Essay, RF medium for transmission. By transmitting back-to-back CTS frames, an Cooking is Freedom Essay attacker can force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmission until the attacker stops transmitting the CTS frames. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the Island Essay, abuse of CTS frames for herzberg's theory, a DoS attack. Denial of Service Attack: Destruction Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

MDK3 is Essay a suite of hacking tools that allows users to utilize a number of different security penetration methods against corporate infrastructures. MDK3-Destruction mode is herzberg's theory a specific implementation of the suit that uses an array of the tools to effectively completely shut down a wireless deployment. During an MDK-Destruction attack, the tool simultaneously: Initiates a beacon flood attack, which creates fake APs within the environment, Triggers an authentication flood attack against valid corporate APs, preventing them from servicing clients, and kicks all active connections with valid clients. Additional enhancements allow for the tool to be used to connect the valid clients to Ellis Island, the fake APs generated with the beacon flood, causing further confusion in the environment. The wIPS server monitors for the combination of symptoms of an MDK3-Destruction attack and triggers an alarm when they are detected. Due to the dramatic impact that this attack can have on a wireless deployment, it is strongly recommended that the source of the attack be identified and removed immediately in order to resume normal network operations. Denial of Service Attack: Queensland University of Technology Exploit. Denial of on Theories of Dream Content in The of Dreams Service Vulnerability in IEEE 802.11 Wireless Devices: US-CERT VU#106678 Aus-CERT AA-2004.02. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 WLAN devices use Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) as the basic access mechanism in Ellis Essay which the WLAN device listens to the medium before starting any transmission and backs-off when it detects any existing transmission taking place.

Collision avoidance combines the physical sensing mechanism and the virtual sense mechanism that includes the From Medieval Ages to Today, Network Allocation Vector (NAV), the time before which the Island Essay, medium is available for transmission. Why Are Rainforests Important. Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) in the DSSS protocol determines whether a WLAN channel is Island Essay clear so an 802.11b device can transmit on it. Mark Looi, Christian Wullems, Kevin Tham and Jason Smith from the Cooking an Article by Jim Sollisch, Information Security Research Centre, Queensland University of Ellis Technology, Brisbane, Australia, have recently discovered a flaw in the 802.11b protocol standard that could potentially make it vulnerable to DoS (denial-of-service) RF jamming attacks. This attack specifically attacks the herzberg's, CCA functionality. According to the AusCERT bulletin, an attack against Ellis Island Essay, this vulnerability exploits the CCA function at signpost words, the physical layer and Ellis Island Essay, causes all WLAN nodes within range, both clients and access points, to defer transmission of system data for Ellis, the duration of the attack. When under attack, the device behaves as if the channel is always busy, preventing the transmission of any data over the wireless network. This DoS attack affects DSSS WLAN devices including IEEE 802.11, 802.11b, and low-speed (below 20Mbps) 802.11g wireless devices. IEEE 802.11a (using OFDM), high-speed (above 20Mbps using OFDM) 802.11g wireless devices are not affected by this attack.

Devices that use FHSS are also not affected. Any attacker using a PDA or a laptop equipped with a WLAN card can launch this attack on SOHO and an Article Jim Sollisch Essay, enterprise WLANs. Switching to the 802.11a protocol is the only solution or known protection against this DoS attack. For more information on this DoS attack refer to : The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS attack and sets off the Essay, alarm. On Theories Of Dream Content In The Interpretation Of Dreams By Freud. Locate the responsible device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment.

Denial of Service attack: RF Jamming Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN reliability and efficiency depend on the quality of the RF media. Each RF is susceptible to RF noise impact. An attacker leveraging this WLAN vulnerability can perform two types of DoS (denial-of-service) attacks: Disrupt WLAN service Physically damage AP hardware. Disrupt WLAN service —At the 2.4GHz unlicensed spectrum, the attack may be unintentional. Ellis Island Essay. A cordless phone, Bluetooth devices, microwave, wireless surveillance video camera, or baby monitor can all emit RF energy to disrupt WLAN service.

Malicious attacks can manipulate the RF power at 2.4GHz or 5GHz spectrum with a high gain directional antenna to watering system, amplify the attack impact from a distance. With free-space and Ellis Essay, indoor attenuation, a one kilo-watt jammer 300 feet away from a building can jam 50 to 100 feet into the office area. The same one kilo-watt jammer located inside a building can jam 180 feet into the office area. During the attack, WLAN devices in the target area are out of wireless service. Physically damage AP hardware— An attacker using a high output transmitter with directional high gain antenna 30 yards away from an access point can pulse enough high energy RF power to damage electronics in the access point resulting in tropical it being permanently out of service.

Such HERF (High Energy RF) guns are effective and are inexpensive to build. Like any RF based disturbance, your best way to Essay, resolve this would be to physically locate the Essay From Medieval to Today, device that is triggering the RF Jamming alarm and take it offline. Alternatively with Cisco CleanAir and its signature library, you can get a better description of this device. Find out the wIPS Access Point that triggered this alarm. Using a mobile spectrum analyzer, walk around to locate the source of the interference. Once the device is located, turn off or move the device to an area that won't affect your WLAN. Alarm Description and Essay, Possible Causes. As an optional feature, the Cooking is Freedom an Article by Essay, IEEE 802.11 standard includes the RTS/CTS (Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send) functionality to control access to Ellis Island Essay, the RF medium by stations. The wireless device ready for transmission sends an herzberg's RTS frame to acquire the right to the RF medium for a specified duration.

The receiver grants the right to the RF medium to Island Essay, the transmitter by sending a CTS frame of the same duration. All wireless devices observing the CTS frame should yield the RF medium to the transmitter for transmission without contention. A wireless denial of service attacker may take advantage of the privilege granted to the CTS frame to herzberg's theory of motivation, reserve the RF medium for transmission. By transmitting back-to-back RTS frames with a large transmission duration text box, an attacker reserves the wireless medium and Ellis Island, force other wireless devices sharing the RF medium to hold back their transmissions. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the abuse of Essay of Dream Content in The Interpretation of Dreams by Freud RTS frames for Ellis, denial-of-service attacks. Denial of Service Attack: Virtual Carrier Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The virtual carrier-sense attack is implemented by modifying the 802.11 MAC layer implementation to allow random duration values to be sent periodically. This attack can be carried out on the ACK, data, RTS, and CTS frame types by using large duration values.

By doing this the is Freedom by Essay, attacker can prevent channel access to legitimate users. Under normal circumstances, the Ellis Essay, only time a ACK frame carries a large duration value is when the ACK is part of a fragmented packet sequence. A data frame legitimately carries a large duration value only when it is a subframe in a fragmented packet exchange. One approach to Essay Chivalry, From Ages, deal with this attack is to Ellis Island, place a limit on the duration values accepted by nodes. Essay Of Dream Content Of Dreams By Freud. Any packet containing a larger duration value is truncated to the maximum allowed value. Low cap and high cap values can be used.

The low cap has a value equal to the amount of time required to send an ACK frame, plus media access backoffs for that frame. The low cap is used when the Ellis Essay, only packet that can follow the observed packet is an ACK or CTS. This includes RTS and Essay From Medieval Ages, all management (association, etc) frames. The high cap is used when it is valid for a data packet to follow the Essay, observed frame. The limit in this case needs to include the time required to send the largest data frame, plus the Essay on Theories of Dream Content in The Interpretation of Dreams by Freud, media access backoffs for that frame. The high cap must be used in two places: when observing an ACK (because the Island, ACK my be part of a MAC level fragmented packet) and when observing a CTS. A station that receives an RTS frame also receives the to Today, data frame. Ellis. The IEEE 802.11 standard specifies the exact times for the subsequent CTS and data frames. The duration value of RTS is respected until the following data frame is received or not received. Either the theory of motivation, observed CTS is Island Essay unsolicited or the observing node is a hidden terminal. If this CTS is addressed to a valid in-range station, the valid station can nullify this by sending a zero duration null function frame.

If this CTS is why are tropical rainforests addressed to an out-of-range station, one method of Essay defense is to introduce authenticated CTS frames containing cryptographically signed copies of the why are tropical, preceding RTS. With this method, there is a possibility of Ellis Island Essay overhead and feasibility issues. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this DoS (denial-of-service) attack. Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service Attacks Against Client Station. DoS attacks against wireless client stations are typically carried out rainforests based on the fact that 802.11 management frames and 802.1x authentication protocols have no encryption mechanism and thus can be spoofed. For example, wireless intruders can disrupt the service to a client station by continuously spoofing a 802.11 disassociation or deauthentication frame from the access point to Ellis Island Essay, the client station. Besides the 802.11 authentication and herzberg's, association state attack, there are similar attack scenarios for 802.1x authentication.

For example, 802.1x EAP-Failure or EAP-logoff messages are not encrypted and can be spoofed to disrupt the 802.1x authenticated state to disrupt wireless service. Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS tracks the Ellis Island Essay, client authentication process and identifies DoS attack signatures. Incomplete authentication and association transactions trigger the Essay From Ages, attack detection and statistical signature matching process. Detected DoS attack results in setting off wIPS alarms that include the usual alarm detail description and target device information. DoS attacks against client station include the Ellis Essay, following types:

Denial of Service Attack: Authentication Failure Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this client state machine based on the IEEE standard (see illustration below). Chivalry, From Medieval Ages. A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 in order to Ellis Essay, continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and in State 2 cannot participate in the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to theory, State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to associate with an access point.

A denial-of-service (DoS) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an associated client in State 3 to an access point. Essay. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the access point updates the client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of a DoS attack by monitoring for spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. Automated Watering System. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an Ellis access point, the server raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods, such as Open System and Shared Key. 802.1x and EAP based authentications are monitored by other alarms.

Denial of Service Attack: Block ACK Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A form of Cooking is Freedom an Article Essay Denial of Ellis Island Essay Service attack allows an attacker to prevent an 802.11n AP from receiving frames from a specific valid corporate client. With the introduction of the 802.11n standard, a transaction mechanism was introduced which allows a client to transmit a large block of frames at once, rather than dividing them up into segments. In order to initiate this exchange, the Essay Chivalry, From Medieval Ages to Today, client will send an Add Block Acknowledgement (ADDBA) to the AP, which contains sequence numbers to inform the AP of the size of the block being transmitted. The AP will then accept all frames that fall within the specified sequence (consequently dropping any frames that fall outside of the range) and transmit a BlockACK message back to the client when the Ellis Island, transaction has been completed. In order to Cooking is Freedom by Jim Sollisch, exploit this process, an Ellis Island attacker can transmit an invalid ADDBA frame while spoofing the valid client's MAC address. This process will cause the AP to ignore any valid traffic transmitted from the client until the invalid frame range has been reached. The wIPS server monitors Block ACK transactions for signs of spoofed client information. When an attacker is detected attempting to initiate a Block ACK attack, an of motivation alarm is Ellis triggered. Of Dream Content In The Interpretation By Freud. It is Ellis Essay recommended that users locate the offending device and eliminate it from the theory of motivation, wireless environment as soon as possible.

Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Broadcast. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11, Hunter Killer. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for Island Essay, tracking the station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station remains in State 3 to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to why are tropical rainforests, State 3.

A form of DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send all clients of an access point to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the Island, access point to the broadcast address. With today's client adapter implementation, this form of Medieval attack is very effective and immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Ellis Island Essay. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to regain service until the herzberg's theory of motivation, attacker sends another de-authentication frame. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed de-authentication frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security analyst can log on Island Essay to the access point to check the current association table status. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MAC spoofing. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Prime Infrastructure Configuration Guide or Online help. Denial of Service Attack: Deauthentication Flood. Attack tool: WLAN Jack, Void11.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to From Medieval Ages, the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in Island State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to State 3.

A form of automated watering system DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 1 by spoofing de-authentication frames from the access point to the client unicast address. Essay. With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is very effective and why are tropical, immediate in terms of disrupting wireless services against the client. Island. Typically, client stations re-associate and re-authenticate to regain service until the attacker sends another de-authentication frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the de-authentication frames to keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and tracking client authentication and association states. When the alarm is triggered, the watering, access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Island Service Attack: Disassociation Flood. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking the station authentication and association status.

Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine according to the IEEE standard. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. On Theories Content In The Interpretation Of Dreams By Freud. A client station in Island Essay State 1 and State 2 can not participate in WLAN data communication until it is authenticated and associated to by, State 3. A form of Ellis Island Essay DoS (denial-of-service) attack aims to send an Jim Sollisch access point's client to the unassociated or unauthenticated State 2 by spoofing dis-association frames from the access point to the broadcast address (all clients). Essay. With today's client adapter implementations, this form of attack is effective and Essay, immediate in terms of Island Essay disrupting wireless services against multiple clients. Typically, client stations re-associate to regain service until the Essay Chivalry, to Today, attacker sends another dis-association frame. An attacker repeatedly spoofs the dis-association frames to keep all clients out of service. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by detecting spoofed dis-association frames and Ellis Island Essay, tracking client authentication and association states.

When the alarm is triggered, the automated watering system, access point under attack is identified. The WLAN security officer can log on to the access point to check the current association table status. Denial of Service Attack: EAPOL Logoff Attack. Alarm Description and Ellis Island, Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to begin the authentication transaction. From. At the end of an authenticated session when a client station wishes to log off, the client station sends an 802.1x EAPOL-Logoff frame to terminate the session with the access point.

Since the Ellis, EAPOL-logoff frame is Essay Chivalry, From Medieval Ages not authenticated, an attacker can potentially spoof this frame and log the Ellis, user off the access point, thus committing a DoS (denial-of-service) attack. Essay. The client station is unaware that it is logged off from the access point until it attempts communication through the WLAN. Typically, the client station discovers the disrupted connection status and re-associates and authenticates automatically to regain the Ellis Essay, wireless connection. The attacker can continuously transmit the spoofed EAPOL-Logoff frames to herzberg's theory, be effective on this attack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the use of FATA-jack by monitoring on spoofed MAC addresses and authentication failures. This alarm may also indicate an intrusion attempt. When a wireless client fails too many times in authenticating with an access point, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises this alarm to indicate a potential intruder's attempt to breach security. This alarm focuses on 802.11 authentication methods (Open System, Shared Key, etc). EAP and 802.1x based authentications are monitored by other alarms.

Denial of Service Attack: FATA Jack Tool Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. EEE 802.11 defines a client state machine for tracking station authentication and Ellis Island Essay, association status. Wireless clients and access points implement this state machine based on automated the IEEE standard. Island. A successfully associated client station stays in State 3 in order to continue wireless communication. A client station in State 1 and in herzberg's State 2 cannot participate in the WLAN data communication process until it is authenticated and associated to State 3. IEEE 802.11 defines two authentication services: Open System Authentication and Shared Key Authentication. Wireless clients go through one of these authentication processes to Island, associate with an access point.

A form of Essay on Theories in The by Freud DoS (denial-of-service) attack spoofs invalid authentication request frames (with bad authentication service and status codes) from an Ellis associated client in State 3 to Essay on Theories Content in The Interpretation of Dreams by Freud, an access point. Island Essay. Upon reception of the invalid authentication requests, the Essay to Today, access point updates the client to State 1, which disconnects its wireless service. FATA-jack is one of the commonly used tools to run a similar attack. It is a modified version of WLAN-jack and it sends authentication-failed packets along with the reason code of the previous authentication failure to Island, the wireless station. Herzberg's Theory Of Motivation. This occurs after it spoofs the MAC address of the access point. FATA-jack closes most active connections and at times forces the user to reboot the station to continue normal activities. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking the spoofed pre-mature EAP-Failure frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and access point.

Locate the device and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Denial of Service Attack: Premature EAP Failure Attack. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The IEEE 802.1x standard defines the authentication protocol using EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) over LANs, or EAPOL. Essay. The 802.1x protocol starts with a EAPOL-Start frame to begin the authentication transaction. When the 802.1x authentication packet exchange is theory complete with the back-end RADIUS server, the access point sends an Ellis EAP-Success or EAP-Failure frame to herzberg's theory of motivation, the client to indicate authentication success or failure.

The IEEE 802.1X specification prohibits a client from displaying its interface when the Ellis Island, required mutual authentication is not complete. This enables a well-implemented 802.1x client station to avoid being fooled by a fake access point sending premature EAP-Success packets. An attacker keeps the client interface from important, displaying (therefore Denial-of-Service) by continuously spoofing pre-mature EAP-Failure frames from the access point to the client to disrupt the authentication state on the client. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects this form of DoS attack by tracking spoofed premature EAP-Success frames and the 802.1x authentication states for each client station and access point. Locate the device and Essay, take appropriate steps to remove it from the Essay Content, wireless environment. Intrusion Detection—Security Penetration.

A form of wireless intrusion is to breach the WLAN authentication mechanism to gain access to the wired network or the wireless devices. Dictionary attacks on the authentication method is a common attack against an access point. Ellis Island. The intruder can also attack the wireless client station during its association process with an watering access point. For example, a faked access point attack on a unsuspicious wireless client may fool the client into associating with faked access point. This attack allows the Ellis Essay, intruder to gain network access to the wireless station and potentially hack into its file system. The intruder can then use the station to access the wired enterprise network. These security threats can be prevented if mutual authentication and strong encryption techniques are used. The wIPS looks for weak security deployment practices as well as any penetration attack attempts.

The wIPS ensures a strong wireless security umbrella by validating the best security policy implementation as well as detecting intrusion attempts. If such vulnerabilities or attack attempts are detected, the wIPS generates alarms to bring these intrusion attempts to the administrator's notice. Security penetration attacks include the following types: Alarm Description and Possible Causes. WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to the WEP key cracking attack. Cisco Systems introduced LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) to why are tropical important, leverage the existing 802.1x framework to avoid such WEP key attacks.

The Cisco LEAP solution provides mutual authentication, dynamic per session and per user keys, and Island Essay, configurable WEP session key time out. The LEAP solution was considered a stable security solution and is easy to configure. There are hacking tools that compromise wireless LAN networks running LEAP by using off-line dictionary attacks to break LEAP passwords After detecting WLAN networks that use LEAP, this tool de-authenticates users which forces them to reconnect and provide their user name and password credentials. The hacker captures packets of legitimate users trying to automated watering, re-access the network. The attacker can then analyze the traffic off-line and guess the password by testing values from a dictionary. The main features of the ASLEAP tool include: Reading live from any wireless interface in RFMON mode with libpcap Monitoring a single channel or performing channel hopping to Island, look for target networks running LEAP.

Actively deauthenticating users on rainforests LEAP networks, forcing them to reauthenticate. This allows quick LEAP password captures. Essay. Only de-authenticating users who have not already been seen rather than users who are not running LEAP. Reading from stored libpcap files. Using a dynamic database table and index to allow quick lookups on large files.

This reduces the worst-case search time to .0015% as opposed to lookups in a flat file. Writing only the why are important, LEAP exchange information to a libpcap file. This could be used to Island Essay, capture LEAP credentials with a device short on disk space (like an iPaq); the LEAP credentials are then stored in the libpcap file on a system with more storage resources to mount the dictionary attack. The source and Win32 binary distribution for Medieval to Today, the tool are available at http://asleap.sourceforge.net. Cisco Systems has developed the Extensible Authentication Protocol-Flexible Authentication via Secure Tunneling (EAP-FAST) protocol which stops these dictionary attacks. EAP-FAST helps prevent man-in-the-middle attacks, dictionary attacks, and Island, packet and authentication forgery attacks.

In EAP-FAST, a tunnel is created between the client and the server using a PAC (Protected Access Credential) to authenticate each other. After the tunnel establishment process, the client is Essay From then authenticated using the Ellis Island, user-name and Cooking by Jim Sollisch, password credentials. Some advantages of Ellis Essay EAP-FAST include: It is not proprietary. It is compliant with the IEEE 802.11i standard. Automated. It supports TKIP and WPA. It does not use certificates and avoids complex PKI infrastructures. It supports multiple Operating Systems on Ellis Island Essay PCs and Pocket PCs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the Essay of Dream Content in The Interpretation, de-authentication signature of the Island, ASLEAP tool.

Once detected, the server alerts the wireless administrator. The user of the on Theories of Dream Content in The of Dreams by Freud, attacked station should reset the password. Ellis Essay. The best solution to counter the ASLEAP tool is to replace LEAP with EAP-FAST in the corporate WLAN environment. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to is Freedom Jim Sollisch, utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to Ellis Essay, Cisco WCS online help. Starting with Apple OSX Lion, Apple has a new feature called AirDrop. This new feature is supported on newer MacBook, MacBook Pro and iMac.

What this new feature allows users to do is quickly setup a wireless file transfer system. Watering. To achieve this, both of the users that want to share files need to open their finder and click on Ellis Island the AirDrop link. Once both of the automated, systems are in range of each other and the link is Essay setup, the Essay of Dream, users will see the other user's login icon in the AirDrop window. They can then drag-and-drop files onto the other users icon to begin a file transfer. This could potentially create a security risk due to Ellis Island, unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks being dynamically created in automated system your WLAN environment. File sharing is Ellis Island Essay also a concern here. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with an AirDrop session. Cisco recommends that you locate users creating AirDrop sessions and watering, inform them of your company policies regarding unauthorized Peer-to-Peer networks.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Airpwn is a framework for 802.11 packet injection. Airpwn listens to incoming wireless packets, and if the data matches a pattern specified in Ellis the config files, custom content is Essay Chivalry, Medieval injected (spoofed) from the wireless access point. Airpwn utilizes the inherent delay when a client sends a request to the internet. Since the Airpwn attacker is closer, it will be able to quickly respond.

As an example, the hacker might replace all images on a website that the visitor is Island Essay trying to view, showing only what the From Ages to Today, hacker wants the visitor to see. Airpwn only works on Ellis Essay open wireless networks and Cooking an Article by Jim Sollisch, WEP encrypted networks when the attacker knows the Ellis Essay, WEP key. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for herzberg's, potential traffic that is consistent with an Airpwn attack against Open or WEP decrypted Access Points and notifies the WLAN administrator. It is Island Essay recommended that security personnel identify the device and herzberg's theory of motivation, locate it using the Floor Plan screen. Ellis. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects the wireless device running the AirSnarf tool. Appropriate action must be taken by is Freedom an Article by Jim Sollisch Essay, the administrator to remove the AirSnarf tool from the WLAN environment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Certain frame transmissions from a valid corporate client to an AP can cause a crash in Essay some AP models due to signpost words, insufficient or invalid data. A wireless attacker can take advantage of Ellis Essay this vulnerability by transmitting the defective frames in order to bring down a corporate AP.

By sending EAP-TLS packets with flags set to 'c0' and no TLS message length or data, APs from some vendors can be rendered inoperable until they are rebooted. During this reboot process, attackers may have a brief opportunity to gain access to the corporate network, resulting in a potential security leak. The wIPS server monitors EAP-TLS transmissions and of motivation, triggers an alarm if defective or invalid frames are detected. Although this issue may not always represent a wireless attack, it is an Ellis Island Essay issue that should be remedied in order to automated, maintain the health of the overall wireless deployment. Alarm Description and Island Essay, Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air.

This can cause unexpected behavior to the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each beacon frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Cooking an Article by Jim Sollisch Essay beacon fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Beacon Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with Beacon Fuzzing. It is recommended to locate the device and take it offline. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A common practice amongst WLAN Administrators is to disable broadcasting of the SSID for an Access Point. The idea behind this is that if people scanning for wireless networks can't see you, then you are safe. Basically you would need to Island, know the SSID in order to connect to that wireless network.

This protects your wireless network from casual drive by users who don't have the tools to extract the Essay on Theories Content in The by Freud, SSID from hidden networks. But hackers are a different story. They have the tools, the time and energy to extract the SSID from hidden networks. There are many tools to perform this type of Ellis Island Essay snooping. Watering. If a hidden SSID is not found through normal methods, hackers can use a brute force method using the tool mdk3. With the tool mdk3, they can perform a Dictionary attack or a word list attack on the hidden network to extract the SSID. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for potential traffic that is consistent with a brute force attack against a hidden SSID and notifies the WLAN administrator. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the Floor Plan screen. The attacking station should be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Alarm Description and Ellis Essay, Possible Causes. This attack takes advantage of an insecure redundancy checking algorithm implemented in the WEP protocol.

By compromising a few known properties, an attacker is able to tropical rainforests important, take an encrypted packet and decrypt it while retrieving the keystream used to encrypt the packet. The way the attack works, is the attacker captures a packet and chops one byte off the end of the packet before the ICV. The attacker will then append a guess to the decrypted value of the byte. Island. The packet is herzberg's of motivation fixed by recalculating the ICV then injects this packet to the target AP. If the target AP, re-broadcasts this frame back out, the attacker knows he has correctly guessed the value of the Island, decrypted byte. The attacker then moves onto the next byte. As the system, guesses become successful, the packet being injected actually gets smaller and smaller. If the packet doesn't get re-broadcasted, then the attacker changes the guess and repeats the process, he or she has 256 possible choices to Island, try and guess. Below is an automated example of the tool running trying the various possible guesses.

Once complete, the attacker will have decrypted the Ellis Essay, entire WEP packet byte by byte, which can then be XORed with the original encrypted packet to Chivalry, Medieval Ages to Today, produce the Ellis, plaintext data. The ChopChop Attack is targeted at WEP based Access Points to break the WEP key and gain direct access to the wireless network. Since this particular attack can take less than 5 minutes to of Dream of Dreams by Freud, perform, there is a good chance the attacker has already gained access to your wireless network. If possible, migrate your WLAN off WEP. WPA2-AES is recommended. If that's not an option, here are some steps to help troubleshoot the Ellis, situation.

Turn off the radios for the affected AP. This will disconnect all clients that are currently connected. Change the WEP key Turn the radios back on You will need to change the WEP key on all of the devices that were currently connected to Essay on Theories of Dream, the new WEP key that was just set. Monitor NCS to Island Essay, see if the theory, ChopChop alarm happens again. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. DHCP Starvation is an attack where a malicious user broadcasts large amounts of DHCP requests with spoofed MAC addresses. If enough DHCP request frames flood the network, the attacker could use up all of the Ellis Island, remaining DHCP IP addresses that are available for valid users. From. This would create a DoS condition on the network. There are two tools that can do this fairly easily: Gobbler and Yersinia are publicly available tools that can perform this type of attack.

This type of attack is especially harmful on guest networks or hotspot networks where the Island, user is allowed to automated, get an IP address before the authentication happens. Mitigation options for this type of attack can be handled at the switch level. For Cisco IOS switches, enable DHCP Snooping. For Cisco CatOS, enable port security. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with a DHCP Starvation attack. Cisco recommends that you locate the Ellis Essay, user running the attack or implement tighter switch security. Day-0 Attack by WLAN Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS has detected a single Security IDS/IPS policy violation on a large number of devices in the wireless network. Either the number of devices violating the specific policy in the time period specified are observed or there is From to Today a sudden percentage increase in Ellis Essay the number of devices as specified in the threshold settings for the alarm.

Depending on the Security IDS/IPS violation, it is suggested that the violation be monitored individually to determine the source and destination of this attack. If this is an increase in the number of rogue devices, it may indicate an attack against the network. If there is a sudden increase in the number of watering client devices with encryption disabled, it may be necessary to Ellis Island Essay, revisit the Corporate Security Policy and enforce users to use the highest level of encryption and herzberg's theory, authentication according to the policy rules. Day-0 Attack by Device Security Anomaly. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a device violating a large number of Security IDS/IPS policies. This device has either generated a number of Security IDS/IPS violations in Island Essay the time period specified or there is a sudden percentage increase as specified in the threshold settings for the various alarms. On Theories Content. The device should be monitored and located to carry out further analysis to check if this device is compromising the Island Essay, Enterprise Wireless Network in any way (attack or vulnerability).

If this is a rogue device, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find it. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Cross-Site scripting vulnerabilities are well known and consist of publicized attacks that target web applications to gain access to the underlying server or the web application itself. It does this by injecting a client-side script into web pages viewed by the user. This attack is Cooking performed using a device to broadcast the client-side code as the SSID. Ellis Island. Once a WLAN monitoring system picks up the malicious SSID and records it, if the system is web based and there are Cross-Site Scripting vulnerabilities, then that system will be exploited once the automated system, device with the malicious SSID is Ellis Island clicked. Cisco Enterprise monitors the wireless network for by Essay, Access Points and Ad-hoc devices broadcasting malicious Cross-site scripting (XSS) traffic. It is recommended that security personnel identify the device and locate it using the floor plan screen. The device should then be removed from the wireless environment as soon as possible. Some commonly used scan tools include: NetStumbler (newer versions), MiniStumbler (newer versions), MACStumbler, WaveStumbler, PrismStumbler, dStumbler, iStumbler, Aerosol, Boingo Scans, WiNc, AP Hopper, NetChaser, Microsoft Windows XP scans. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects wireless devices probing the WLAN and attempting association (i.e. association request for an access point with any SSID). Such devices could pose potential security threats in one of the following ways: War-driving, WiLDing (Wireless LAN Discovery), war-chalking, war-walking, war cycling, war-lightrailing, war-busing, and war-flying. Legitimate wireless client attempting risky promiscuous association. War-driving, war-chalking, war-walking, and war-flying activities include: War-driving- A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and publishes information such as MAC address, SSID, and security implemented on Ellis the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalking- War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols War-flying-War-flying refers to sniffing for Essay, wireless networks from the air. Ellis Island Essay. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet relay chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your the access points to not broadcast SSIDs. Use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access points are broadcasting (announcing) their SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. IEEE 802.1x provides an EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) framework for herzberg's, wired or wireless LAN authentication. An EAP framework allows flexible authentication protocol implementation. Some implementations of Ellis Island 802.1x or WPA use authentication protocols such as LEAP, MD5, OTP (one-time-password), TLS, and TTLS. Some of these authentication protocols are based upon the user name and why are tropical, password mechanism, where the Island Essay, user name is transmitted clear without encryption and Essay, the password is Ellis Island used to answer authentication challenges. Most password-based authentication algorithms are susceptible to important, dictionary attacks. During a dictionary attack, an Island Essay attacker gains the user name from the watering, unencrypted 802.1x identifier protocol exchange. The attacker then tries to guess a user's password to gain network access by using every word in a dictionary of common passwords or possible combinations of passwords.

A dictionary attack relies on the fact that a password is often a common word, name, or combination of Island Essay both with a minor modification such as a trailing digit or two. A dictionary attack can take place actively online, where an attacker repeatedly tries all the possible password combinations. Online dictionary attacks can be prevented using lock-out mechanisms available on the authentication server (RADIUS servers) to lock out the user after a certain number of invalid login attempts. A dictionary attack can also take place off-line, where an attacker captures a successful authentication challenge protocol exchange and then tries to match the challenge response with all possible password combinations off-line. Unlike online attacks, off-line attacks are not easily detected. Using a strong password policy and periodically expiring user passwords significantly reduces an off-line attack tool's success. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects online dictionary attacks by tracking 802.1x authentication protocol exchange and the user identifier usages. Upon detection of a dictionary attack, the signpost words, alarm message identifies the user name and attacking station's MAC address.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS advises switching user name and password based authentication methods to encrypted tunnel based authentication methods such as PEAP and EAP-FAST, which are supported by many vendors including Cisco. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Fake AP tool is meant to protect your WLAN acting as a decoy to Ellis, confuse war-drivers using NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, MiniStumbler, Kismet, etc. The tool generates beacon frames imitating thousands of counterfeit 802.11b access points. War-drivers encountering a large amount of access points are not able to identify the real access points deployed by the user. Cooking By Jim Sollisch. This tool, although very effective in fending off war-drivers, poses other disadvantages such as bandwidth consumption, misleading legitimate client stations, and Ellis Island Essay, interference with the WLAN management tools. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS does not recommend running the Fake AP tool in your WLAN.

The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends that the is Freedom by, administrator locate the device running the Fake AP tool and take appropriate steps to remove it from the wireless environment. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the DHCP service and providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the device. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects such wireless STAs running the Island, DHCP service and providing IP addresses to unaware users. Once the client is theory identified and reported, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the Essay, device. Fast WEP Crack (ARP Replay) Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. It is well publicized that WLAN devices using static WEP key for encryption are vulnerable to Cooking is Freedom by Essay, WEP key cracking attack (Refer to Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir).

The WEP secret key that has been cracked by any intruder results in no encryption protection, thus leading to compromised data privacy. The WEP key that is in most cases 64-bit or 128-bit (few vendors also offer 152-bit encryption) consists of the secret key specified by Ellis Island Essay, the user linked with the an Article, 24-bit IV (Initialization Vector). The IV that is determined by the transmitting station can be reused frequently or in Island consecutive frames, thus increasing the possibility of the secret key to be recovered by wireless intruders. The most important factor in any attack against the WEP key is the system, key size. For 64-bit WEP keys, around 150K unique IVs and for 128-bit WEP keys around 500k to a million unique IVs should be enough. With insufficient traffic, hackers have created a unique way of generating sufficient traffic to Essay, perform such an attack. This is called the replay attack based on arp-request packets. From To Today. Such packets have a fixed length and can be spotted easily. By capturing one legitimate arp-request packet and resending them repeatedly, the Island, other host responds with encrypted replies, providing new and possibly weak IVs. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on weak WEP implementations and recommends a device firmware upgrade if available from the device vendor to correct the Essay on Theories of Dream in The Interpretation by Freud, IV usage problem.

Ideally, enterprise WLAN networks can protect against WEP vulnerability by using the Ellis Island, TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) encryption mechanism, which is now supported by most enterprise level wireless equipment. TKIP enabled devices are not subject to any such WEP key attacks. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that proactively reports any access points configured to utilize weak encryption or authentication. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the Cisco WCS online help. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

It is well publicized that a WLAN device using a static WEP key for encryption is vulnerable to various WEP cracking attacks. Refer to Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4 - I, by Scott Fluhrer, Itsik Mantin, and Adi Shamir for more information. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts on detecting a potential fragmentation attack in progress, and recommends that WEP not be used in the corporate environment and that appropriate measures be taken to avoid any security holes in the network and From Medieval, upgrade the wireless network infrastructure and devices to use the more secure IEEE 802.11i standard. HT Intolerant Degradation Services. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Ellis Essay Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. While 802.11n deployments provide the potential for dramatically increased wireless range and speed over legacy implementations, these benefits can be easily lost or offset if a single legacy device is introduced to the network. To help prevent this situation, the wIPS server will trigger an HT-Intolerant Degradation of Service alarm when it detects packets transmitted between n-capable devices at sub-n speeds. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

The addition of WLANs in automated system the corporate environment introduces a whole new class of threats for network security. Ellis Island Essay. RF signals that penetrate walls and extend beyond intended boundaries can expose the network to unauthorized users. A rogue access point can put the entire corporate network at risk for of motivation, outside penetration and attack. Not to understate the threat of the rogue access point, there are many other wireless security risks and Essay, intrusions such as mis-configured access points, unconfigured access points, and DoS (denial-of-service) attacks. One of the most effective attacks facing enterprise networks implementing wireless is the automated watering system, use of a honey pot access point. An intruder uses tools such as NetStumbler, Wellenreiter, and Island Essay, MiniStumbler to discover the watering system, SSID of the corporate access point. Then the intruder sets up an access point outside the building premises or, if possible, within the premises and broadcasts the discovered corporate SSID. An unsuspecting client then connects to Ellis, this honey pot access point with a higher signal strength. Once associated, the intruder performs attacks against the client station because traffic is diverted through the herzberg's, honey pot access point.

Once a honey pot access point is identified and reported by Ellis Island Essay, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the WLAN administrator may use the integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the rogue device. Hot-Spotter Tool Detected (Potential Wireless Phishing) Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is theory of motivation any location where Wi-Fi network access available for the general public. Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and other places where business people tend to congregate. It is currently one of the most important network access service for business travelers. The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to Island Essay, connect to the legitimate access point and to receive service. Most hotspots do not require the system, user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to Ellis Island Essay, connect to the access point, other than using a web page to Chivalry, From Medieval, log in. The criterion for entry is only dependent on whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else. Ellis Island. Due to current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user.

The four components of a basic hotspot network are: Hotspot Subscribers-Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid login for accessing the hotspot network. WLAN Access Points-SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Hotspot Controllers-Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions, etc. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself.

Authentication Server-Contains the login credentials for the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server. Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Why Are Tropical Rainforests Important. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitors the Ellis Essay, wireless network for probe request frames to identify the SSIDs of the signpost words, networks of the Essay, Windows XP clients. After it acquires the an Article by Jim Sollisch Essay, preferred network information, the intruder compares the network name (SSID) to Ellis, a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. Once a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point. Once the client gets associated, the Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to this kind of attack when they are operating in different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out probe requests using that SSID and make themselves vulnerable to the tool. Once the Essay Chivalry, Medieval, rogue access point is identified and reported by the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS, the Ellis Island, WLAN administrator may use the Essay Chivalry, From to Today, integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities, or trace device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switchport tracing to find the rogue device.

Identical Send and Receive Address. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. In order to inhibit wireless activity in a corporate network, attackers will often modify wireless packets to emulate various different characteristics, including changes to the packets' Source and Destination MAC information. In cases where these fields are identical, the Identical Send and Receive Address alarm will be triggered in order to alert IT personnel of a potential attack. In a normal network environment, a packet's Source and Destination will never be identical.

As such, the enterprise administrators should take immediate steps to locate the root cause of the modified packets. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Standard 802.11 deployments allow for certain frames to Ellis Island, be transmitted to individual destinations (also known as unicast frames, such as an ACK) and other frames to be 'broadcast' to all recipients in the wireless deployment. In general, these two categories should not overlap, e.g., an Association Request frame should not be sent out as a broadcast to all listening devices. Signpost Words. In this scenario, the wIPS server will trigger an Improper Broadcast Frames alarm to alert staff of a potential problem. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Karma tool allows a wireless attacker to Ellis, configure a client as a soft AP that will respond to any probe request detected. This implementation is automated watering system designed to Ellis Island, respond to queries from signpost words, stations configured to connect to multiple different networks, e.g., SSID Corporate for work and SSID Home for home use. In this example, the soft AP may be configured to respond to Ellis Essay, the probe for Home when the herzberg's, client is at work. In this manner, the attacker tricks the corporate client to route potentially sensitive network traffic to the false AP. The wIPS server will trigger a Karma Tool alarm if a wireless station is discovered using the tool within the corporate environment.

Users should locate the attacking device and eliminate it immediately. Alarm Description and Ellis Essay, Possible Causes. Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) attack is one of the Cooking is Freedom Jim Sollisch, most common 802.11 attacks that can lead to confidential corporate and private information being leaked to hackers. In a MITM attack, the Ellis Essay, hacker can use a 802.11 wireless analyzer and monitor 802.11 frames sent over the WLAN. By capturing the wireless frames during the association phase, the hacker gets IP and MAC address information about the signpost words, wireless client card and access point, association ID for the client, and the SSID of the wireless network. A commonly used method for performing the Ellis Island Essay, MITM attack involves the hacker sending spoofed dis-association or de-authentication frames. The hacker station then spoofs the MAC address of the client to continue an association with the access point. By Essay. At the same time, the Ellis, hacker sets up a spoofed access point in another channel to herzberg's of motivation, keep the Ellis Island, client associated. This allows all traffic between the why are rainforests, valid client and access point to pass through the hacker's station.

One of the Ellis, most commonly used MITM attack tools is Monkey-Jack. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS recommends the use of strong encryption and authentication mechanisms to thwart any MITM attacks by hackers. Essay Content Of Dreams By Freud. One way to avoid such an Essay attack is to prevent MAC spoofing by using MAC address exclusion lists and monitoring the RF channel environment. Cisco Management Frame Protection (MFP) also provides complete proactive protection against MITM attacks. For more information on MFP, refer to the Cisco Wireless Control System Configuration Guide or the WCS online help. Alarm Description and herzberg's, Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for Island Essay, an anonymous association (such as an Essay Chivalry, From Medieval to Today association request for an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for Island Essay, Access Point alarm is generated when hackers use recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the Essay of Dream Content Interpretation by Freud, Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm.

NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving and war-chalking. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is similiar to war-driving, but the hacker is on Ellis Island Essay foot instead of signpost words a car. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or better. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers like to use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores.

War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used from a low flying private plane with high power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up email and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an Island altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to signpost words, see which of your access points is broadcasting an SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to broadcast their SSIDs.

For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. To prevent your access points from Ellis Island, being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to not broadcast its SSID. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which access point is broadcasting its SSID in the beacons. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e., association request for an access point with any SSID) using the NetStumbler tool. The Device probing for access point alarm is generated when hackers more recent versions of the NetStumbler tool. For older versions, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS generates the NetStumbler detected alarm. NetStumbler is the most widely used tool for war-driving, war-walking, and From to Today, war-chalking. Ellis Island. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to discover access points and publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on signpost words the Internet with the Island Essay, access points' geographical location information. Signpost Words. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above.

War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the Ellis, hacker conducts the illegal operation on foot instead of by car. The NetStumbler web site (http://www.netstumbler.com/) offers MiniStumbler software for use on Pocket PC hardware, saving war-walkers from carrying heavy laptops. Chivalry, From To Today. It can run on a machine running Windows 2000, Windows XP, or later. It also supports more cards than Wellenreiter, another commonly used scanning tool. War-walkers typically use MiniStumbler and similar products to sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores. War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. The same equipment is used, but from a low-flying private plane with high-power antennas. It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS alerts the user when it observes that a station running Netstumbler is associated to a corporate access point.

Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) Violation. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Publicly Secure Packet Forwarding (PSPF) is a feature implemented on WLAN access points to Ellis Island, block wireless clients from communicating with other wireless clients. With PSPF enabled, client devices cannot communicate with other client devices on the wireless network. For most WLAN environments, wireless clients communicate only with devices such as web servers on the wired network. By enabling PSPF it protects wireless clients from why are rainforests, being hacked by a wireless intruder. PSPF is Ellis Essay effective in protecting wireless clients especially at wireless public networks (hotspots) such as airports, hotels, coffee shops, and college campuses where authentication is null and anyone can associate with the on Theories of Dream Content Interpretation, access points.

The PSPF feature prevents client devices from inadvertently sharing files with other client devices on the wireless network. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects PSPF violations. If a wireless client attempts to communicate with another wireless client, the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS raises an Ellis Island Essay alarm for automated, a potential intrusion attack. This alarm does not apply if your WLAN deploys wireless printers or VoWLAN applications because these applications rely on Ellis Island Essay wireless client-to-client communication. Probe Request Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into herzberg's theory of motivation, the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into the air. Ellis. This can cause unexpected behavior to Cooking is Freedom an Article Essay, the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames. The system inspects each Probe Request frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Most common forms of Probe Request fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the Ellis Island Essay, limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. System. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Island, Probe Request Fuzzing alarm when the field values are beyond the 802.11 specification.

Probe Response Fuzzed Frame Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. 802.11 Fuzzing is the process of introducing invalid, unexpected or random data into the 802.11 frames and then replaying those modified frames into signpost words, the air. This can cause unexpected behavior to Ellis Essay, the destination device including driver crashes, operating system crashes and stack based overflows which would allow execution of Cooking Jim Sollisch arbitrary code on the affected system. The CVE website (http://cve.mitre.org/index.html) has numerous reported entries for Ellis Island Essay, fuzzing based vulnerabilities on 802.11 frames.

The system inspects each Probe Response frame looking for signs of fuzzing activity. Herzberg's. Most common forms of Probe Response fuzzing involve expanding the SSID field beyond the limit of 32 bytes and changing the supported data rates to invalid rates. The system looks for these anomalies and will generate the Ellis, Probe Response Fuzzing alarm when the is Freedom by Essay, field values are beyond the 802.11 specification. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with Probe Response Fuzzing. It is recommended to locate the device and take it offline.

Host AP tools: Cqure AP. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. A hotspot is any location where Wi-Fi network access available for the general public. Ellis. Hotspots are often found in airports, hotels, coffee shops, and Content in The by Freud, other places where business people tend to Island, congregate. It is currently one of the most important network access service for business travelers. The customer requires a wireless-enabled laptop or handheld to connect to the legitimate access point and to Essay on Theories in The of Dreams, receive service. Most hotspots do not require the Ellis, user to have an advanced authentication mechanism to signpost words, connect to the access point, other than using a web page to log in. The criterion for Ellis, entry is only dependent on whether or not the subscriber has paid subscription fees. In a wireless hotspot environment, no one should trust anyone else.

Due to current security concerns, some WLAN hotspot vendors are using 802.1x or higher authentication mechanisms to validate the identity of the user. Basic components of a WLAN Hotspot network. The four components of a basic hotspot network are as follows: Hotspot Subscribers—Valid users with a wireless enabled laptop or handheld and valid log in for important, accessing the hotspot network. WLAN Access Points—SOHO gateways or enterprise level access points depending upon the hotspot implementation. Ellis Island. Hotspot Controllers—Deals with user authentication, gathering billing information, tracking usage time, filtering functions. This can be an independent machine or can be incorporated in the access point itself. Authentication Server—Contains the log in credentials for the subscribers. In most cases, hotspot controllers verify subscribers' credentials with the authentication server.

Hotspotter automates a method of penetration against wireless clients, independent of the encryption mechanism used. Using the Hotspotter tool, the intruder can passively monitor the wireless network for probe request frames to why are tropical important, identify the SSIDs of the Island Essay, networks of the Windows XP clients. After it acquires the preferred network information, the intruder compares the network name (SSID) to a supplied list of commonly used hotspot network names. Signpost Words. When a match is found, the Hotspotter client acts as an access point. The clients then authenticate and associate unknowingly to this fake access point. When the client gets associated, the Island, Hotspotter tool can be configured to run a command such as a script to kick off a DHCP daemon and other scanning against the new victim. Clients are also susceptible to this kind of attack when they are operating in different environments (home and office) while they are still configured to include the hotspot SSID in the Windows XP wireless connection settings. The clients send out probe requests using that SSID and theory, make themselves vulnerable to the tool. Soft APs or Software Access points should be treated as a Rogue device. The following steps should help eliminate this threat. Use integrated over-the-air physical location capabilities to locate the Rogue device Wireless Containment to prevent any devices from Ellis Island, connecting to the Soft AP Trace the device on the wired network using rogue location discovery protocol (RLDP) or switch port tracing to find the rogue device.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. Spoofed mac address detected is a type of attack where a hacker will change their factory assigned wireless mac address to either gain access to a restricted wireless network by impersonating a valid connected user or to hide their presence on the wireless network. There are two types of Spoofed MAC address attacks, Client based and AP based. For client based Spoofed MAC address attacks, the client could be trying to impersonate a valid user. An example of theory this would be a wireless hacker trying to get onto an access controlled hotspot by spoofing their wireless mac address of a client that is Ellis Island already connected, in effect piggybacking on the connection. Another popular example would be in a hotel environment where a hacker bypasses the payment process to get on the wireless network by signpost words, spoofing their wireless mac address of a paid user. Another type of Island Essay Spoofed MAC address attack is AP based. In this case, the hacker is system trying to hide their presence on Ellis Island Essay the wireless network by spoofing the mac address of a corporate access point. Signpost Words. This is Island a typical rogue scenario. Suspicious After Hours Traffic Detected.

Alarm Description and Possible Causes. One way to detect a wireless security penetration attempt is to Essay Chivalry, Medieval to Today, match wireless usage against Ellis Island Essay, the time when there is not supposed to be any wireless traffic. The wIPS server monitors traffic patterns against the office-hours configured for this alarm to watering system, generate alerts when an abnormality is found. Specific suspicious wireless usage sought after by the wIPS server during after-office hours include the following: Client station initiating authentication or association requests to the office WLAN that may indicate security breach attempts.

Wireless data traffic that may indicate suspicious download or upload over the wireless network. For global wIPS deployment, the configurable office-hour range is defined in local time. The access point or sensor can be configured with a time zone to facilitate management. Ellis Island Essay. For the office and manufacturing floor mixed WLAN, one can define one set of office hours for the office WLAN SSID and another (for example, 6am to 9pm) for the manufacturing floor WLAN SSID. If this alarm is Cooking is Freedom an Article by Essay triggered, the administrator should look for devices responsible for Ellis, the suspicious traffic and take appropriate steps to locate it and signpost words, remove it from the wireless environment. Unauthorized Association By Vendor List. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS enables network administrators to include vendor information in Island Essay a policy profile to allow the system to effectively detect stations on the WLAN that are not made by approved vendors. Once such a policy profile is herzberg's created, the system generates an Ellis alarm whenever an access point is signpost words associating with a station by an unapproved vendor. See the diagram below. As the diagram shows, the access points in ACL-1 should only associate with stations made by Cisco and Ellis, the access points in ACL-2 can only associate with stations manufactured by Intel.

This information is entered in the wIPS system's policy profile. Any association between the access points and non-Cisco or non-Intel stations is unauthorized and watering, triggers an alarm. In the Ellis, enterprise WLAN environment, rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. An Article Essay. They take up air space and compete for network bandwidth. Island. Since an access point can only accommodate a limited number of stations, it rejects association requests from signpost words, stations once its capacity is reached. Ellis Essay. An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations the access to the network. Common problems caused by rogue stations include connectivity problems and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS automatically alerts network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association involving non-conforming stations using this alarm. Essay Of Dream Content In The. Once the alarm has been triggered, the unauthorized station must be identified and actions must be taken to resolve the issue. One way is to Island Essay, block it using the rogue containment.

Unauthorized Association Detected. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. In an enterprise network environment, rogue access points installed by employees do not usually follow the network's standard deployment practice and is Freedom Essay, therefore compromise the integrity of the network. They are loopholes in Ellis network security and signpost words, make it easy for intruders to hack into Ellis Essay, the enterprise wired network. Herzberg's Theory. One of the major concerns that most wireless network administrators face is unauthorized associations between stations in an ACL and a rogue access point. Since data to and from the stations flows through the rogue access point, it leaves the door open for Island Essay, hackers to theory, obtain sensitive information. Rogue stations cause security concerns and undermine network performance. They take up air space and compete for bandwidths on the network. Ellis. Since an access point can only serve a certain number of stations, it rejects association requests from stations once its capacity is reached.

An access point laden with rogue stations denies legitimate stations access to Essay Content Interpretation of Dreams by Freud, the network. Common problems caused by rogue stations include disrupted connections and degraded performance. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS can automatically alert network administrators to any unauthorized access point-station association it has detected on the network through this alarm. The WLC new feature MAC Address Learning will prevent this violation from happening, it is recommended to enable this feature. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS detects a wireless client station probing the WLAN for an anonymous association (i.e. association request for Ellis Island, an access point with any SSID) using the Wellenreiter tool.

Wellenreiter is watering a commonly used tool for Ellis Essay, war-driving and war-chalking. Automated Watering. A wireless hacker uses war-driving tools to Island, discover access points and to publish their information (MAC address, SSID, security implemented, etc.) on the Internet with the access points' geographical location information. War-chalkers discover WLAN access points and mark the WLAN configuration at public locations with universal symbols as illustrated above. War-walking is similar to war-driving, but the signpost words, hacker is on foot instead of Ellis Island a car. War-walkers like to use Wellenreiter and similar products to signpost words, sniff shopping malls and big-box retail stores. War-flying is sniffing for wireless networks from the air. Island Essay. The same equipment is used, but from a low flying private plane with high power antennas.

It has been reported that a Perth, Australia-based war-flier picked up e-mail and Internet Relay Chat sessions from an altitude of 1,500 feet on a war-flying trip. The tool supports Prism2, Lucent, and Cisco based cards. Essay Chivalry, From. The tool can discover infrastructure and ad-hoc networks that are broadcasting SSIDs, their WEP capabilities, and can provide vendor information automatically. Essay. It also creates an Chivalry, Ages to Today ethereal/tcpdump-compatible dumpfile and an Application savefile. It also has GPS support. Users can download the tool from Wellenreiter website.

To prevent your access points from being discovered by these hacking tools, configure your access points to Island, not broadcast its SSID. Signpost Words. You can use the Cisco Adaptive Wireless IPS to see which of Island Essay your access points is broadcasting an SSID in the beacons. Cisco WCS also provides automated security vulnerability scanning that reports any access points configured to an Article Essay, broadcast their SSIDs. For more information on automated security vulnerability scanning, refer to the WCS online help. WiFi Protected Setup Pin Brute Force. Alarm Description and Possible Causes.

WiFi Protected Setup is a feature on most consumer grade Access Points that allows for easy device setup without the need for complex passwords. The feature allows the user to either use the push button method or enter in the pin found on the bottom of the Access Point to connect. A vulnerability was announced in December 2011 by Stefan Viehböck and independently discovered by Ellis, Craig Heffner. The vulnerability is on Theories of Dream Content Interpretation with the external registrar that only requires the devices pin. This mode is Island susceptible to brute force attacks against the pin. There are currently 2 active tools in the wild exploiting this. The basic idea behind the attack is when a pin authentication fails, the Cooking Jim Sollisch, access point sends back an EAP-NACK message to the client. With this EAP-NACK message, the attacker is able to Ellis Essay, determine if the first half of the pin is correct.

The last digit of the pin is known since it is a checksum for the pin. This reduces the attempts to brute force the pin down to 11,000. It is recommended to disable the external registrar feature of WiFi Protected Setup on your Access Point. Most manufacturers have this feature on by default. The system monitors the wireless network for traffic consistent with WiFi Protected Setup Pin brute force. It is recommended to tropical important, locate the Ellis Island, device and take it offline. Alarm Description and Possible Causes. The WiFiTap tool allows a wireless attacker to configure a client to Essay Medieval to Today, communicate directly with another client, without connecting to Ellis Essay, a corporate AP.

This implementation allows the intruder to target an attack against the individual client, bypassing any security measures configured on the corporate network. The attacker then has access to all files and information stored on the victim client station. The wIPS server monitors for use of the theory, WiFiTap tool and Essay, triggers an alarm if it is is Freedom detected. Ellis Island. Users should attempt to locate the attacking device and remove it from the automated watering, wireless environment.

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Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is Ellis Essay, not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. Essay On Theories Content In The Interpretation. It focuses on a specific topic of Island interest to you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and why are rainforests important relating this research to your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and rationale for Ellis Island, a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation). These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006).

Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is automated watering, very useful to use as you write your review. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to Ellis Essay, consider in helping you organize your review. In the sections from Step 6-9 what I have included is the is Freedom Essay, outline of those steps exactly as described by Galvan. I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to search the Essay, literature and signpost words as you write your review. In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in Ellis Island your field of study and skim over system these to get a feel for what a literature review is and Island Essay how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the links provided below on signpost words APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the Ellis Island Essay, common core elements of on Theories of Dream of Dreams by Freud how to write in Island APA style: in on Theories Content in The Interpretation of Dreams by Freud particular, pay attention to general document guidelines (e.g. Island Essay. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the one on which you intend to do your final M.Ed. project, or is in some way related to the topic of your final project. However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of study. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and theory also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the Ellis Island Essay, Furl accounts of other Furl members).

Some tips for identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field. You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in the document titles, or in both the document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the topic that you are reviewing is signpost words, too broad. Try to narrow it to a specific area of Ellis Essay interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an introductory literature review for Educ 7001). Automated System. It is a good idea, as part of your literature search, to look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on Island this topic. Signpost Words. As part of your search, be sure to identify landmark or classic studies and theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study.

Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for guide on how to do this from different databases). You can also enter references manually into Essay RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and located the articles for tropical rainforests, your review, you need to analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an idea of the general purpose and Ellis content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of herzberg's of motivation each article. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to record the notes that you take on each directly into Ellis Essay RefWorks in the box for User 1. Signpost Words. You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in RefWorks makes it easy to Ellis, organize your notes later. Group the articles into an Article by Essay categories (e.g. into topics and subtopics and Essay chronologically within each subtopic). Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record.

You can record the topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Take notes : Decide on the format in which you will take notes as you read the articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g. Access or File Maker Pro), in an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of why are tropical rainforests important using note cards. Be consistent in how you record notes. Ellis. Define key terms: look for differences in Cooking is Freedom by the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Island Essay. Note key statistics that you may want to use in the introduction to your review. Select useful quotes that you may want to include in your review.

Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to Essay Medieval, use the Ellis Island Essay, quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references). To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in note taking), if you are accessing the article in a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. Note: although you may collect a large number of quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the Essay of Dream in The Interpretation of Dreams by Freud, review, use quotes very sparingly. The rule I follow is to quote only Ellis Island, when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the Essay of Dream of Dreams, original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses.

Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing. Critique the research methodologies used in the studies, and distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and actual research findings (derived from Ellis Island empirical evidence). Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and automated watering patterns over time as reported in the literature. This step requires you to synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and Essay trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the big picture that has emerged over time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of herzberg's of motivation studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Island. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study).

These gaps will be important for you to address as you plan and From Medieval write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature). Ellis. When you write your review, you should address these relationships and on Theories Content Interpretation different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework. Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in Ellis your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). If you are using an electronic form of Essay Chivalry, Medieval Ages to Today note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in Excel have a separate column for each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to Ellis Island, ensure that it is up to signpost words, date and has reported the most current work.

Typically a review will cover the Essay, last five years, but should also refer to any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in shaping the direction of the field. If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to Essay on Theories, help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and Ellis suggests that including one or more of the Essay on Theories Content in The Interpretation of Dreams by Freud, tables that you create may be helpful in your literature review. If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by an analysis that summarizes, interprets and Island Essay synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table. You can plan your table or do the entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the automated system, table using the Ellis Island Essay, table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and important then copy and paste/import the the Excel sheet into Word once you have completed the table in Excel. The advantage of using Excel is that it enables you to sort your findings according to a variety of factors (e.g. sort by date, and then by author; sort by Essay methodology and signpost words then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and concepts.

Research methods Summary of research results. Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review. The following are the key steps as outlined by Ellis Island Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and voice before beginning to write. In the why are tropical important, case of this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to Island, provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and concepts within your chosen area of focus.

You are also developing skills in reviewing and writing, to Cooking is Freedom, provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in your final project. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of your field of study and/or establishing context for Essay, a study that you have done. Why Are Tropical Rainforests Important. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into Island a unique analysis of the picture that you have captured in your notes. Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an rainforests important, annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the difference between an Ellis Island, annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in why are tropical essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. Ellis Essay. In the case of a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in tropical rainforests important the literature you read. Island. Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of herzberg's argument. Island. You may find the program Inspiration useful in mapping out theory your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to convert this to a text outline merely by clicking on the outline button). This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies.

Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Plan to Ellis Island Essay, describe relevant theories. Plan to is Freedom an Article by Essay, discuss how individual studies relate to Island, and advance theory Plan to summarize periodically and, again near the end of the review Plan to signpost words, present conclusions and implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in Ellis Island the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and indicate the Cooking is Freedom an Article by, results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on Ellis Essay your topic Refer the reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Of Motivation. Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is long, provide an overview near the Essay, beginning of the review Near the beginning of why are tropical rainforests important a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in Ellis the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review. Aim for a clear and tropical cohesive essay that integrates the key details of the literature and Essay communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the signpost words, review: Provide closure so that the path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind.

How you end the Ellis Essay, review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it. If the review was written to stand alone, as is the case of herzberg's of motivation a term paper or a review article for publication, the conclusion needs to make clear how the material in the body of the review has supported the Island, assertion or proposition presented in the introduction. Essay On Theories Of Dream In The By Freud. On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to the research questions that will be addressed. Ellis Island. Check the flow of tropical important your argument for coherence. Galvan, J. (2006).

Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.). Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.