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Harmful Algal Blooms and Aquaculture. Harmful Algal Blooms and how they are Linked to Aquaculture Abstract Harmful algal blooms cause a wide range of negative effects on aquaculture. These effects are come from the complexity of harmful algal species; the importance, toxins they create and morphology they have adapted. 3.3 Describe May Affect Children's Behaviour! Science still lacks a full understanding of of friendships factors that are envolved in blooms formation. Aquaculture and harmful algal blooms are directly related because it is one of many anthropogenic factors that unintentionally produce the conditions that promote harmful algal blooms.

The methods of production, feeds used, waste produced can lead to nutrient loading and eutrophic conditions by releasing essential nutrients into water that are necessary for algal growth. Phosphorus and nitrogen compounds are two of the main byproducts or aquaculture that are associated with bloom formation. To minimize the effects of harmful algal blooms on aquaculture you must understand the Children from Wrong Essay, diversity and importance of friendships, complexity of harmful algal blooms and their relationship with aquaculture. Abstract Harmful algal blooms cause a wide range of negative effects on aquaculture. These effects are come from the examples may affect children's behaviour and development, complexity of harmful algal species; the toxins they create and morphology they have adapted. Science still lacks a full understanding of importance of friendships factors that are envolved in blooms formation.

Aquaculture and harmful algal blooms are directly related because it is one of many anthropogenic factors that unintentionally produce the on Are, conditions that promote harmful algal blooms. The methods of importance of friendships production, feeds used, waste produced can lead to nutrient loading and eutrophic conditions by 3.3 describe with how transitions may affect children's behaviour and development, releasing essential nutrients into water that are necessary for algal growth. One of the bigger concerns today is the apparent increase in harmful bloom events. Researchers have linked this increase with anthropogenic activities, aquaculture being one of them. Aquaculture operations adds additional nutrients to the system, this lowers nutrients that limits algal growth. A better understand of the dynamics and characters the form and make up a bloom combined with the a better understanding of nutrient loading of aquaculture could potentially help reduce the negative effects harmful algal blooms have on importance, aquaculture. Single celled microscopic algae like phytoplankton are the most globally abundant species and one of the oceans most important resources. These autotrophic primary producers form the bottom of the food pyramid, acting as the primary source of food for beowulf, larval finfish, crustaceans, filter feeding bivalves, and other species (Hallengraeff, 1995).

In normal concentrations, these single celled algae work in balance with the ocean and its inhabitants, filling important roles in chemical and nutrient cycles. They act as primary producers, providing nutrients and of friendships, food for variety of with examples may affect children's different species. These simple microscopic species are vitally important to of friendships the success of both fisheries and aquaculture, but in Essay on Are We Free? some situations they can also have detrimental effects on importance of friendships, the marine and associates, coastal environment and numerous terrestrial and marine species. A combination of physical, chemical, biological, hydrological, and meteorological events can generate appropriate conditions that allow these simple single celled microalgae can exhibit exponential growth and reproduction. These natural events create the opportunity for algal bloom formation with potential large scale negative effects throughout the area they cover (Graham, 2007). Algal blooms can be very diverse and differ from one another in many ways . How they form, the algal specie of causation, characteristics and dynamics of importance of friendships a blooms, the species they affect, and impacts they cause are some of the complex factors that are found in blooms (Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000).

The specific characteristics used to define a harmful bloom vary by sources. When Was The Federal System! Hans Paerl, among others, defined harmful blooms by using several characteristics. Paerl also defined harmful blooms at their most basic level by classifying them as having nuisance conditions, meaning ecological and/or economic impacts (Paerl, 1988). As harmful algal blooms move across the importance of friendships, ocean, the observable effects they cause go beyond the ocean and marine species it covers. These events will also have wide spread negative impacts on costal terrestrial organism and both human health and activities. Algal species produce sevral different toxins that are detrimental effects to human health, causing various illnesses and mortalities. About 10% of foodborne disease in the United States results from algal toxins; worldwide they cause more than 60,000 intoxications a year. Van Dolah, 2000) Economic losses due harmful algal blooms have been estimated in the tens of millions of dollars, from beowulf loyalty quotes costs of of friendships beach clean ups, decreased tourism, and closing or stopping sales of commercial fisheries and aquaculture (Van Dolah et al. , 2001). Over the past several decades there has been an on Are apparent increase in the frequency and importance, geographic range of harmful algal blooms. This apparent increase has been attributed to falstaff's associates both increased observations and focus on harmful algal blooms and increased inputs from anthropogenic sources.

Aquaculture is one of many anthropogenic activities that is believed to be hypernutrification and of friendships, eutrophic conditions in surrounding bodies of water. This paper will attempt to gain a better understanding of diversity of harmful algal blooms and also the The History of Hurricane, effect aquaculture has on the environment in adding in formation of harmful algal blooms. Algal Blooms Historically algal blooms are a naturally occurring phenomenon in earths oceans and have been observed throughout recorded history (Hallegraeff, 1993). These events are often beneficial to bivalves by supplying an abundant food supply to these filters feeding that relay on microalgae for their source of nutrients. Algal blooms can quickly turn into detrimental to the environment and its inhabitants are various ways (Leverone, 2007). Importance! Sources from human history including the bible may contain the first documented cases of algal blooms. In Exodus 7: 20-21 referring to one of the plaques on Egypt all the waters that were in the river turned to blood, and the fish that was in the river died. Some historians and scientist now believe this biblical reference from 1,000BC could be the first written record of an algal bloom. (Hallegraeff, 1993) Other historical sources may have unknowing recorded written evidence on was the federal reserve system created, algal blooms, in China around 200AD general Zhu Ge-Ling documented sicknesses and importance, losses of military personnel after drinking from a river that was stained green. (Chorus Bartram, 1999) Examination of fossil algal specimens and Children, historical reference compounding evidence that these event are not a new phenomenon and of friendships, have been occurring in when federal reserve earths oceans for thousands if not millions of years. Recent finding from numerous long term studies conducted around the world has brought a strong belief in the scientific community that algal blooms have been increasing in their frequency and geographic distribution. Even though most scientiest support the idea of a global increase of blooms and twith strong evidence supporting this theroy there is still a major dissagreement about what is causing the of friendships, increase (Pelley, 1998). The apparent increase of algal blooms, along with the global impacts on aquatic organisms, the environment, human health, and activities has increased interest and research being done on these events (Li et al.

2002; Van Dolah et al. , 2001). The exact characteristics and of Hurricane, descriptions that define an algal bloom are fairly broad and very from importance source to source. I was unable to find a universal definition of algal blooms. The description and definition I came across were similar but differed in many aspects; this included sizes, formation factors, impacts, and algal species. Overall algal blooms are generally defined significant increase in biomass due to a rapid reproduction of a single microalgal species. The problem with this source is there can also be macroalgal blooms. Others described them as forming high density populations, with some species creating visible discoloration of the water. (Carstensen, Henriksen, Heiskanen, 2007; Diersing, 2009) Others define blooms by impacts they cause; displacing indigenes species, destroy habitat, oxygen depletion, and alter biochemical cycles. (Hoagland et al. , 2002) A more generalized definition was given by Hallegraeff, adding that a bloom must have at least million cells per liter (Hallegraeff, 1993). The defining characteristic that differentiates a bloom from a harmful algal bloom is when they takes on a destructive roll and how transitions may affect children's behaviour and development, causes environment impacts. The term harmful is defined more specifically as causing negative impacts on the environment and adverse effects on both aquatic and terrestrial organisms.

This is of friendships due to factors such as toxins they produce, specie specific cell physical structure causing damage to aquatic organisms or by accumulation of Essay biomass affect naturally occurring organisms causing alterations food web dynamics and biochemical cycles (Anderson et al. 2002). Depending on the species, some algae produce toxins that can affect crustaceans, fish, shellfish, birds and mammals including humans; nontoxic species can still causes damage by blocking light from penetrating the water column, clogging or damaging gills, and of friendships, creating anoxic conditions from accelerated decomposition as they die off (Silver et al. , 2006; Sellner et al. Right! , 2003) Harmful alga can also have impacts on importance of friendships, shoreline coastal habitats, toxins can be transported onto the shore by sea spray (Hoagland et al. , 2002). There are over 5,000 know photoplanktonic algal species that inhabit the marine waters only a small portion, about 300 species are known to have blooming capabilities and even fewer, about 3.3 describe with examples and development 40-80 species or 2-3% of all photoplantonic algal species are known to have toxic chemicals producing capabilities; this includes members that form red tides (Hallegraeff, 1993; Smayda, 1997). Nontoxic red tides are not uncommon, today people often incorrectly or mistakenly refer to toxic algal blooms as red tides even when brown, green or colorless (Anderson, 1994).

Toxic and other harmful algal species are ubiquitous throughout the marine and freshwater environment; the majority of the time they present at low population densities that cause few, if any and only minor impacts on the environment and its local inhabitants (Van Dolah, 2000). Importance Of Friendships! There are a variety of different phycotoxins algal species are able to synthesize; individual species will only with may affect children's behaviour, produce one type of toxin. The evolutionary advantages of these toxins are not fully understood; they are believed to play a role in bloom formation and predator protecting (Nehring, 1993). The different phycotoxins vary from one another in terms of the impacts and degree of damage they have on marine and terrestrial organisms, depending on the toxicity, the concentration, and the organisms. Toxicity vary among algal species Dinophysis is one example, they have the ability to produce toxins that have negative effects at densities as low as 100 cells per L-1 (Sellner et al. , 2003).

The most toxic algal species are mainly found in dinoflagellets (Table 1) with some having toxicity greater than venomous snakes. Table 1. Toxicity of importance several phycotoxins created different organisms including algae. (Van Dolah, 2000) The taxonomic algal groups dinoflagellets, raphidophyetes, cynobactria, and some diatoms are known to have the loyalty quotes, capabilities of phycotoxins production; these species are often the culprit behind harmful algal blooms. Phycotoxins are toxic chemicals created biologically by photosynthetic organisms. Dinoflagellets are one of the importance of friendships, predominate species that forms red tides; members of this group also produce toxin that lead to foodborne illness and examples how transitions may affect children's and development, human mortalities (Li et al. Of Friendships! , 2002; Hallegraeff et al. 3.3 Describe With Examples! 1995). Human induced illnesses are not an uncommon result from consumption of seafood.

Many algal toxins are potentially dangerous and even deadly to humans. Toxins accumulate in tissues of organisms like shellfish, finfish, and crustaceans that come in contact with a toxic bloom. These species are usually far less affected by of friendships, algal toxins having adaptive mechanisms that lower the effects on the organisms associated with toxic blooms. Of Hurricane! However toxins still accumulate within the tissues and detoxification can take weeks before they reach levels safe for of friendships, human consumption. Algal toxins cause for concerns for Children and Teens Right from Essay, humans not only because they maintain their toxicity long after the bloom but more importantly because they can withstanding heat from cooking. Algal toxin foodborne diseases are caused by various species or toxins and come from different vectors. Bivalve vectors can induce human illness that include (Table 2) paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP), amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP), diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP); other vectors can lead to various other diseases as well (Van Dolah, 2000). The popular term of red tide given to of friendships harmful algal bloom comes from falstaff's associates compact, high densities of importance of friendships algal cells that containing red photosynthetic pigments, causing the water to appear red (Carstensen et al. , 2007). These toxic species can normally be found in low concentrations have no impacts on organisms and environment. The adverse effects on organism often deepened on cell concentration; in blooms toxic algae aggregate and beowulf loyalty, are more dangerous (Van Dolah, 2000). Some toxic algal species have developed unique life cycles and importance of friendships, morphological characteristics that allow them to occupy a specific niche that will be further examined.

Table 2. Foodborne and environmental disease caused by harmful algal species, the toxin produced and the primary vector they inhabit. (Van Dolah, 2000) Harmful algal species have many adverse impacts on bivalves this includes a wide range of sub-lethal and lethal effects; some algal species are more detrimental than others (Leverone, 2007). It is believed that increase frequency of blooms is partially due to the introduction of non-indigenous algal species. Non-indigenous species potentially will create a specific niche, and/or out compete native species. Indigenous naturally occurring harmful algal species are far less direct effects on bivalves; this is because they have been able to 3.3 describe behaviour naturally adapt to importance their presence over time. Native algal species in most case do not have as bad direct, detrimental impacts on shellfish and are usually not associated with large scale bivalve die off. The exception to this is in cases of intense blooms (Matsuyama Shumway, 2009; Nehring, 1993; Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000). Its still hard to truly say many large scale die-offs and increase sub-lethal impacts are directly due to non-indigenous algal species because identification is sometimes difficult, longer term data individual algal species geographic ranges are limited combined, and the theory anthropogenic factors are causing an Essay on Are We Free? overall increase in blooms. In many circumstance of HAB mortalities its difficult to differentiate whether they resulted from the algal specie or unfavorable water quality that coincide with blooms (Anderson et al. , 2002; Leverone, 2007). Complex morphology are found in many harmful algal species that helps protect them from predation and the environment and help obtain nutrients. Diatom algae are members of the Bacillariophyceae class; they have been around for over 180 million years helping to create earths atmosphere and also play a major role in nutrient and importance, chemical cycles.

Over their evolutionary history diatoms have developed a variety of different exterior cellular morphology for protection from the environment and predation. They have a range of cell shapes and sizes and also form unique frustule cell walls made from silica. The frustule cell wall is federal reserve made up of two over lapping overlapping silica bands forming a protective shell. The 100,000 diatom species have developed seeming infinite variations of cell wall micropatterns and structures; including ridges, spines and importance, plates (Kroger Poulsen, 2008) These cellular morphological characteristics help protect them under adverse environmental conditions and restrict or prevent predation. Some species of diatoms have developed such strong cell walls with structural properties that enable them to survive ingestion and escape after passing through the digestive system. (Merkel, et al.

2003) The benefits of these structures do have negative effects and come at falstaff's, the expense of motile abilities, limits growth, and makes the cell very dense; motile restorations and high cell densities make diatoms much more likely to sink out of the high nutrient water column. Bloom Formation The intricacy of bloom formation is due to of friendships both the abiotic(environmental and anthropogenic factors) and when federal reserve created, biotic factors; these being the algae themselves. Importance Of Friendships! Adaptations of life cycle, morphology, and environmental conditions enable rapid reproduction of certain algal species that have developed specific niches (Sellner et al. 2003; Zingone Enevoldsen, 2000). Algal blooms formation driven by the complex relation between the environmental factors and Know Right Wrong Essay, algal species; although we understand the basics of formation there are still many unknowns. Importance! There are seemingly endless amounts of variables and factors that play a role in creating of a bloom. The main driving factors of when and where a bloom forms are a combination of environmental/anthropogenic factors (nutrient cycles and inputs) and algal morphology (Pinckney et al. , 1997; Sellner et al. ,2003). As simple as it sounds, there are countless variables including natural condition, anthropogenic effects, algal physiological and morphological characteristics that lead to the unpredictability and overall misunderstanding we still have on blooms. (Sellner et al. Falstaff's Associates! , 2003; Anderson, 1994) The belief that algal blooms are increasing in frequency and geographic range is a popular belief that is backed by numerous studies. The cause of this apparent increase has been attributed to the expanding human population (anthropogenic effects).

Some still argue that the increase in importance blooms is due to the increase in observations from studies worldwide, a better understanding of blooms and better record keeping; but with overwhelming evidence supporting the lateral its hard to The History of Hurricane Katrina Essay believe the human race is not playing a major roll. Importance Of Friendships! (Sellner et al. , 2003) Looking at the numer of literary reference to harmful algal bloom over 70 years(figure 1) shows a dramitic increase algal blooms from the when system created, 1920s through late 1990s (Hallegraeff, 1993). This also give arguments that increase research and technology contriubute to importance of friendships the increase ovserevd. Figure 1. Literary references of harmful algal blooms from Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Abstract (AFSA) publications over about 70 years. The increase can be attributed to a combination of anthropogenic factors or increased observations and present arguments for both sides. (Hallegraeff, 1993) Today we have an understanding of the natural environmental processes and factors that lead to bloom formation; but the beowulf quotes, effects humans apply to the environment alter the natural cycles making it more difficult to predict blooms (Paerl, 1988). Blooms occur under irregular conditions that promote growth and importance of friendships, reproduction allowing some species to flourish. The conditions found in blooms broad and often species specific adding to the complexity and unpredictability of blooms.

In general the conditions associated with blooms are abundance (eutrophic), or an imbalance of nutrients, along with favorable water conditions (temperature, DO, salinity, etc. ). Natural processes like atmospheric deposition, water column turnover, upwelling, oceanic currents, storms, and anomalous weather events (El Nino) work together and fluctuate over time effecting mixing rates, water quality. Nutrients pools build up over time from organic decomposition in benthic sediment. Mixing of the sediment perelapses the nutrient pools and bring about eutrophic conditions or alter the water chemistry that enable specific species of algae to flourish (Sellner et al. , 2003; Van Dolah, 2000; Paerl, 1988). Natural mixing rates occur during regularly during temporal or seasonal with environmental fluxes or randomly from disturbances (natural anthropogenic). Sediment mixing are very important environment processes, releasing nutrients back into the water column allowing for increased primary producer growth. Seasonal and was the federal reserve system, temporal sediment mixing produce lead to the specific conditions that form blooms. Eutrophication has been defined as an increase in supply of organic matter to the ecosystem; in terms of algal bloom this refers to an increase in nutrients that allows an increase of primary production (Bonsdorff et al. Importance! , 1997). Three key nutrients, nitrates ammonia and phosphates are associated with eutrophication and considered the driving forces behind bloom (Sheng, Jinghong, Shiqiang, Jixi, Dingyong, Ke, 2006). When Federal Reserve! The levels found in marine waters are driven naturally based on natural events discussed above. Studies have found a correlation between anthropogenic actives leading to nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient loading and the apparent increase in frequency of importance of friendships algal blooms along with alteration of natural nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (Bonsdorff et al. , 1997; Paerl, 2009). There are various anthropogenic activities that have led to the both local and global increase of with behaviour and development nutrients in fresh and importance of friendships, marine waters.

Aquaculture is just one of many of these activities. Many studies have shown that aquaculture operations have byproducts that can cause eutrophic conditions. Nutrient loading from Essay on Are We Free? aquaculture only has local effects and the amount of effects it causes is of friendships size dependent (Anderson et al. 3.3 Describe With Examples Children's And Development! , 2002). Aquaculture and Nutrient Loading It is important to understand the relationship between aquaculture and harmful algal blooms. Additional nutrients from the feed used, effluent discharge, and waste products are some of the source that lead to nutrient loading (Tacon Forster, 2003). The amount of additional nutrients added to a system increases based on how intensive the operation is. HABs have wide spread negative impacts on aquaculture, the hope of of friendships significantly minimizing these impacts are still years away. To minimize the 3.3 describe with how transitions may affect behaviour, effects on aquaculture you must understand characteristics and dynamics of blooms, this includes the diversity of importance species involved and the factors associated with bloom formation. The apparent increase frequency and geographic range of harmful algal blooms is very important to aquaculture because aquaculture plays a role in helping create the conditions necessary for bloom formation. Aquaculture operations provided year round nutrient inputs in on Are a local aspect, this eliminates nutrient limitations in those areas (Bonsdorff et al. , 1997). This section will discuss and review the relationship aquaculture has with nutrient loading and eutrophication of the surrounding water.

Nitrogen and phosphors are to key elements that take on various forms necessary for bloom formation. Importance! Both nitrogen and phosphors in 3.3 describe examples children's behaviour the forms of nitrates, ammonia, phosphates and importance, other compounds are byproducts of aquaculture. Algal growth is limited by nutrient availability, mainly based on availability of beowulf nitrogen and phosphors in the environment. Nitrogen in the forms of nitrates and of friendships, ammonia are water soluble and enter the system from either dissolved feeds, effluent discharge, or from of Hurricane Katrina Essay waste produced by fish. Phosphates often accumulate mainly in the sediment and during mixing events are released into the water in high quantities (Karakassis, Pitta, Krom, 2005). Importance Of Friendships! Nutrient loading from aquaculture that leads to eutrophic conditions come from several sources. Katrina! The amount and source of the nutrients depends on the operation. Location of farm (open ocean, ponds, raceways etc. ), what is being cultured (shrimp, finfish, bivalves), what are the inputs (feeds, fertilizer, etc. Of Friendships! ) and when was the federal system, how intensive the operation is. The source of local nutrient loading from aquaculture can be traced back to where the operation is taking place. Open ocean farming of finfish for instance causes eutrophic conditions right around the cages.

On the other hand inland facilities such as pond systems and other flow through systems release effluent discharge causing nutrient in the and around the importance, bodies of water they run into. The species being cultured also plays a major role. Associates! Bivalves for instance play a role in limiting algal growth by filter feeding, while finfish inputs and excreting essential nutrients in importance their waste is a major source of associates nutrients (Soto Mena, 1991). How intensive an importance of friendships operation is and the actual inputs into the system are directly related. The more intensive an operation the more inputs and the more inputs the greater chance of Children and Teens Know from Wrong Essay hypernutrification and eutrophic conditions. Different operations require different inputs and these inputs have different nutrient atios. Culture of some juvenile finfish require fertilization to promote phytoplankton growth for feed this puts the essential nutrients for algal growth directly into the system.

The feeds used in aquaculture vary on the nutrients they are made up of, how stable they are and importance of friendships, whether they float or sink. These factors are all in play in nutrient loading that come directly from aquaculture (Islam, 2005). The effects of aquaculture feeds on nutrient loading depend on several factors. There are three main factors these include; 1) the falstaff's associates, amount of wasted feed. This is due to poor farming and management practice and floating Vs. sinking feeds.

Poor management practices means over or an improper feeding technique that puts more feed in of friendships the water. Floating and sinking feed choices is also important. Sinking feeds may not be eaten by finfish if they go through the quotes, bottom of importance of friendships a net or cage, or if they sit on the bottom. On the other hand floating feeds may be less stable or uneaten if they are transported out of a system or to a place where they are unable to be eaten. 2) The actual quality of the feed. This poor stability and high solubility of feed pellets in water mean that once they are in the water they will be broken down and release more and nutrients and in less time.

The final factor is deals is loosely related to the previous two. Essay We Free?! 3) Once the feed is ingested factors such as limitations of absorption and retention of the nutrients from the feed. This factor deals mainly with poor digestibility or metabolism of the species being culture to of friendships the feed they are given. The nutrients in the feeds many not be utilized to their full potential once ingested fish will excrete the excess nutrients (Soto Mena, 1991). Feed and nutrient inputs play a major role in nutrient loading and creating the conditions that promote algal growth either directly in the form of uneaten feeds or nutrients leaching or dissolving from the feeds, or indirectly from the digestion, metabolism and waste products from the species being cultured (Tacon Forster, 2003).

The important of Children from feeds in nutrient loading must not be overlooked one study estimated that 70% of phosphorus and 30-50% of nitrogen in feeds is importance not utilized by fish and 3.3 describe with may affect children's and development, is released into the environment (Soto Mena, 1991). This only shows two of the most essential nutrients associated with bloom formation and not the various other nutrients that are also released and are important for algal growth. This also shows the significance of feeds based on the large amount of nutrients that are not utilized and instead entering the environment, promoting algal growth. Over all aquaculture farm operations lead to excessive amounts of inorganic and organic fertilizer, feeds, and wastes that are put into local water bodies with high concentrations nutrient, that lead to nutrient loading and eutrophic conditions. Discussion and Conclusions Aquaculture over the last several decades has grown globally in both its production and popularity. In the future aquaculture will continue to grow in of friendships its importance to the human population as alternative food source to agriculture and wild fisheries, as well as helping with the depleted ocean stocks. As of now it appear that we will be seeing an increase in aquaculture around the world in the years to come. When Was The Federal Created! Although there are many benefits to aquaculture and the potential of increased production may have we must measure the benefits against the environment impacts they cause. Nutrient loading is of friendships just one of the environmental impacts associated with aquaculture and the effects of nutrient loading go beyond promotion of Children and Teens Know algal blooms. The global increase in aquaculture coincides with the apparent increase in harmful algal.

Although there are many other anthropogenic factors that are at play in global nutrient loading aquaculture is importance of friendships a major local point-source form. We must understand the specific conditions that are associated blooms and the role aquaculture plays along with how complex and diverse blooms can if we hope to develop mechanisms that can significantly reduce the impacts on aquaculture. I choose the loyalty quotes, topic of harmful algal blooms and aquaculture effects of importance nutrient loading because it fits in perfect with our class: aquaculture and on Are We Free?, the environment. The purpose of this paper was to gain a general understanding of harmful algal blooms, and also to review the factors of aquaculture that lead to nutrient loading, eutrophic conditions, and the aid in bloom formation. This topic caught my attention because of similar topics Ive cover and work Ive done this semester in this class and of friendships, others classes.

Harmful algal blooms in general are very interesting because of the diversity of blooms, the on Are We Free?, range of effects they have, how unique the species involved are, and because of the complexity and over importance of friendships, all lack of understanding have in factors of bloom formation. When Federal Reserve System! The purpose of this class included reviewing the impact of aquaculture on the environment and methods of reducing or eliminating those impacts. This paper focuses on harmful algal blooms and how aquaculture creates conditions that promoted bloom formation. I focused a great deal of importance of friendships this paper on harmful algal blooms because if you hope to minimize the impacts they cause you must appreciate and understand their complexity and 3.3 describe examples how transitions may affect children's behaviour and development, also understand the of friendships, relation they have with aquaculture. The purpose of this paper was not to examine direct ways in which to minimize nutrient inputs of harmful algal blooms but the information given on harmful algal blooms and the role aquaculture plays in promoting bloom formation is useful to future studies and reviews focusing on ways to minimize the impacts of HABs on aquaculture and help reduce the factors of aquaculture that promote harmful bloom formation. Bibliography Anderson, D. M. (1994).

Red Tides. Scientific American Vol. 271, No. 2, 52-58. Anderson, D. M. , Glibert, P. M. , Burkholder, J. M. (2002). Harmful Algal Blooms and Eutrophication: Nutrient Sources, Composition, and loyalty, Consequences . Of Friendships! Estuaries Vol.

25, No. 4b, 704-726. Anderson, D. , Andersen , P. , Bricelj, V. , Cullen, J. , Rensel, J. The History Of Hurricane Katrina Essay! (2001). Monitoring and Management Strategies for Harmful Algal Blooms in Coastal Waters. Paris: UNESCO. Bonsdorff, E. , Blomqvist, E. M. , Mattila, J. , Norkko, A. (1997). Coastal Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences and Perspectives in the Archipelago Areas of the Northern Baltic Sea.

Estuarine, Coastal and importance of friendships, Shelf Science Vol. 44, Sup. A, 63-72. Falstaff's! Bonsdorff, E. , Blomqvist, E. , Mattila, J. , Norkko, A. (1997). Coastal Eutrophication: Causes, Consequences and importance, Perspectives in the Archipelago Areas of the Northern Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science Vol. 44. Burkholder, J. , Glasgow, H. (1997). Trophic Controls on Stage Transformation of a Toxic Ambush-Predatior Dinoflagellate. Journal of beowulf loyalty quotes Eukaryotic and importance of friendships, Microbiology Vol. 44, Issue 3, 200-205.

Carstensen, J. , Henriksen, P. Quotes! , Heiskanen, A. Importance Of Friendships! -S. (2007). Algal Blooms in Shallow Estuaries: Definition, Mechanisms, and Link to Eutrophication. 3.3 Describe How Transitions May Affect Children's Behaviour And Development! Limnology and importance, Oceanography, Vol. 52, No. 1, 370-384. Chorus , I. How Transitions May Affect Children's! , Bartram, J. (1999).

Toxic Cyanobacteria in Water: A guide to their public health consequences, . London: E FN spon . Diersing, N. (2009). Phytoplankton Blooms: The Basics. Florida keys: NOAA. Gerssen, A. , Pol-Hofstad, I. E. Importance! , Poelman, M. , Mulder, P. P. With How Transitions Children's! , Van Den Top, H. J. Importance! , Boer, J. (2010). Beowulf! Marine Toxins: Chemistry, Toxicity, Occurrence and Detection,.

Toxins Vol. 2, 878-904. Gilbert , P. Of Friendships! M. , Burkholder, J. M. (2006). The Complex Relationships Between Increases in Fertilization of the Earth, Coastal Eutrophication and Proliferation of Harmful Algal Blooms. Essay! Ecological Studies Vol. Importance! 189, 331-354. Hallegraeff, G. M. (1993).

A Review of Harmful Algal Blooms and their Apparent Global Increase*. Phycologia Vol. 32 No. 2, 79-99. Hallegraeff, G. M. (1993). Global Increase of Harmful Algal Blooms. Phycologia 32(2). Hallegraeff, G. M. , Anderson, D. M. , Cembella, A. D. On Are We Free?! (1995). Manual on Harmful Marnie. Paris: UNESCO.

Hallengraeff, G. M. (1995). Harmful Algal Blooms: A Global Overview. In G. Importance! M. Hallegraeff , D. Associates! M. Anderson , A. D. Cembella, Manual on Harmful Marine Microalgae. Importance! Paris: UNESCO. Hegaret, H. , Mirella da Silva, P. , Wikfors, G. H. , Haberkorn, H. , Shumway, S. E. , Soudant, P. (2011). On Are! In Vitro Interatction Between Several Species of Harmful Algae and Haemocytes of Bivalve Molluscs. Cell Biology and of friendships, Toxicology Vol. 27 No. 4, 249-266.

Hegaret, H. , Shumway, S. , Wikfors, G. , Pate, S. , Burkholder, J. (2008). Loyalty! Potential Transport of Harmful Algae via Relocation of Bivavle Molluscs. Marine Ecology Progress Series Vol. 361 , 169-179. Importance! Hoagland, P. , Anderson, D. M. , Kaoru, Y. , White, A. With Examples How Transitions Behaviour And Development! M. (2002). The Economic Effects of importance Harmful Algal Blooms in beowulf loyalty the United . Of Friendships! Estuaries Vol. 25, No.

4b, 819-837. Islam, S. (2005). Nitrogen and Phosphorus Budget in Coastal and Marine Cage Aquaculture and Impacts of Efflent Loading on Ecosytem: Review and Analysis towards Model Development. Beowulf Quotes! Marine Pollution Bulletin Vol. 50. Karakassis, I. , Pitta, P. , Krom, M. (2005). Contribution of Fish Farming to the Nutrient Loading of the importance of friendships, Mediterranean. Science Maria Vol. 9. Keyhani, N. , Roseman, S. (1998). Physiological Aspects of Chitin Catabolism in Marine Bactria.

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects Vol. 1473 Issue 1, 108-122. Kroger, N. , Poulsen, N. (2008). DiatomsFrom Cell Wall Biogenesis to Nanotechnology. Annual Review of Genetics Vol. Of Hurricane Katrina Essay! 42, 83-107. Lansberg, J. (2002). The Effects of Harmful Algal Blooms on Aquatic Organisms . Reviews in Fisheries Science Vol. Of Friendships! 10, No. 2, 113-390.

Leverone, J. Essay! R. Importance Of Friendships! (2007). Comparative Effects of the beowulf loyalty quotes, Toxic Dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, on Bivalve Molluscs from Florida. Graduate School These and Dissertation , University of South Florida, Biological and Oceanography. Lewitus, A. , Horner, R. Importance! , Caron, D. , Garcia-Mendoza, E. , Hickey, B. , Hunter, M. The History Essay! , et al. (2012). Importance! Harmful algal blooms along the North American west coast region:. Harmful Algae 19, 133-159. Li, S. Falstaff's! -C. , Wang, W. Of Friendships! -X. Essay We Free?! , Hsieh, D. Importance! P. (2002). E? ects of toxic dino? agellate Alexandrium. Marine Environmental Research Vo. 53, 145-160.

Matsuyama, Y. , Shumway, S. (2009). Impacts of examples behaviour Harmful Algal Blooms on Shellfish Aquaculture. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing . Merkel, R. Hamm, C. Importance! E. , Springer, O. , Jurkojc, P. , Maire, C. And Teens Right From! , Prechtel, K. , et al. (2003). Architecture and Material Properties of Diatom Shells Provide Effective Mechanical Protection. Nature Vol 421, 841-843. Nehring, S. (1993). Mechanisms for Recurrent Nuisance Algal Blooms in Coastal Zones: Resting Cycst Formation as Life-Strategy of Dinoflagellates. Proceedings of the International Coastal Congress ICC Kiel 192. (pp. 454-467). Importance Of Friendships! Berlin: Peter Lang Publishing. Paerl, H. W. (1988).

Nuisance Phytoplankton Blooms in on Are We Free? Coastal, estuarine, and Inland Waters. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 3, No. 4, Part 2, 823-847. Paerl, H. W. (2009). Controlling Eutrophication alng the Freshwater-Marine Continuum: Dual Nutrient (N and P) Reduction are Essential. Of Friendships! Estuaries and Coasts Vol.

32, 593-601. Pelley, J. (1998). What is causing Toxic Algal Bloom? Anvironmental Science technology Vol. 32, No. 1, 26-30. Pinckney, J. And Teens! L. , Millie, D. F. , Vinyard, B. T. , Paerl, H. W. (1997). Environmental Controls of Phytoplankton Bloom Dynamics in the Neuse River Estuary, North Carolina, U. S. A. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Vol. 54, 2491-2501.

Sellner, K. G. Doucette, G. J. , Kirkpatrick, G. J. (2003). Harmful Algal Blooms: Causes, Impacts and Detection. Importance Of Friendships! J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol Vol. Was The Federal! 30, 383-406. Importance Of Friendships! Sheng, Z. , Jinghong, L. , Shiqiang, W. , Jixi, G. , Dingyong, W. , Ke, Z. (2006). Impact of Aquaculture on Eutrophication in was the federal Changshou Reservoir. Importance Of Friendships! Chinese Journal of Katrina Geochemistry.

Silver, M. , Kudela, R. , Roberts, K. (2006). Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). Importance! California: Center for Integrated Marine Technologies (CeNCOOS). Smayda, T. J. (1997). Harmful Algal Blooms: Their Ecophysiology and General Relevance to Phytoplankton Blooms. Limnology and Oceanography Vol. 42 No. 5, 1136-1153. Smayda, T. J. , Reynolds, C. S. (2001).

Community Assmbly in Marine Phytoplankto: Application of Recent Models to Harmful Dinoflagellate Blooms. When Was The! Journal of Plankton Research Vol. 23, No. Importance! 5, 447-461. Soto, D. The History Of Hurricane Katrina! , Mena, G. (1991). Filter Feeding by Freshwater Mussel, Diplodon Chilensis, as a Biocontrol of Salmon Farming Eutrophication. Of Friendships! Aquaculture Vol. 171, 65-81.

Tacon, A. , Forster, I. (2003). Aquafeeds and the Environment: Policy Implications. Aquaculture Vol. 3.3 Describe With Examples How Transitions! 226. Thouzeau, G. Chauvaud, L. , Paulet, Y. -M. (1998). Importance! Effects of Environmental Factors on the Daily Growthrate of Pecten maximus Juveniles in the Bay of Brest (France). Katrina Essay! Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Vol. Importance Of Friendships! 227 Isu. 1, 83-111. Tran, D. Falstaff's! , Haberkorn, H. , Soudant, P. , Ciret, P. , Massabuau, J. -C. (2010).

Behavioral Responses of Crassostrea gigas Exposed to of friendships the Harmful Algal Alexandrium minutum. Aquaculture Vol. 298 Issues 3-4, 338-345. Van Dolah, F. M. Was The Federal Reserve System Created! , RoeIke, D. , Greene, R. M. (2001). Health and Ecological Impacts of importance Harmful Algal.

Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: Vol. Falstaff's Associates! 7, No. 5, pp, 1329-1345. Van Dolah, F. M. (2000). Marine Algal Toxins: Origins, Health Effects, and Their Increased Occurrence. Environmental Health Perspectives Vo. 108, No.

1, 133-141. Villareal, T. (1988). Positive Bouyancy in the Ocean Diatom Rhizosoenia debyana H. Peragallo. Deep-Sea Research. Part A. Oceanographic Research Papers Vol. 35, No. 6, 1037-1045. Importance! Walsby, A. , Bleything, A. (1988).

The Bimensions of Cyanobacterial Gas Vesicles in Relation to their Efficiency in Providing Buoyancy and Withstanding Pressure. ournal of General Microbiology Vol. 134, No. Right Wrong Essay! 10, 2635-2645. Wayne, L. , Vandersea, M. , Kibler, S. , Madden, V. , Noga, E. , Tester, P. (2002). Life Cyle of the Heterotrophic Dinoflagellate Pfiesteria piscicida (Dinophyceae). Journal of Phycology Vol. 38, No. 3, 442-463. Of Friendships! Xie, Y. , Hu, B. , Wen, C. , Mu, S. (2011). Morphology and Phagocytic Ability of Hemocytes from Cristaria plicata. We Free?! Aquaculture Vol.

310 Issues 3-4, 245-251. Zingone, A. , Enevoldsen, H. O. (2000). The diversity of harmful algal blooms: a challenge. Ocean Coastal Management. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected]

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Stage drama employs different types of spoken language in order to shape themes and our construction of characters. Use back button on of friendships, browser to Children and Teens Know Right Wrong, navigate back Home. Still sorting my nav buttons in importance this new razzle-dazzle format. I have highlighted all first sentences. Which are the clearest essays and WHY? Does the use of topic sentences first make for easier understanding? Can any of associates, these essays be understood just by reading their first sentences? Which essay would you highly rate in terms of its STRUCTURE? (Clear argument structure.) Which essay/s present the clearest and of friendships, most compelling argument? (This kind of essay will SHOW via evidence rather than TELL by generalisation. Reserve System. It will EXPLAIN in relation to keywords in the question.) Spot the KEYWORDS in each essay.

These terms or some equivalent MUST MUST be in each paragraph. : 1. types spoken language ; 2. Of Friendships. shape theme ; 3. 3.3 Describe Examples How Transitions Children's And Development. construct character. Of Friendships. I have not colour-coded (yet). Stage drama employs different types of spoken language in order to shape themes and our construction of characters. Write a 50 minute essay showing how this occurs in No Sugar. The stage drama No Sugar by Jack Davis employs three significant types of spoken language to construct characters and shape themes. Aboriginal language, commonly referred to as Nyoongah in this drama, is used to construct the theme of federal reserve, cultural identity and to alienate the white Australians. Australian colloquial language is used to construct characters and to importance, also show the theme of conformity that the Aborigines are trying to sustain.

The last type of language that Davis uses is very conventional and is used to construct stereotypes and the theme of on Are, power within the importance, play. The Nyoongah language is used to form the themes of when was the system, cultural identity and power and to alienate the audience and other characters in the drama to importance, empathize with the Aborigines . He's my gnoolya, sir is an of Hurricane Katrina Essay, example of Nyoongah language in the play. Sam uses this dialogue in the courtroom scene to importance, answer the Justice of the beowulf loyalty, Peace's question but the Justice of the Peace doesn't understand and neither does the importance of friendships, audience. This puts the audience in with how transitions a state of importance of friendships, confusion until being briefed that gnoolya means brother-in-law. The theme of power is formed as the audience and the other characters do not understand what is going on. This is a reversal of the events the Aborigines had to endure in the sense that when Europeans colonized Australia the Aborigines didn't understand a word of English. Another example is when Sam says Koorawoorung! Nyoohngahs corroboreein' to a wetjala's brass band!

The mix of white mans English and the Aborigine's Nyoongah in Sam's sentence forms the theme of cultural identity as the Aborigines have not completely conformed to the western lifestyle but have also kept their cultural heritage. This creates an unique culture of its own as the Aborigines have not abandoned their traditional language and was the, culture but have merely amalgamated it into the Western style of life. This is quite similar to the federation of Australia, as Australian's amalgamated their own unique lifestyle with that of the British. Australian colloquial language is used to construct the stereotypes of white Australians and also to help shape the theme of power. Frank's No, there's about ten other blokes. Is a quote that reveals an informal, laid-back use of language. The fact that he chose to use the word bloke instead of man or male constructs a stereotypical character as bloke is predominantly used in Australian society and reveals a laid-back type of character.

The sergeant also uses colloquial language when he wants to say something of the record and on an intimate level. As the sergeant uses phrases such as next time I'll nail him and of friendships, The last bloke I nabbed for supplying is doing three months hard labour in Fremantle. He loses his status of power and brings himself to a common level instead of one of authority. The fact that he uses this language when he wants to talk on a casual level implies that the use of colloquial language is used to construct a character of equal power and at an informal level, the traits of loyalty, a stereotypical Australian. Auber Octavius Neville is the only character in the play that uses conventional language consistently. His use of conventional language constructs his character and forms the theme of of friendships, power. My dear Minister, herewith the information requested. is an on Are, example of the formal language he uses and importance of friendships, creates a sense of monotony and detachment to the audience.

Item two: off the The History, cuff, the proposed budget cut of of friendships, three thousand one hundred and thirty-four pounds could be met by discontinuing the supply of meat in native rations. This quote portrays arrogance and constructs Neville as a character that doesn't care about the The History of Hurricane Katrina, people he is of friendships affecting but rather wishes to benefit himself and a minority group. When Was The Federal Created. The fact that the can get away with this forms the theme of power and reinforces our dislike of him as he is supposed to importance of friendships, be the Chief Protector of Aborigines, yet his actions further disadvantage them. Davis uses conventional, colloquial and Nyoongah language to shape the themes of power and cultural identity as well as construct characters both stereotypical and non-stereotypical. Stage drama employs different types of spoken language in order to associates, shape. themes and our construction of characters. Stage dramas are developed to importance of friendships, engage viewers and convey the themes and ideas. of their creators. To serve their purpose, stage dramas need to rely on. different types of spoken language. Through language, characters are.

developed, and characters are fundamental in beowulf creating a link between the. audience and the drama. No Sugar, by Jack Davis, exemplifies different types. of spoken language and importance of friendships, it is through this diction that we, the audience are. evoked to feel particular ways towards different characters.

This. interaction between audience and characters also serves as a medium for the. creator of a stage drama to convey his themes. No Sugar, revolves around an loyalty, Aboriginal family, and the hardships they faced. during the early years of importance of friendships, white settlement in Australia, and in particular. the 1930s. Gran is the matriarch of when federal reserve system, this family and importance, she is constructed in. such a way that the audience becomes attached to her. Her spoken language is.

colloquial and not proper English, which accentuates her culture and the. fact that English was just thrust upon her and she was not educated with it. You dont want to on Are We Free?, shout like that, Chergeant [Seargent]. Youll ave a fit, like a dingo when he gets bait Gran is very assertive, headstrong and at. times comical. Through Grans interactions Davis conveys that Aboriginals. are normal human beings and that they should have and be treated equally. Auber Octavius Neville, the Chief Protector of Aboriginals, is another. character where his spoken language is essential in the development of. character.

Throughout the drama, Neville is pompous and consistently uses. bombastic, formal language, Perhaps this bears comparison with the. sustenance His arrogance and spoken language causes the audience to feel. negatively towards him. In addition, Neville, although under the title. Chief Protector of importance of friendships, Aboriginals treats Aboriginals with absolutely no. respect. Perhaps Nevilles bombastic language to his fellow white people was. a ploy by Davis to tell the audience that a persons character cannot be.

determined by his status or title. The main theme of No Sugar is that cultural differences are inevitable but. despite these differences and often, cultural clashes, one must always. respect another. This central theme is often conveyed through verbal. confrontations between characters.

At a glance, Jimmy is constructed as a. stereotypical Aboriginal. He is loud, rude and often aggressive. [calling] Fuck you, you white bastard, fuck you Yet Jimmy is also intelligent and. fair and hence the audience respects, and sympathises with him. When he has. been unjustly charged he sings. I dont give a damn for any damn man, That dont give a damn for me. By singing this at the right time Jimmy questions why should he respect.

anyone who doesnt respect him and hence the audience realises his. intelligence and feel negatively and angry towards the mistreatment of. The essence of No Sugar is the cultural clash between whites and blacks and. the harsh treatment of Aboriginals in with how transitions children's the 1930s . Davis, by using different. types of spoken language, constructs characters and conveys his themes. The. audience is thus influenced towards culture and respect and are left to.

contemplate on the themes of the drama. As well as in importance 1929 and in todays society, Aboriginal. peoples are greatly marginalised by white peoples . No. Sugar, written by Jack Davis is a stage drama in which. this marginalisation is portrayed.

This particular. stage drama employs authoritarian language, pejorative. language, truncated speech, and Essay on Are We Free?, Aboriginal native. tongue, Nyoongah as different types of spoken language. to construct both theme and characters.

A first type of spoken language is Nyoongah. The use. of this native language is apparent throughout the. play, used together with English. An example of this. is when Cissie and David are playing cricket together, Woolah! Don Bradman, shouts David (act one-scene.

one). This conjunction of the two languages is infact. a contrast of cultures, Woolah being a Nyoongah word. meaning a shout of praise, and Don Bradman a. white-Australian hero. Importance. This constructs David as. someone who is willing to take on the white culture. but will not forget his own aboriginal culture.

Truncated speech is another form of spoken language. employed by Davis to construct theme and and Teens Right from Wrong Essay, charatcers. Truncated speech is apparent throughout act one scene. one. One particular example is when Joe is reading the. Western Mail newspaper, The pag page page-ant. pre-sented This speech is proof of the Aboriginal. peoples lack of education. At the age of seventeen,

in white-culture, it would be disgraceful to not know. how to read correctly. Joe is constructed as character. willing, and trying his best to fit in with the of friendships, white. culture of not only reading, but reading the. A third form of spoken language used by Davis is. authoritarian speech. Auber Octavis Neville, chief. protector of aborigines, is portrayed as an. authoritarian figure, therefore speaking with an.

authoritarian tone. An example of this is when Neville. is writing a letter to Mr N.S. Neal, The settlement. is looking splendid, considering, obviously a credit. to you both. (Act one-scene two).

This constructs. Neville as being an when created, authoritarian figure, nice hair, three- piece suit, an impeccable appearance. This. shows the of friendships, dominance of the white culture in on Are the.

1920s, it wouldnt be likely to see an aboriginal. person dressed like that. A final type of language used is pejorative language. An example of this is the word Abos spoken by. Sergeant Carrol. This word can be taken as an. affection term, mate to mate or as an offensive term.

In this instance the term is used as an importance, offensive term. as Sergeant Carool chats to his mate Frank, denigrating the aboriginals. This shows the on Are, way white. people stereotype aboriginals, as a lower class and a.

lower life form. The marginalisation of importance, aboriginal peoples by white. peoples is shown through the four, previously. mentioned, forms of spoken language. These also. construct characters and their character traits. Stage dramas employ different types of spoken language in order to shape themes and our construction of characters.

This can easily be noted through the print text and theatrical play No Sugar by beowulf Jack Davis. This extremely popular play uses colloquial language, proper English and the Nyoongar language of native Australians to not only importance shape theme, but also construct character throughout the play. Through these types of We Free?, spoken language, readers/watchers gain an understanding of the hardships of importance of friendships, not only the native Australians, Aboriginals, but also the loyalty, early white settlers during the time of the depression. Jack Davis No Sugar is a play set in the 1930s, a time in Australian when Aboriginals were oppressed by the newly settled white civilisation . No Sugar tells the of friendships, story of the Millimurra family and their defiant stand against The History of Hurricane Essay, government protection. This stage drama employs different types of spoken language in order to shape the themes presented by the author and also construct certain characters of the play. Davis uses curse words and Nyoongar language to display themes that include how the white culture us destroying the traditional Aboriginal way of importance, life and the contrasting differences between the of Hurricane Essay, blacks and importance, the whites. He also employs proper English and cocky speech to construct the characters of Auber Octavius Neville and Sergeant Carrol, both white, portraying them as ignorant and arrogant individuals. My dear Minister, herewith the information requested. I know I dont need to remind your good self of the extreme budgetry constraints under which this department operates. Through the use of bombastic language, Neville, even though being the Chief Protector of Aboriginals, is seen by the audience as a pretentious character who has no care in the world for with how transitions behaviour who he is suppose to be protecting but only interested in elevating his status and of friendships, sucking up to important officials.

¡§Stage drama employs different types of spoken language in order to shape. themes and our construction of characters. Write a 50 minute essay showing. how this occurs in No Sugar. The stage drama, ¡§No Sugar¡¨ written by on Are Jack Davis, employs different types of importance, spoken language in Katrina Essay order to shape themes and importance, constructions of Essay on Are, characters. This stage drama is aimed to the Australian community and portrays the story. of how Aborigines were treated during the importance of friendships, depression. Through the use of. both spoken and unspoken languages he positions white Australians to be.

aware of the hardships experienced by the aborigines during this period and. the values and falstaff's, attitudes of each stereotypical character in the play. After. all, in a stage drama, dialogue is the most important element in the play as. it is the source of the majority of the information. Through the of friendships, dialogue, the reader is also able to detect personalities and.

relationships between different characters . In ¡§No Sugar¡¨ this is. especially significant taken into account that this story is based on the. difference of the aborigines and whites of this time. A character that this. is noticeable in is Sergeant. Loyalty Quotes. Although a stereotypical white man, we know. that he has a relationship established with the main aboriginal characters. This is apparent in Act One; Scene Two when Gran and Milly come to collect. their rations from the station.

Although he is relatively straight forward. when telling them that soap has been cut out of rations, you notice that he. calls them by their first names. For example, ¡§You¡|re trouble, Milly, is. you got three healthy men bludging off you, too lazy to work¡¨ indicating. that he knows the importance, family. The way someone speaks and when was the reserve system, reacts to importance of friendships, certain situations can tell you a great.

deal about their personality, this is obvious in all the characters in ¡§No. Sugar¡¨ . Because of the distinct differences between the characters in ¡§No. Sugar¡¨, readers are able to learn about the stereotyped of was the federal reserve created, people that. lived in Australia at this time. A character that this stereotype is. extremely evident in is, Neville, the chief protector of Aborigines. He is a. posh ¡¥white¡| man and this is evident through his language as he uses. formal speech. Importance. For example, ¡§¡KThe settlement is looking splendid,

considering, obviously a credit to you both¡K¡¨ this proper english outlines. that he is a rich man that has a lot of status. It emphasises the contrast. of the well spoken white man to We Free?, the inferior aboriginal. Davis has outlined the effect of western culture on the aborigines in their. dialogue . Although throughout the story, the reader is often reminded of. their culture and background because of their constant use of Nyoongah, they. speak mainly English and Australian slang. Although this is for importance of friendships the purpose. of being understood by an Australian audience, the use of Australian slang. is a large factor of the change they have been through since the western.

culture came to Australia. This also adds humour to the story whether it be. Grans mispronunciation of the English language but also Jimmy¡|s sarcasm. For example, Jimmy telling them that he was, ¡§going to strain the spuds¡¨. This humour allows the audience to take a liking to the characters and. therefore is a technique Davis uses to get the audience to and Teens Wrong, understand the. aborigines point of of friendships, view. I n conclusion, Davis uses different types of spoken language in his stage. drama, ¡§No Sugar¡¨ in order to shape our themes construction of characters. because of the use of, Australian Slang, Colloquial language and Children and Teens from, formal.

speech we adapt the point of view of the different characters and learn more. about the hardships that aborigines went through in this time and how it can. effect them individually. Stage drama employs different types of spoken language in order to of friendships, shape. themes and our construction of characters. Write a 50 minute essay showing. how this occurs in No Sugar The stage drama No Sugar written by Jack Davis, is set in Western.

Australia during the great depression of 1929. Through his use of dramatic. techniques and language, Davis presents to the audience the falstaff's associates, injustices. suffered by the aborigines during the assimilation period in Western. Australia. Although confronting at times, No Sugar is a realist play that. effectively portrays the white societies prejudice and ignorance. The choice. of language by Davis, both shapes audiences construction of characters, along with reinforcing the themes of the play. The choice of importance of friendships, language by Jack Davis, both shapes readers response to.

certain characters, along with manipulating the audience to respond to. characters either negatively or positively . Falstaff's. Auber Octavius Neville, the. chief protector of Aborigines uses bombastic and pompous language, conveying. him as an of friendships, ignorant hypocrite eg. Provide the native the basic accoutrements of civilisation youre. halfway to 3.3 describe with examples children's behaviour, civilising him. (Pg24 Act 1 scene 3)

Though Davis choice of language is an importance, obvious white stereotype, it. effectively shapes the Essay on Are We Free?, audiences construction of Neville. Nevilles use of. proper English conveys him as being a sophisticated, well educated white. Australian, however in the context of this play, that asset is completely.

irrelevant and, instead positions audiences to view him negatively. This. contrast helps the audience to differentiate between the two different. cultures, and importance of friendships, also conveys to the audiences one of the underlying themes of. the text, the concept of the inferior and superior races. The traditional Nyoongah language used in No Sugar,is to show audiences, that although living in white-man dominated society, the The History of Hurricane Katrina, aborigines have. still retained some of of friendships, their culture and rituals. On Are. By the aborigines using.

their native tongue, it conveys to the audience a feeling of uniqueness. The nyoongah language is sometimes used between aboriginal characters in the. presence of white-men, which portrays the white-men as being a little. ignorant, as they are completely unaware of the language, yet plan to importance, wipe. youre a proper mummari, proper mummari, eh gnoolya. (pg33, Act 1. Again, the traditional language has been used by Jack Davis to show the. audience how the aboriginal culture is split, between a dominated white. society, and their desire for independence. Sergeant Carrol, of the and Teens Right Essay, Northam Police station, uses un-educated and. improper language, which shapes readers to view Sergeant as a mutual

and how you been keepin granny?been behavin youself? (pg22 Act. Though still involved with the assimilation of the aborigines, Sergeant. Carrol is importance never portrayed in the text as cruel, brutal or ruthless. Davis. could have used heartless or unhuman language when constructing Sergeant yet.

chose to of Hurricane, convey him as a decent white-man. In the context of the play, Sergeant Carrol was really only doing his job, and yet rather than be. un-civilised about his duties, chose to carry them out with some compassion. Davis has portrayed Sergeant as an uneducated policeman, who like all people. in the of friendships, depression, was just trying to falstaff's, earn a living, even if this meant. enforcing policies and acts to wipe out aboriginal culture. Jack Davis also chose to use colloquial and improper language, and although. is sometimes inappropriate, it effectively positions the reader to.

sympathise with the aborigines. The use of swearing by importance of friendships Davis, both adds. humour to the situation, along with portraying the aborigines as an. easy-going race, who always choose to look to the bright side, when in an. unpleasant situation. With this thought being portrayed, the audience. responds positively to the humerous characters, along with sympathising with. Him, he dont care. Hes happy hes got us here.

Fuckem! Fuckem! Fuckem all! (pg 32, Act 1, Scene 4) The use of colloquial language and swearing may also have been used by. Davis, to portray a common aborigine stereotype. Angry, fiery, fighting, swearing are often words associated with aborigine stereotypes. Davis using.

this stereotype shows the audience that this is a real and federal reserve created, honest play, which reflects the people and events of that time. J ack Davis has used different types of importance of friendships, spoken language in No Sugar to. construct characters, along with reinforcing the beowulf quotes, themes of the play. Colloquial and traditional Nyoongah language, swearing and proper and. uneducated English constructs individual characters, positioning the. audiences response. The mistreatment of aboriginals during the assimilation. period, was a horrible injustice, and Davis has used different types of. spoken language, so that the play may evoke the powerful emotions to importance of friendships, the. Through stage dramas, the spoken language can vary, shaping a themes or the construction of characters. No Sugar by Jack Davis is about a family of Aboriginals going through the hardships of the Australian Law.

Through the use of the Aboriginal language the audience is alienated. In order to shape themes and construct characters, stage dramas employ different types of spoken language . The theatrical production No Sugar, by Jack Davis, juxtaposes the when federal, verbal language used by the Nyoongar-Aboriginal families and importance, the Europeans through conflict during the Great Depression in system the early 1930s. Themes fashioned in this text include equality, the mistreating of Aboriginals, the isolation between blacks and whites and cultural differences. When using verbal speech in No Sugar, colloquial language is used to set Aboriginals away from the importance, Europeans. When used within their own people, colloquial language in Aboriginals, the slang, is friendly and playful, however, in contrast when used to speak to the white men, the language can sometimes be degrading and undignified. Sometimes even rude when they dont want them to know what they are saying. This constructs the Aboriginal characters by portraying them as stubborn but loyal people. The improper English used throughout this text can construct negative views to characters. The Aboriginals, the constable and the Sergeant are characters in the stage drama who regularly use improper English. By placing men of a high status behind these inappropriate use of words, the The History of Hurricane Essay, figures are simply constructed as uneducated or amateurish. When the Aboriginals use this language it is accepted as it constructs a stereotype of them being uneducated.

However this view is altered later when the of friendships, introduction of knowledge and books are put on the same side as them. The distinct contrast to We Free?, the colloquial language and improper English used in No Sugar, is the formal speech used by importance the Europeans such as Mr Neville. Gran: Chergeant! Chergeant! Neville: Whats that terrible racket? This shows, through the falstaff's associates, use of his language, that Neville seems to think himself on a different level to Gran. Of Friendships. Having heard a voice, who would have obviously known Gran was a person calling for someone else. Children Know From. However, he questions the importance of friendships, sound she makes as a racket, something which can very well be inhuman. Portrayed here is the theme of equality and there lack of, towards Aborignals. Act one, scene one, demonstrates the use of varied language at the very beginning of the stage drama. Koorawoorung! Nyoongahs corroborein to a wetjalas brass band! is exclaimed by Sam, one of the Essay on Are, main characters. Importance. The mix of English and Noongar is an almost sad depiction of the fleeting Aboriginal culture and Know Right from Wrong, how the Europeans are strongly influencing them. Importance. In addition, the reliance on the Europeans will come soon after when rations will need to be collected.

Although the The History of Hurricane Katrina, Aboriginals seem to talk like they do not need the of friendships, Europeans, they are highly influenced and reliant on them. They have adapted their lifestyles much like them and this creates a contrast with the loyalty quotes, attitudes they show towards the wetjelas. Importance Of Friendships. In addition, another distinction can be made shaping the theme of equality. Although the Aboriginals have learnt the language, English, the Europeans are in no hurry to falstaff's, learn their language. Of Friendships. JP: Are they related?, Sam: Hes my gnoolya, sir., JP: Hes your what? Almost stating that the lower class needs to know the upper, but not vice versa. Throughout the production, Davis forms characters and shapes themes with the use of with examples how transitions children's, dialogue and spoken language . Importance. Dialogue in a stage drama is significant especially in No Sugar where the different languages used help depict and categorize characters. In addition, this helps position the viewers to regard or admit certain themes portrayed in this text. Thus gaining a greater understanding of life for Aboriginals in a time of suffering and desperation. Jack Davis in his stage drama No Sugar employs use of on Are, various types of. spoken language. Use of both colloquial and formal english as well as.

Aboriginal language is very effective in presenting themes and also in. constructing characters. Themes including that of inequality between black and whites and unacceptance in society are portrayed and insights into the. characters are gained by different use of importance of friendships, language. Aboriginal language is used often throughout No Sugar and effectively. constructs many of the Aboriginal characters. They display a very. significant part of their culture and of Hurricane Essay, sense of identity by communicating in. their own language.

Readers of the play are able to witness the superiority. of the Aboriginals when speaking their own language, as non- Aboriginals. remain clueless and in importance awe. Having the secrecy of their own language. provides them with a power or strength, which is shown through the. characters use of it. For example, when Jimmy and Sam are put into of Hurricane Essay prison.

and speak Aboriginal language to each other police are unaware and appear. inferior because of the fact they dont understand. Of Friendships. Aboriginal characters. such as Jimmy take advantage of falstaff's, this power, which is important in the. construction of his character. Colloquial language plays an important role in presentation of themes also. character construction. Inequality between black and white is displayed. as use of this form of language by Aboriginal characters enables readers to.

see that they werent as educated as the whites. The slang and casual form. of speech is common among the of friendships, Aboriginals. Ay! Where dyou git them from? said Milly an Aboriginal mother talking to her child. This type of speech. wouldnt be expected from the whites, especially not from a mother.

Characters by employing use of this type of language are constructed as. The formality of speech by non- Aboriginal characters again aids in their. construction and in presenting a theme of unacceptance. Falstaff's Associates. If you successfully. inculcate such basic but essential details of civilised living you will have. helped them along the road to of friendships, taking their place in Australian society. This was said to a white Australian Superintendent in reference to the. Aboriginals. We discover that whites in the Australian society did not. accept blacks. The formality also presents the non- Aboriginals or. authority figures as mean and unjust people.

The belief that whites are. superior and in a position of power over with examples behaviour and development Aboriginals is portrayed through. many characters by using formal speech. Davis effective use of Aboriginal, colloquial and formal language has been. important in the stage drama No Sugar. It has enabled the successful.

presentation of themes and also the construction of black and white Feel free to access these resources for study purposes or classroom use. However where they have been directly dowloaded for distribution or copied and provided as notes, please acknowledge as a courtesy. John Watson.

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achieving goal essay Published on: April 22, 2006. Anthony Robbins, in his book 'Unlimited Power', elabourates upon the process of achieving goals. Importance Of Friendships. The best rifle in the hands of an ace marksman in loyalty quotes, the world will be of little use unless there is a target to hit. In the same way we should know what we want in life. Merely acquiring skills and equipment will not do. They will remain mere acquisitions. There should be a goal and all our energies should be focused on it. There should be a clear mental image of that goal. Conditions should be created to importance, put ourselves in top gear. Once this is reserve done, the rest will fall into a pattern.

Anthony Robbins says, People are not lazy. They simply have impotent goals - that is, goals that do not inspire them. Half-hearted attempts at setting out what we want to do will lead us nowhere. It is as good as not having goals. Of Friendships. Most people have inherent qualities which they have acquired from their parents, etc. but there are some others that belong collectively to 3.3 describe with how transitions may affect behaviour, the entire race. They cut across time, space and geographical boundaries. Norwegian lemmings, a type of rodent, behave in a strange fashion by courting a watery grave. No obstacle is insurmountable for them.

They cross it and importance of friendships, race towards the sea. Where there is sea today, there once was land. They fall into the sea and perish. Falstaff's. It is a result race memory. Otherwise it is difficult to of friendships, explain the behaviour of the lemmings. The same is true of the salmon which goes to breed to on Are, the same place where it had spawned. It even crosses waterfalls. (The salmon breeds in fresh water after crossing the seas.) Just like the lemming and salmon, man too has race memory. Anthony Robbins writes about the 100th monkey syndrome mentioned by biologist Lyall Watson in his book Life-Tide, published in 1979. A group of monkeys on the Japanese islands were used to eating uncleaned food. Importance. Once, when a monkey belonging to a family cleaned some sweet potatoes in a stream, his action inspired the others to do it. There were 100 monkeys on the island.

When one did it, the others followed. In an inexplicable manner, monkeys living on other islands acquired the same knowledge without any physical contact. This is attributed to collective consciousness by some scientists. One who is attuned properly can draw from this vast and yet rarely tapped source of collective consciousness. This adds to our mental resources and enables us to do better. Even when equipped with all knowledge - individual, racial, sub-conscious, etc. - if there is was the system created no specific goal, nothing can be achieved. Importance. Just as information filters to us from our unconscious, it may also filter in to us from completely outside of ourselves if we are in a resourceful enough state to receive it. Anthony Robbins suggests that there should be no hindrance in setting goals which he calls dreams and Essay, desires.

A person should identify what he/she wants to be. That is, there should be positive thinking. Mostly people spoil their chances by importance of friendships imaging what they don't want to be. Limited goals, according to the author, create limited lives. Know Right From. Thinking big is the solution to the problem. But that does not mean asking for the moon. In achieving the objective, one should be self-reliant and not dependent on others. The outcome should benefit not only the individual concerned but others, too.

To that extent selfishness is reduced. The mind, while setting goals, should roam free. A desirable thing for anyone is to prepare a list of things one wants to be, a time limit, an assessment of resources, constant review, what comes in the way of importance of friendships achieving the object, goal or dream. Then a model has to beowulf, be chosen to follow as per importance, the procedure already described in the previous articles. In order to achieve the goal, the Know Right Wrong Essay individual should design his/her ideal environment or surroundings to achieve the objective. Of Friendships. What the writer suggests costs nothing. You have to exercise your brain and create a mental picture. The vision has to be expressed in precise terms. Herein comes the vital role of Children Know Wrong Essay communication.

Anthony Robbins calls this exactitude in language or in importance of friendships, communication. It is called the power of precision. In other words one should be sure of with examples behaviour what one wants. All successful people have precise communication skills. We can get what we want by asking in precise terms. Any accident can reasonably be avoided if responsibility for of friendships a task is properly assigned in clear language.

All of us live in a little world of our own. Beowulf Loyalty Quotes. Successful communicators try to enter other people's world by mirroring them. Mirroring means making somebody feel you understand him. It is a dynamic process. When the other person sees you behaving the same way as he does, he will feel you care for him. This has to be done in an intelligent way.

All modes, vocal, auditory, kinesthetic, etc. Importance. can be employed. Successful mirroring will result in establishing a rapport with the other person. If you want to put across a message to a person you should know something of how that person receives messages and processes them. Not all information is acted upon. The brain is like a computer. 3.3 Describe Examples How Transitions Behaviour And Development. Software is necessary for a computer. Metaprograms are the software of our brain. They enable us to decide which bit of information is dull, interesting, a blessing or a threat.

These mental patterns need to be understood if we are to enter a person's inner world. It is normal human tendency to avoid pain and court happiness. This is done by moving away or moving towards something. Of Friendships. Take reading for instance. Some people read since they do not wish to be branded as ignorant.

They move away from that possibility by reading. There are others who are genuinely interested in 3.3 describe how transitions children's and development, reading good authors. They move towards reading and courting happiness. Importance Of Friendships. Possibility versus necessity decides a person's actions. You may buy something because you need it and not whatever is available is accepted. A person who is beowulf quotes motivated by importance necessity is interested in what is known. He looks for choice and options. There is another way of improving our lot. That is through changing the content. Quotes. What appears as a disadvantage may become an advantage. This process is called reframing.

Once, drilling for oil was considered less profitable than farming. People thought so much of rich farmland was being wasted. But that perception changed with the change in lifestyle when transport through vehicles became an important part of our daily life. The same was the case with a trifle item like sawdust. It was considered a waste product which was absolutely useless. Mounds of it were left unattended after logs had been sawed. One day a genius discovered that applying glue and importance, pressing the sawdust with it he could get Presto Logs.

He became a multimillionaire and used up all the sawdust. Bottled mineral water has become a thriving industry. This change in perception is due to the entrepreneurial spirit of a few individuals. Reframing means changing the mental perceptions. However bad or sad an experience, by reframing it and giving it a positive touch, we can learn from it. There are some people in this world who do not consider death as a loss.

They consider it a higher place of existence and reserve system, are happy, unlike most others. In every period people have had values. Importance. The quality of life in any age depended on those values. What is on Are true of people is equally true of individuals. Of course, people's system taken collectively is reflected in society. Taken at the individual level it shapes one's life. It is also true that some of these values change.

That impact of values on an individual is of friendships tremendous. They mould the behaviour and personality. One need not be learned or grown up to have values. Even children can have them. A child who wants to play with other children has either to blend its values to and Teens Know Wrong, those of others or make others change theirs. Otherwise the group won't play with that child. This dilemma goes on throughout life.

If somebody wants a promotion, he has to be on good terms with the of friendships boss, however impossible the boss is. Otherwise he has to look for another job. In plain terms, either you bring your values in line with those of the boss or quit. In order to deal with others, you should know their value system. A correct understanding of one's own value system or those of others makes for a smooth life.

First of all, a person's scale of values has to be ascertained. This can be done by constantly questioning him/her as to what is the most important thing in a value. Then we can think of a chain of graded values. People with shared values can form lasting friendships. On a higher plane, religion provides the ballast to one's values.

Where Hinduism is concerned, there are certain eternal values enshrined in dharma- a code of life. Because of their universality and quotes, antiquity, Hinduism is called the Sanatan Dharma - the eternal religion. These principles mould people's lives. Epics like the Ramayan and Mahabharat, the life of Bhagwan Swaminarayan and great holy sages provide the touchstone for people to test their character and moral values. Success, according to Anthony Robbins, is importance not something of a mountain peak to be climbed. It is a process and a way of life.

The power you have should be used in a responsible and loving way. There are five keys to wealth and happiness. The first is to know how to when federal, handle frustration. In the same manner you should know how to handle rejection. Importance Of Friendships. On several occasions we get a no. When Was The Reserve. By looking at the positive side of what we think is a bad situation, we should put the importance of friendships best possible construction and get on with the Essay on Are We Free? work on hand. The third key concerns money. In an illuminating sentence he says that, The only of friendships, way not to have financial pressure is not to have any finance. But that is and Teens Know from Wrong not always possible in importance, today's world. Learn to earn, save and give. Seventy per cent of the earning should be spent on oneself; of the rest, 10 per cent should be given away to others, 10 per cent to reduce your liabilities and the remaining 10 per cent should be invested.

The fourth key is was the reserve system never be complacent after you get what you want. If one wants to of friendships, grow, one should not be too comfortable. The last recipe to success is give more than what you expect. 3.3 Describe With Examples May Affect Behaviour And Development. That is the way of all good men. Go on giving is Anthony's advice. Don't stop. You have to do the work properly. The soil won't give you anything for free. You have to sow the seed, nurture the sapling, and then it grows into a tree and yields fruit. What you have, you share with others. Importance Of Friendships. That is what religion teaches.

Thanks to science and technology the world has become a global village. But man's behaviour is such that it turns neighbours into strangers. Children Know Right From Wrong Essay. But not all men and women are bad. The silent majority who just watch bad ones can be made to do their bit for the good of the world. This can be done through mass persuasion. TV and other instruments of communication are mighty engines of change. Importance Of Friendships. If the message is properly conveyed, it can change human behaviour, which according to the author is the source of good or evil in society.

The attitude of people can be changed in the same way as that of an individual by changing states and internal representations. Take the case of Right Wrong Essay tobacco. The statutory warning which is importance conveyed through the mass media changes the representational system of with examples people. They think twice before touching a cigarette. Similar is the case with war and other forms of violence. Importance. The concluding chapter of Anthony's thought-provoking book could be an when was the reserve created, effective footnote to importance, the Gita. Examples How Transitions May Affect Behaviour. Be a doer, he exhorts. He is importance of friendships not satisfied with mere acquisition of knowledge on how to have a better tomorrow or to falstaff's, improve the quality of of friendships life. He wants that learning to be spread through action.

That knowledge and what it leads to is the common property of of Hurricane Katrina all. Such knowledge should therefore benefit all.

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EmdashesModern Times Between the Lines. Before it moved to The New Yorker : The Best American Essays in The New Yorker, 1985 to importance of friendships the Present. Filed under: The Squib Report Tagged: A. Falstaff's Associates! Alvarez, Adam Gopnik, Alan Lightman, Alastair Reid, Alec Wilkinson, Alex Ross, Alfred Kazin, Alice Munro, Alison Rose, Amitav Ghosh, Andre Aciman, Andre Dubus, Anne Fadiman, Annie Dillard, Anthony Bailey, Arthur Miller, Atul Gawande, Berton Roueche, Best American series, Bill Buford, books, Caitlin Flanagan, Calvin Tomkins, Calvin Trillin, Cathleen Schine, Chang-Rae Lee, Complete New Yorker, Cynthia Ozick, Cynthia Zarin, Dagoberto Gilb, Dan Hofstadter, Daniel Raeburn, Daphne Merkin, Darryl Pinckney, Dave Eggers, David Denby, David Foster Wallace, David Owen, David Rieff, David Samuels, David Sedaris, Diana Trilling, Don DeLillo, Donald Antrim, E.J. Kahn Jr., Edmund White, Edward Conlon, Edward Hoagland, Elizabeth Hardwick, Eric Konigsberg, F. Importance Of Friendships! Gonzalez-Crussi, Frances FitzGerald, Francine du Plessix Gray, Gay Talese, Geoffrey Wolff, George Saunders, George W.S. Quotes! Trow, Gwen Kinkead, Harold Brodkey, Henry Louis Gates, Henry Louis Gates Jr., Hilton Als, Ian Frazier, Jamaica Kincaid, James Atlas, Jane Kramer, Jerome Groopman, Jill Lepore, Jo Ann Beard, Joan Acocella, Joan Didion, John Edgar Wideman, John Irving, John Lahr, John McPhee, John Seabrook, John Updike, Jonathan Franzen, Jonathan Lethem, Jonathan Raban, Joseph Brodsky, Joseph Epstein, Joyce Carol Oates, Judith Thurman, Justin Kaplan, Katha Pollitt, Kathleen Norris, Kathryn Harrison, Laura Hillenbrand, Linda H. Davis, Louis Menand, Malcolm Gladwell, Marcus Laffey, Marjorie Gross, Mary Karr, Michael Arlen, Michael J. Arlen, Muriel Spark, Nicholson Baker, Noelle Oxenhandler, Oliver Sacks, Oscar Hijuelos, Patrick McGrath, Paul Sheehan, Richard Ford, Richard Preston, Robert Heilbroner, Robert Shaplen, Robert Stone, Roger Angell, Salman Rushdie, Scott Turow, Simon Schama, Stephen Jay Gould, Stephen King, Sue Hubbell, Susan Orlean, Susan Sontag, Ted Conover, Terrence Rafferty, Tony Earley, Tracy Kidder, Veronica Geng, Vicki Hearne, Vivian Gornick, William Pfaff, William Styron. I was happy to see Emilys statement of allegiance to The New Yorker at The Millions the other day. For that matter, I was heartened to importance of friendships C. 3.3 Describe Examples! Max Magee launch such an importance of friendships, impassioned argument in favor of the magazine. Of Hurricane Essay! While I fully agree with him, its occurred to me before that there are more objective measures of the of friendships, quality of The New Yorker . Examples Behaviour And Development! Two years ago now, I tried to summon a collection of like-minded readers around the project of isolating the finest treasures in The Complete New Yorker . Later, I realized that that group had already coalesced here at importance, Emdashes; whats more, others had already done much of the work of isolating the Children and Teens Right from Essay, best work that has appeared in the magazine. Youre familiar with Houghton Mifflins annual Best American anthology series. Of Friendships! Not too long ago, there was only The Best American Essays and The Best American Short Stories. Falstaff's! Today, the series have proliferated, in more ways than one.

Houghton Mifflin has branched out into The Best American Mystery Stories, The Best American Sports Writing, The Best American Nonrequired Reading, The Best American Comics, and so on. Meanwhile, other presses, noticing the popularity of the line, have followed suit: Da Capo now has a Best Music Writing series, Harper Perennial has its own Best American Science Writing series (Houghton Mifflins counterpart is called The Best American Science and Nature Writing ), and so on. Of Friendships! Its become a crowded field. As a rule, each series has a general editor, and was the system every year a prominent practitioner of the importance, art is asked to beowulf loyalty quotes serve as guest editor. Importance! In each Best American Essays (or whatever), approximately a score of exemplars is was the reserve system selected to be reprinted, along withimportant for of friendships, my purposesseveral dozen also-rans listed in the back of the book. It will come as no surprise to anyone who has leafed through these books that The New Yorker regularly dominates them.

It is the rare table of of Hurricane, contents that does not feature an artifact from The New Yorker , more commonly two or three. The also-rans in the back also invariably feature a handful of of friendships, additional gems that originally appeared in The New Yorker . I would never claim that these selections are the final word on the subject. Surely The New Yorker and Children and Teens Right from other outlets benefit from familiarity, and surely reasons that are not purely quality-based might account for of friendships, this or that article or story being selected over another. Sometimes the selections seem more notable for their ability to beowulf get people talking than strict level of achievement. Importance Of Friendships! The guest editors are idiosyncratic; nobodys perfect. Nevertheless, in the aggregate the baseline quality represented in a listing of may affect, all of importance of friendships, The New Yorker s selected essays or stories is simply very high. No matter how you cut it, these books are a tremendous resource for The History Essay, anyone seeking the best writing from the importance of friendships, magazine over the last two decades or so. As of now, there are gaps. Anyone with a yen to trudge off to the library and loyalty quotes jot down some authors and importance titles (dates I can get on my own) and then e-mail them to and Teens Right Wrong Essay martin@emdashes.com is incredibly welcome to do so. I promise to add the of friendships, entries to this post with alacrity, with credit. (Note that the items in this list dated, say, 2001 appeared in The History Katrina the collection with the importance, year 2002 printed on the cover.) The essays are listed chronologically, so the Essay on Are, merest glance will reveal the years I have not yet been able to importance of friendships secure.

Please report the inevitable errors to the same address. Outright selections and also-rans are listed without noting which is whichtheyre all gonna be good, right? [Update: Ive changed my mind on this; selected essays, where available, are set in italics. MCS] The list can fulfill multiple purposes, of course; if you are worried about 3.3 describe how transitions missing gems in general, this list will help you catch up. But even if you want to importance of friendships indulge your skeptical side and test whether that overhyped John Updike or Cynthia Ozick is We Free? really any good; well, here are the importance of friendships, certified hits. Beowulf Quotes! They might not be the most exceptional works that Updike or Ozick ever wrote, but somebody clearly thought they were pretty good. Importance! I swoon at the very thought of the reading lists (a handy feature of the CNY ) this post may inspire. 3.3 Describe With How Transitions Children's And Development! Calvin Trillin, Adam Gopnik, Alice Munro, Roger Angellyou could generate a short reading list for each of importance, them, and many more. I sincerely hope readers find this list useful.

More are on beowulf loyalty, the way. Martin Schneider. Best American Essays originating in The New Yorker : 1985 (Elizabeth Hardwick, editor) Calvin Trillin, Right-of-Way, 5/6/1985. John Updike, At War with My Skin, 9/2/1985. Ian Frazier, Bear News, 9/9/1985. Joseph Brodsky, Flight from importance, Byzantium, 10/28/1985.

Calvin Trillin, Rumors Around Town, 1/6/1986. Adam Gopnik, Quattrocento Baseball, 5/19/1986. Anthony Bailey, A Good Little Vessel, 6/2/1986. Vicki Hearne, Questions about Language, 8/18/1985. Berton Roueche, Marble Stories, 10/27/1986. William Pfaff, The Dimensions of Terror, 11/10/1986. Calvin Trillin, The Life and Times of The History of Hurricane Katrina, Joe Bob Briggs, So Far, 12/22/1986. E.J. Kahn Jr., The Honorable Member for of friendships, Houghton 4/20/1987. Harold Brodkey, Reflections: Family. 11/23/1987. Susan Sontag, Pilgrimage, 12/21/1987.

Veronica Geng, A Lot in falstaff's associates Common, 1/25/1988. Calvin Trillin, Stranger in Town, 2/1/1988. E.J. Kahn Jr., Hand to Hand, 2/8/1988. George W.S. Trow Jr., Subway Story, 2/22/1988. Dan Hofstadter, Omnivores, 4/25/1988. Gwen Kinkead, An Overgrown Jack, 7/18/1988.

Robert Shaplen, The Long River, 8/8/1988. Joan Didion, Letter from Los Angeles, 9/5/1988. Berton Rouech?, The Foulest and Nastiest Creatures that Be, 9/12/1988. Jane Kramer, Letter from of friendships, Europe: West Berlin, 11/28/1988. Frances FitzGerald, Memoirs of the associates, Reagan Era, 1/16/1989. Robert Heilbroner, The Triumph of importance of friendships, Capitalism, 1/23/1989. Calvin Trillin, Abigail y Yo, 6/26/1989. Roger Angell, No, But I Saw the Game, 7/31/1989. Sue Hubbell, The Vicksburg Ghost, 9/25/1989. Cynthia Ozick, T.S. Eliot at associates, 101, 11/20/1989.

1990 (Joyce Carol Oates, editor) Joan Didion, Letter from importance of friendships, Los Angeles, 2/26/1990. John McPhee, Travels of the Rock, 2/26/1990. Michael J. Arlen, Invisible People, 4/16/1990. Ian Frazier, Canal Street, 4/30/1990. Terrence Rafferty, The Essence of 3.3 describe examples children's, Landscape, 6/25/1990. George W. S. Trow, Devastation, 10/22/1990.

Calvin Trillin, The Italian Thing, 11/19/1990. Jane Kramer, Letter from importance, Europe, 1/14/1991. Muriel Spark, The School of the Right from Essay, Links, 3/25/1991. Roger Angell, Homeric Tales, 5/27/1991. Susan Orlean, Living Large, 6/17/1991. Roger Angell, Early Innings, 2/24/1992. Alastair Reid, Waiting for importance, Columbus, 2/24/1992. Oliver Sacks, A Surgeons Life, 3/16/1992.

Cynthia Ozick, Alfred Chesters Wig, 3/30/1992. David Owen, One-Ring Mud Show, 4/20/1992. David Rieff, Original Virtue, Original Sin, 11/23/1992. Calvin Trillin, The First Family of Astoria, 2/8/1993. A. Children And Teens Right! Alvarez, The Dark at importance of friendships, the Top of the falstaff's, Stairs, 3/8/1993. Jamaica Kincaid, Alien Soil, 6/21/1993. Harold Brodkey, To My Readers, 6/21/1993. John McPhee, Duty of of friendships, Care, 6/28/1993.

Edward Conlon, To the beowulf loyalty quotes, Potters Field, 7/19/1993. Joan Didion, Trouble in Lakewood, 7/26/1993. Adam Gopnik, Death in Venice, 8/2/1993. Ted Conover, Trucking Through the importance of friendships, AIDS Belt, 8/16/1993. David Denby, Does Homer Have Legs? 9/6/1993. Ian Frazier, The Frankest Interview Yet, 9/27/1993. Alec Wilkinson, The Confession, 10/4/1993. F. Beowulf Quotes! Gonzalez-Crussi, Days of the Dead, 11/1/1993. Cynthia Ozick, Rushdie in importance the Louvre, 12/13/1993. John McPhee, Irons in the Fire, 12/20/1993.

Linda H. Essay! Davis, The Man on the Swing, 12/27/1993. 1994 (Jamaica Kincaid, editor) Harold Brodkey, Dying: An Update, 2/7/1994. Louis Menand, The War of All Against All, 3/14/1994. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., In the importance of friendships, Kitchen, 4/18/1994.

John Edgar Wideman, Father Stories, 8/1/1994. David Denby, Queen Lear, 10/3/1994. Jamaica Kincaid, Earthly Delights, 12/12/1994. Harold Brodkey, The Last Word on 3.3 describe with how transitions children's, Winchell, 1/30/1995. Jamaica Kincaid, Putting Myself Together, 2/20/1995. Calvin Trillin, State Secrets, 5/29/1995. Nicholson Baker, Books as Furniture, 6/12/1995. Amitav Ghosh, The Ghosts of Mrs. Gandhi, 7/17/1995. William Styron, A Case of the Great Pox, 9/18/1995.

Chang-Rae Lee, Coming Home Again, 10/16/1995. Joyce Carol Oates, They All Just Went Away, 10/16/1995. Joan Acocella, Cather and the Academy, 11/27/1995. John Irving, Slipped Away, 12/11/1995. Roger Angell, True TalesWell, Maybe, 1/22/1996. Harold Brodkey, This Wild Darkness, 2/5/1996. Paul Sheehan, My Habit, 2/12/1996. Jane Kramer, The Invisible Woman, 2/26/1996. Francine du Plessix Gray, The Third Age, 2/26/1996. Daphne Merkin, Unlikely Obsession, 2/26/1996. Marjorie Gross, Cancer Becomes Me, 4/15/1996.

Jonathan Raban, The Unlamented West, 5/20/1996. Jo Ann Beard, The Fourth State of Matter, 6/24/1996. David Denby, Buried Alive, 7/15/1996. Kathryn Harrison, Tick, 7/29/1996. Calvin Trillin, Anne of importance, Red Hair, 8/5/1996. Alison Rose, Bathing-Suit Heroines, 8/12/1996.

Garry Wills, John Waynes Body, 8/19/1996. Vivian Gornick, On the Street, 9/9/1996. Richard Ford, In the Face, 9/16/1996. Cynthia Ozick, A Drugstore Eden, 9/16/1996. Hilton Als, Notes on My Mother, 11/18/1996. James Atlas, Making the beowulf loyalty quotes, Grade, 4/14/1997. Adam Gopnik, Appointment with a Dinosaur, 4/21/1997. John McPhee, Silk Parachute, 5/12/1997. Alison Rose, Tales of importance of friendships, a Beauty, 5/26/1997.

Oliver Sacks, Water Babies, 5/26/1997. Diana Trilling, A Visit to Camelot, 6/2/1997. Noelle Oxenhandler, Fall from 3.3 describe behaviour, Grace, 6/16/1997. David Denby, In Darwins Wake, 7/21/1997. Andre Dubus, Witness, 7/21/1997.

Patrick McGrath, Jealousy, 8/25/1997. Cynthia Ozick, Lovesickness, 8/25/1997. Henry Louis Gates Jr., The Naked Republic, 8/25/1997. Salman Rushdie, Crash, 9/15/1997. John Updike, Lost Art, 12/15/1997. 1998 (Edward Hoagland, editor)

Bill Buford, Thy Neighbors Life, 1/5/1998. Henry Louis Gates, Jr., The End of Loyalty, 3/8/1998. Arthur Miller, Before Air-Conditioning, 6/22/1998. John McPhee, Swimming with Canoes, 8/10/1998. Richard Ford, Good Raymond, 10/5/1998. Joan Didion, Last Words, 11/9/1998. John Lahr, The Lion and Me, 11/16/1998.

Andre Aciman, In Search of Proust, 12/21/1998. George W.S. Trow, Folding the of friendships, Times, 12/28/1998. Calvin Trillin, The Chicken Vanishes, 2/8/1999. Alec Wilkinson, Notes Left Behind, 2/15/1999.

Hilton Als, The Dope Show, 2/22/1999. Cynthia Ozick, The Synthetic Sublime, 2/22/1999. Joseph Epstein, Taking the Bypass, 4/12/1999. Daphne Merkin, Our Money, Ourselves, 4/26/1999. Bill Buford, Lions and Tigers and Bears, 8/23/1999.

Henry Louis Gates Jr., Rope Burn, 8/23/1999. John Seabrook, Nobrow Culture, 9/20/1999. John McPhee, Farewell to The History Essay the Nineteenth Century, 9/27/1999. Adam Gopnik, The Rookie, 10/4/1999. Dave Eggers, The Orphans Are Coming! 10/18/1999. John Updike, The Future of Faith, 11/29/1999. Oliver Sacks, Brilliant Light, 12/20/1999. 2000 (Kathleen Norris, editor)

Dagoberto Gilb, I Knew She Was Beautiful, 3/13/2000. John McPhee, Theyre in importance the River, 4/10/2000. Marcus Laffey, The Midnight Tour, 5/15/2000. Edward Hoagland, Calliope Times, 5/22/2000. Tony Earley, Grannys Bridge, 7/3/2000. Andre Aciman, Arbitrage, 7/10/2000. Mary Karr, The Hot Dark, 9/4/2000.

Daphne Merkin, Trouble in the Tribe, 9/11/2000. 2001 (Stephen Jay Gould, editor) Daphne Merkin, The Black Season, 1/8/2001. Jamaica Kincaid, Sowers and Reapers, 1/22/2001. Darryl Pinckney, Busted in New York, 2/5/2001.

Atul Gawande, Final Cut, 3/19/2001. Susan Sontag, Where the Stress Falls, 6/18/2001. Eric Konigsberg, Blood Relation, 8/6/2001. David Samuels, The Runner, 9/3/2001. Jonathan Franzen, My Fathers Brain, 9/10/2001. Adam Gopnik, The City and the Pillars, 9/24/2001. Atul Gawande, The Learning Curve, 1/28/2002. Alice Munro, Lying Under the when was the federal created, Apple Tree, 6/17/2002. Donald Antrim, I Bought a Bed, 6/17/2002. Katha Pollitt, Learning to Drive, 7/22/2002. Jane Kramer, The Reporters Kitchen, 8/19/2002.

Adam Gopnik, Bumping Into Mr. Ravioli, 9/30/2002. Oliver Sacks, The Case of Anna H., 10/7/2002. Jerome Groopman, Dying Words, 10/28/2002. Gay Talese, On the Bridge, 12/2/2002. Ian Frazier, Researchers Say, 12/9/2002. Roger Angell, Romance, 5/26/2003. Susan Orlean, Lifelike, 6/9/2003.

Jonathan Franzen, Caught, 6/16/2003. Laura Hillenbrand, A Sudden Illness, 7/7/2003. Oliver Sacks, The Minds Eye, 7/28/2003. Don DeLillo, That Day in of friendships Rome, 10/20/2003. John McPhee, 1839/2003, 12/15/2003. Katha Pollitt, Webstalker, 1/19/2004. Donald Antrim, The Kimono, 3/15/2004. Adam Gopnik, Last of the Metrozoids, 5/10/2004.

Robert Stone, The Prince of Possibility, 6/14/2004. Caitliin Flanagan, To Hell With All That, 7/5/2004. Oliver Sacks, Speed, 8/23/2004. Malcolm Gladwell, The Ketchup Conundrum, 9/6/2004. Calvin Tomkins, Summer Afternoon, 9/13/2004.

Ian Frazier, Out of Ohio, 1/10/2005. Oscar Hijuelos, Lunch at the Biltmore, 1/17/2005. Jonathan Lethem, The Beards, 2/28/2005. Jonathan Franzen, The Retreat, 6/6/2005. Edmund White, My Women, 6/13/2005. Adam Gopnik, Death of a Fish, 7/4/2005. Oliver Sacks, Recalled to associates Life, 10/31/2005. 2006 (David Foster Wallace, editor) Calvin Trillin, Alice, Off the importance of friendships, Page, 3/27/2006. Daniel Raeburn, Vessels, 5/1/2006. John Lahr, Petrified, 8/28/2006.

Richard Preston, Tall for Its Age, 10/9/2006. David Sedaris, Road Trips, 11/27/2006. Many, many thanks to Benjamin Chambers of when was the federal reserve, The Kings English for importance of friendships, fully nine of the years listed here. It made all the associates, difference. I would add to this great, cornucopic list two personal favorites: Arthur Lubows This Vodka Has Legs (September 12, 1994) and importance of friendships Verlyn Klinkenborgs George Eddies (December 24, 1990). Thanks for The History, the reading list. (Like I need another one!) Should be a fun way to of friendships noodle through my Complete NYer. Still, Ive been a bit disappointed by the two essays I began with; since they were both from 1985, Im wondering if fashions in essay-writing have anything to do with it. Im a fan of Ian Frazier, so I started right off with his Bear News. Even though it had a few things I liked, it simply tailed off as if Frazier had run out of steam. Im also a fan of associates, Trillins light work, but Ive never read his reporting.

My hopes for Right-of-Way, however, were unrealized. Importance Of Friendships! Although necessarily open-ended since it was about truly bad neighbors who were still neighbors, it also felt flat. When Was The Federal Reserve System! Perhaps that says more about the kinds of essays Ive come to importance like - or my overriding predilection for fiction, which can be more easily shaped - but Ill be interested to see if I notice changes as I read through the when was the federal reserve created, decades. Hi Benjamin, thanks for the thoughtful comment. Its certainly possible that e.g. the Internet has radically altered our expectations for importance, the written word. Also stuff thats like 10-20 years old is Essay on Are We Free? awkward, if its older its got that veneer of importance of friendships, another time; something from beowulf quotes, 1985 is close enough to importance us that its just going to falstaff's feel like an affront. I dipped into some of the 1998 selections and came away feeling either That was fine, I guess or Darn good! Heres to your ratio improving!

Thanks for the suggestion - I wont pretend Ill get to it quickly, but Ill file it away. Importance Of Friendships! I wont blame my troubles with these essays on the Internet, however; my aesthetic predates the Internet sufficiently that I havent been particularly ruffled by or influenced by what I see or publish there. I still expect work to be cohesive, where every part of it voice, theme, structure serves its argument or subject. The History Katrina! Im mystified by the popularity of rants (which never bear re-reading), the Ive-been-there-so-my-experience-is-worth-reading-about school, and the idea that cleverness is deemed to be sufficient unto the day (though I admit its sometimes enough). None of importance of friendships, these ills plague the essays I mentioned, either; those two simply lack a sense of completion, of federal system, narrative drive. And as I say, my expectation that they should deliver this might have more to do with what fiction reliably gives me than any actual fault of importance, theirs. Ill check back in after Ive read more from this list.

Hello! Im Emily Gordon, an editor, critic, copywriter, and pre-web internet nut. Emdashes, born in 2004, spent many years as a New Yorker fan blog. Essay We Free?! The project garnered some nice compliments and importance of friendships press. The blogs now treading the territories of Essay on Are, punctuation, publications, movies, design, and importance other things that stir me. Over the years, Ive worked with a brilliant brigade of culture writers, editors, and artists. Falstaff's Associates! You can read all about the people who've helped build Emdashes here at of friendships, Who We? (Thats a New Yorker joke. Old habits die hard.) I welcome submissions, questions, corrections, and ardent, obsessive contributors.

I also host occasional book-related contests and Children and Teens Wrong giveaways. Importance! Questioners and publishers, just email me. Looking for falstaff's associates, The New Yorker magazine or newyorker.com? Kudos on your classy taste. Heres how to find and importance of friendships contact The New Yorker . Dashes, some say, “are particularly useful in a sentence that is long and when created complex.” Emdasheslike the em dash itselfprovides a thoughtful pause amid the importance of friendships, hubbub.

Unsigned posts are by of Hurricane Katrina me; other columnists and contributors include Martin Schneider, Pollux, Jonathan Taylor, and of friendships Benjamin Chambers, plus various guest stars. The site was designed by falstaff's House of of friendships, Pretty with illustrations by Jesse R. And Teens Right From Essay! Ewing. Additional drawings are by importance Carolita Johnson and Pollux (author of Emdashes webcomic The Wavy Rule). Jennifer Hadley designed the original Emdashes pencil logo, based on a 1943 Dorothy Gray ad. Liveblogging: the 2013 Street Fight Summit, a conference on hyperlocal business Reviews: as a theater critic at 3.3 describe how transitions behaviour and development, Time Out Chicago Profile: Valerie Casey, Designers Accord founder, is spearheading the design of importance, sustainability (for SXSW World ) Feature: Rea Irvin: visionary art director, bon vivant, New Yorker founding father (for Print ) At the scene: a festive downpour at Essay on Are We Free?, the Coney Island Mermaid Parade; celebrating the lindy-hop legend Frankie Manning (for NYCgo.com) Feature: Muslim immigration iconography in the Netherlands, and an interview with Ayaan Hirsi Ali (for Print ) Inquiry: Does a New Republic redesign mean a change of tune? (for Print ) Interview: James Surowiecki on of friendships, what's next for 3.3 describe may affect behaviour and development, the wisdom of of friendships, crowds (for Assignment Zero) Profiles: rising designers under 30 (for Print ) The Beautiful Sentence and falstaff's associates Obscure Controversies (Emilys distractions) Box Office Boffo (Martin Schneider on importance of friendships, movies) World of falstaff's associates, Pollux (artist Paul Morris) Jonathan Taylor (scholar and critic) Carolita Johnson (cartoonist and rabble-rouser) My 2004-era blogroll (still current-ish!)

Everything you tell or send me is off the record unless I ask for your permission to importance of friendships use it.