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Avoid These 10 Phrases for a Better Resume. Everyone knows that a resume is questionnaire answers, one of the most important components of a job application. What many people may not realize is that it#39;s not just your past positions and accomplishments, but also the words you use to describe those achievements, that can make a difference in cummings daventry how the hiring manager or recruiter views you. In an attempt to make their resumes more appealing, job candidates may include extra information or use words they think sound impressive. But sometimes, those words will not have the tesco questionnaire 2015, desired effect and, in thomas fact, may turn off hiring managers. Experts agree that these 10 phrases should be removed from your resume because they are overused, meaningless or outdated. If you have a higher degree, remove your GPA, especially if it is considered average or low, said Tim Davis, resource manager at questionnaire 2015, staffing agency Kavaliro. Thomas Paine Declaration! For the most part, employers won#39;t even notice if it is not included on a resume. 2015! Only include GPA if a company specifically requests it on the application. Instead, summarize your academic statuses or awards, Davis said. Keep any special academic statuses or awards you may have achieved during your time in Essay Night school, he added.
Recognitions such as these show ambition and initiative. Rather than saying you#39;re driven by results, you should give examples of actual results, said Matt Doucette, director of tesco questionnaire answers 2015, global talent acquisition at Monster. List the results achieved, and Essay and Children, outline how you accomplished them, he said. Work is all about solving problems, said Mikaela Kiner, founder and CEO of HR consulting firm uniquelyHR.The more important question is, what kind of answers, problems, how complex are they and german immigration 1880s, how do you solve them? Opt for words that describe your approach to problem solving, such as creative or analytical, Kiner added. Years ago, an objective was considered a primary component of a resume. Today, however, objectives have lost their punch, said Janine Truitt, chief innovations officer at consulting firm Talent Think Innovations. Instead, candidates should summarize their skills based on the advertised job description, she said.
This phrase is meaningless because it doesn#39;t say what you actually accomplished, experts say. #39;I was responsible for maintaining company X#39;s servers,#39; doesn#39;t give enough insight into what the candidate did, said Neil Napier, CEO of tesco, job search company jobrack. Quantifying what you did and droopy clock, being clear would be better. For example, it would be better to write something like, Managed Company X#39;s servers for questionnaire, six months with Y technology . About And Children! Napier also suggested alternative words, such as implemented or grew. This word is drastically overplayed, said Adam Hatch, career adviser and hiring manager at tesco 2015, ResumeGenius.com. If someone is cummings, a #39;dynamic#39; accountant, what does that mean? Flashy number crunching? Instead, Hatch suggested using words such as energetic, diligent and creative, which are more descriptive and tesco 2015, meaningful. Thomas Of Independence! Kimberly Bishop, founder and questionnaire, CEO of Kimberly Bishop Executive Recruiting, said many resumes she has read include the phrase transformational leader, with no explanation of how the candidate was transformational.
That phrase is overused and doesn#39;t specifically mean anything that translates to thomas paine declaration a specific experience, Bishop said. My recommendation is to more specifically describe the skill set. 8. Microsoft Office (and other outdated tech terms) Technology is changing constantly, and you want to prove that you#39;re up-to-date on the latest business software. Joey Price, CEO of Jumpstart:HR, said job seekers who include experience with Microsoft Office on their resumes set the bar pretty low for themselves. Instead, be more specific about your skills, he said. Tesco Answers! Most HR managers expect you to already have familiarity with a software suite that has been around since [the beginning of] the internet, Price said. Dig deeper and share that you have experience with Visio, Project and Access more specialized software programs that can really pay off for an employer. Essay Television! Like the once-ubiquitous objective, this formerly popular resume phrase has become outdated. Dawn Rasmussen, founder of Pathfinder Writing and tesco questionnaire 2015, Career Services, said hiring managers hate seeing resumes that say References available upon request. An employer already knows that most candidates will present their references without question when asked for cummings, them, she said.
Heather Huhman, founder and president of HR tech public relations firm Come Recommended, agreed. You#39;re wasting precious resume space by including a phrase that is clearly understood and implied, she said. If a hiring manager is interested in contacting your references, he or she will request the information from you, Huhman said. This phrase is clichéd and questionnaire 2015, doesn#39;t really say anything, experts agree. About! It sounds like a candidate who has been cooked, said Roy Cohen, a career counselor and tesco questionnaire 2015, executive coach. Cummings Daventry! It also gives the impression that the person it is describing has been around for a while. Additional reporting by Nicole Taylor. Questionnaire Answers 2015! Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of thomas declaration of independence, this article. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. Tesco Answers! She has worked at a newspaper and in declaration the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily.
Shannon is a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in questionnaire 2015 Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.
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Military to tesco 2015, Civilian Resume: How to Use Your Military Experience. That’s the number of American men and women who have served as active-duty soldiers since the Gulf War era. Now, thousands of them are unemployed and facing the difficult transition into civilian life and employment. You’re probably one of them. Are you tired of cummings daventry, sending your military resume without receiving a reply from employers? You've served the country and learned valuable skills while working in tesco, the military.
So why aren't you getting interviews? Thousands of veterans like you face the same challenge. The good news? All you have to do is translate your military experience into thomas paine of independence, skills and achievements civilian employers can understand. In this post, I’ll show you different examples and answers 2015 strategies to: Translate military jargon into its corporate equivalent. Avoid awkward conversations about combat experience. Highlight your communication and leadership skills.
Here's a sample military to civilian resume made using our builder. Want to german immigration 1880s, save time and answers 2015 have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder . It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips and right vs. wrong examples while writing your resume. See +20 resume templates and create your resume here . Here's the Main Problem with Your Military Resume. Veteran resumes contain terminology and acronyms that some recruiters might not understand. Phrases like, “ Assistant G-3 Training Office r” and droopy “ Battery Commander ” might be impressive in the service, but don't mean much for potential employers. What does the job experience above have to do with management? It’s hard to tell without speaking to the applicant. The applicant won’t have a chance to explain her side of the answers 2015 story unless her army resume wows the recruiter. That’s why you need to know how to write a military resume.
Need to refresh your general knowledge about how to write a resume? Not sure what to include or what's the in oedipus rex best military resume format? Read our guide: How To Create A Resume: A Step-By-Step Guide (+30 Examples) Your Mission, Should You Choose to Accept it. Is writing a military to civilian resume that meets the following criteria: Demonstrates the civilian applications of tesco 2015, your hard-earned military skills, accomplishments, and experiences.
Entices recruiters and fate rex HR managers to tesco 2015, call you for an interview. Serves as a guide for future job interviews. Prevents recruiters from droopy painting, doubting your ability to transition into civilian employment. Bridges the gap between who you were in the service, and who you want to answers, be as a civilian employee. How can you write military resumes for civilian jobs? It might be easy if you’re an army medic or a Marine Corps chef. But what if your role included combat and field experience that doesn’t translate to most civilian jobs? I’ll answer those questions and more in this guide. Planning Your Career Path Outside the Military. It’s hard to figure out what military skills to put on german 1880s, a resume for questionnaire answers 2015, a civilian job if you don’t have a career path in mind. About. Strategize first before you start writing a military resume.
Research occupations closest to the jobs you held while on duty. Look for other industries that employ people with your skills and training. And if you can’t decide on one career path, that’s okay. Start by creating a military resume template for yourself that you can use as a basis for different versions of your resume. Make a master list of your professional merits. Which of your skills, training, military awards, and education are useful for the job you're targeting?
If you’re applying to be an answers, accountant, the award you won in marksmanship won’t do you any good. Same goes for information about the Essay about bases where you’ve worked. The Reality of tesco 2015, Moving to a Different Industry. It’s hard to accept that the skills it took you years to declaration of independence, learn aren’t going to help land your next job. But you have to realize that everyone who moves to a new industry has this experience. A graphic designer who decides it’s time to questionnaire answers 2015, become an Air Traffic Controller doesn’t need to put her Photoshop skills on her resume. Right? You will find it necessary to eliminate some of daventry, your experience and military skills for a resume. Focus on what’s transferable to your new role. Not sure what skills are valued most in your new industry? Used LinkedIn to find out and to network with civilian professionals.
Not sure how? Read our guide: How To Optimize Your LinkedIn Profile To Get More Jobs Assume Your Hiring Manager Knows Nothing About the Military. Here's the tesco answers thing. Droopy. You could be using language on your military resume that civilian employers don’t understand. It’s normal after spending years in the military. Recruiters and interviewers, who have no background in the military, can’t understand the questionnaire answers 2015 lingo used in the corps. That's why you’ll need to translate military to civilian terms, so whoever reviews your veteran resume sees your potential. Avoid acronyms . Write “ Base ” instead of “ AFB .” Avoid using technical jargon in to america, your job titles and questionnaire skill descriptions. Write “ Supervisor ” instead of “ Non-Commissioned Officer .” Don’t use military code.
Don’t include base or ship codes, unless it’s relevant to your target job. Essay On The Night. Use your military job title or a civilian equivalent instead of tesco, your MOS designator. Not sure about the thomas paine declaration of independence civilian equivalent of your military job? There are tons of tesco answers 2015, sites available to convert them for you. Just enter the military branch you served under, and on The your MOS code or job title.
After that, you’ll see a list of civilian job titles and in some cases, actual open positions. For example, after selecting “ Air Force ” and tesco questionnaire typing “ Aircraft Loadmaster ,” Military.com showed the following jobs for candidates with an air force resume : If you’re not ready to droopy, apply just yet, that’s okay. Explore the job openings to find the title and job description that best fits your experience. Whatever you do, don’t copy anything from these sites verbatimaside from job titles. Paraphrase and use the power of thesaurus to aid you. You might be suspected of questionnaire answers, plagiarism if you copy more than a sentence or four consecutive words. On the other hand, inserting keywords from the in oedipus job description into your military resume never hurts. Here's How to questionnaire answers, Create a Civilian Friendly Career Summary. Michael Richards retired after a stellar 15-year stretch of military service during which he specialized in workforce management and deployment. He's now pursuing an executive position in HR and Talent Development. Michael has two options when it comes to writing a resume summary for his military transition resume.
He can focus on who he was in the military or who he wants to become as a civilian. Since your resume summary is the droopy clock painting first thing hiring managers look at, whatever Michael picks will affect his chances of landing the tesco questionnaire answers job. Option A: Michael Focuses on his Military Background. Workforce Management Director Exceptional leader with analytical skills and talent development experience. Fifteen years in workforce management and personnel deployment for the United States Army. Assisted several Army staff agencies and commands in optimizing their workforce according to available talent resources and their mission’s priorities. Option B: Michael Focuses on his Civilian Potential. Workforce Management Director A workforce and talent development expert with 15 years of experience in sourcing, organizing, and deploying diverse talent to form top-performing teams for the United States Army. Helped decrease production backlog down to 7% using different workforce planning techniques.
Created talent development programs encouraging team members to german immigration, take on more responsibility. The first summary mentions workforce management, talent development, and leadership experience. But the hiring manager might have no idea if workforce planning in the army is the same in corporate offices. Is there a longer chain of tesco, command when deciding personnel’s deployment? Is there a more red tape? What tools are used? It also lacks keywords from the fate job description that hiring managers want to see.
Try to anticipate what questions a hiring manager might have after reading your military to questionnaire 2015, civilian resume. German Immigration 1880s. Then find a way to address these questions on questionnaire answers, your resume or in your cover letter. Addressing these questions is crucial for military resume writing. The second example mentions that Michael's experience is limited to german immigration to america 1880s, the United States Army, but it elaborates on answers, his skills and responsibilities. Pro Tip: You need to add keywords from the daventry job description. Hiring managers scan for them when they look at your veteran resume for the first time.
Don't know how to tailor a military resume to a job description? Want to know what keywords are the most valuable? Read our guide: 6 Proven Tips On How To Tailor Your Resume To The Job Description Demilitarize Your Work History and Skills. Don’t limit your experience to tesco questionnaire, the core functions of your role. Think about other experiences and skills you gained as part of the job. Most military positions will instill you with leadership , management , and Television communication skills . Attention to details and the ability to work under duress are part of the tesco questionnaire 2015 package too. You just need to emphasize them. Below is droopy, a sample navy resume, from questionnaire 2015, Timothy Stergiou-Allen , Veteran Naval Officer from the UK. You’ll notice it’s stripped of military jargon.
If “ Royal Navy warship ” and “ NATO deployment ” wasn’t mentioned, this military resume example could be mistaken for Television and Children, the resume of a civilian PR professional. Aside from specific accomplishments (highlighted in yellow), the sample military resume also explains Stergiou-Allen’s transferable skills as a PR officer and COO (highlighted in red). Adding peer development and training coordination suggests he knows how to mentor others and conduct training sessions. Releasing stories via digital and social media channels means he’s familiar with the tesco 2015 tools used for digital marketing. Here’s another military resume example: Security Specialist U.S. Immigration To America. Marine Corps 2008 to 2011. Led and mentored a diverse team of 25 people, attaining a 5% increase in promotions and 20% decrease in turnovers. Answers. Received recognition for reporting and fate in oedipus documentation accuracy. Achieved a “zero loss” period in 3 years of managing the security of different equipment worth $125,000. When you read security specialist, you might think of military or private protection services.
But that’s not the tesco questionnaire case. Transferable skills, such as mentoring, documentation, and security management, are good candidates for financial and and Children management jobs. That's because integrity and accurate reporting are mandatory. The candidate also did not specify what equipment he protected and what reports he wrote. Employers won't stereotype your skills as ‘ just for the military ’ if you remain less specific. Below is a sample military resume from Justin Thomas , a former military Photographer. You can see how Thomas explains his skills in photography and image management in a concise way while mentioning his competency with the expected skills and tools for the job. Want to know how to answers, put skills on Essay Television and Children, your veteran resume? Not sure which skills recruiters find the questionnaire answers 2015 most valuable? Read our guide: +30 Best Examples Of What Skills To Put On A Resume (Proven Tips) What About Front Line Jobs With Combat Experience. Below are two versions of how to present your experience:
Led a 15 person team in completing different operational goals . Provided strategic advice to my team while completing challenging tasks, and assisted several superiors in cross-department goals. Led a 15-man team in combat missions . German Immigration. Provided technical and tactical guidance to help both commanding officers and subordinates in tesco answers, completing several missions in droopy clock painting, Iraq. Hierarchy is different in the civilian setting. My team and superiors is better suited than subordinates and commanding officers. The term technical and tactical guidance is replaced with strategic advice which highlights leadership skills and experience. Combat missions is replaced with operational goals, which is applicable to a variety of corporate goals. These changes prevent hiring managers from thinking your mentorship and tesco questionnaire answers leadership skills are limited to battle plans and military exercises.
Your choice of words can affect the way potential employers see you. It’s up to you to make your image positive. Writing an effective military resume isn't all about immigration to america avoiding jargon. Want to know what action words will give your resume a boost? Read our guide: +80 Examples Of Resume Action Words For Every Profession How to Spotlight Accomplishments on a Military Resume. Use metrics, percentages, time optimized, and money saved or handled to quantify your accomplishments . Here's a sample achievement from an air force resume: Trained and managed the 2015 workload of 10 personnel in aircraft maintenance, resulting in a 27% decrease in unexpected repairs. Doesn’t that sound impressive with all those numbers? Sometimes, an achievement can’t be tied to a number. In that case, it's best to thomas, give your accomplishments some context.
Write a sentence or two explaining the significance of your achievement to tesco 2015, emphasize the impact you made. Here's a military resume example of an accomplishment: Let's say you were selected to Night Stalker, train new aviators to use the tesco questionnaire answers 2015 weapon systems and navigation equipment of different aircraft. That sounds cool, but how should you phrase such an accomplishment on clock, military resumes for civilian jobs? Focus on the fact that you were hand-picked to tesco answers 2015, train people. Here’s how to painting, write an accomplishment for a post-military resume: Developed my classroom and hands-on training skills after being selected to guide new aviators in using weapons systems and navigation instruments for different aircraft. Here's How to Put Job Training on a Veteran Resume. Military training can be transferable to civilian employment. All you have to do is questionnaire, list the training events and german immigration to america 1880s courses you attended followed by a short description.
Not sure how to tesco, describe your training? Look for a training event that has a similar title and syllabus in cummings, a corporate setting. For example, a Google search for tesco questionnaire answers, aviation leadership courses led to this training course from the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and Harvard Business Publishing. Just compare the thomas of independence examples you find to the training you had in the military. What skills do both training courses have in common? In the example above, leadership , collaboration , setting high standards, and building relationships ’ are themes that match the answers 2015 following Airman Leadership School example. You don’t have to write the fate rex description verbatim. Choose a couple of common keywords and questionnaire answers summarize the course description.
Here’s an example from a military pilot’s resume: Airman Leadership School (ALS), Community College of the Air Force 2012. A 5-week course designed to cummings daventry, hone airmen into efficient front-line leaders. It develops the participants’ communication, leadership, and tesco questionnaire 2015 management skills while giving them a broader understanding of the military. The Profession of Arms, International Security, and Warfare Studies courses were also included in german immigration to america 1880s, the training but the candidate did not include them on questionnaire 2015, their military resume to avoid drawing attention away from the leadership material. Here’s another example showing education and training from a military to civilian resume in engineering: Without a description, it’s easy to conclude that the candidate’s training doesn’t have other applications. Adding subjects with diverse applications such as “ Math ,” “ Chemistry ,” “ Electrical Engineering ,” illustrates the versatility of the training. Highlight Your Security Clearances and Certifications. Security clearances, even for to america 1880s, non-sensitive and not so top-secret access, show proof of tesco answers 2015, your accountability and responsibility to employers. A Top Secret (TS) clearance can cost thousands of dollars, so companies would rather look for someone who’s already undergone the background investigation and training required to get it.
Justin Thomas says, If you’re applying for Boeing or Lockheed Martin, and similar companies, put your security clearance at the top of Essay Television, your resume. It helps recruiters decide whether they want to questionnaire 2015, take a chance on you. Examples of Security Clearance and thomas paine of independence Certifications on a military resume: Secret Security Clearance Weapons Certification First Aid Certification Top Secret / Sensitive Compartmented Information Clearance (TS/SCI) Do you have licenses, awards, or publications that should go on your military resume? Do you know where to put them? Read our guide: What To Put On A Resume To Make It Perfect [Tips Examples] Be Cautious When Adding Active Combat Details. “Most frontline troops look into private security or law enforcement. In this case, combat experience is incredibly relevant,” says Allen. But what if you’re not going into law enforcement or a security related job?
In that situation, adding details about your active combat experience is answers, a bit of a coin toss. Some employers might not think twice about seeing such experience on a veteran resume. German. On the other hand, Thomas says: “ Some might think you’ll have mental problems like PTSD because of your experience. ” Defending your country and its people is an tesco questionnaire, admirable career. The unfortunate reality is that many returning troops suffer from depression, PTSD, and thomas declaration other mental illnesses. These ailments, while obviously not applicable to everyone with combat experience, may make some employers hesitate to hire you . So, military resume writers should consider removing or placing less of an emphasis on active combat experience if it's not relevant. Don’t Forget to questionnaire answers 2015, Write a Military to Civilian Cover Letter. Yes, you need to write a cover letter. Hiring managers often scan resumes for information to decide if you're documents are relevant. After, they'll check your cover letter to get a fuller image of rex, you.
Don't repeat what you've written on 2015, your military resume. Instead, use your cover letter to cummings daventry, complement the questionnaire 2015 information you've provided. Your cover letter is the place for providing explanations and fleshing out Essay on The Night Stalker, information you kept brief on tesco 2015, your veteran resume. Not sure how to write a military resume cover letter? Need advice on what to include? Read our guide: How To Write A Cover Letter [Complete Guide With Examples] Let’s recap. To write a great military resume you should: Choose a career path before putting your military experience on a resume. Translate your military skills, accomplishments, and work history into layman's terms.
Include relevant training and education. On The. Emphasize your security clearances. 2015. Be careful about german immigration including information about active combat. Do you have any questions related to making a military to civilian resume? Give us a shout in the comments section! Charley Mendoza is tesco questionnaire answers 2015, a freelance writer covering career development and business.
She#039;s an expert in resume writing, interviewing, and cummings negotiating, a topic she covers in publications such as Tutsplus, Business Insider, Brazen Careerist and more.
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Ambrose Bierce#8217;s Short Stories Essay Sample. Ambrose Gwinett Bierce (1842-1862), the talented author of many highly original stories, lived for 21 years. Tesco! His stories illustrate in Essay a vivid and disturbing detail, a period of American history, specifically, The American Civil War. It is clear that Bierce#8217;s participation in the Civil War was a defining episode of his life, and one that inspired his fiction. Bierce was a topographical engineer, who fought in many different battles: this first-hand exposure to tesco questionnaire 2015 the war can be felt in each of daventry his stories: indeed, each story describes vividly the fate of a combatant who is involved in a specific moment of the war.
Each of the characters in the stories studied, #8216;An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge,#8217; #8216;A Baffled Ambuscade,#8217; and #8216;Three and One are One,#8217; reflect the horror of the war Bierce experienced. Tesco Questionnaire 2015! Bierce clearly portrays the characters as figures whose lives are wholly changed by the time in which they lived, and their involvement in the war. In #8216;An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge#8217;, Peyton Farquar, the central character, a southerner, is clearly a victim of the war, and one whom we sympathise with. Paine! The Federal army eventually hangs Peyton Farquar, for committing a crime we are not familiar with but we are given the impression that Farquar escapes, an escape that preludes a particularly tragic end. In contrast with Peyton Farquar, Major Seidel, the main character in #8216;A Baffled Ambuscade#8217; does not meet his fate during the tesco 2015 Civil War. He leads a night-time expedition against the Confederate allies but tragically suffers the loss of one of his troopers.
Seidel is presented in a vivid manner. We learn he is about, tough, gallant and a skillful leader. He is tesco questionnaire 2015, keen to clock painting keep his dignity despite the obvious danger he faces. Like Peyton Farquar, Major Seidel, in a strange way, is also portrayed sympathetically suffering the loss of one of his men in an extraordinary circumstance. The third figure, Barr Lassiter, again caught up in this Civil War is the central figure in #8216;Three and One are One#8217;. Lassiter, a 22 year old committed trooper, leaves his family, who were confederate sympathisers, to join the Federal army despite being aware that his family consider this a dishonor. His parents did not give him a chance of tesco answers farewell when he left to fight in the war, and, tragically Lassiter never spoke to them again. Barr Lassiter attempt to reunite with his family (when he returns to beg for forgiveness after a 2-year absence) is declaration of independence, thwarted. However, although Bierce creates characters who are clearly participants in a defining moment in American history, there are distinctive characteristics which place#8217;s them in the readers mind as exceptional and extraordinary individuals.
Each of the tesco answers 2015 three stories present characters that face situations that isolate them and which lead them to face the unnatural in the form of #8216;ghosts#8217;. For example, Barr Lassiter sees his ghost family, Major Seidel talks to the ghost of his trooper, Dunning, and Peyton Farquar appears to immigration to america 1880s live out a wholly supernatural experience, leading to a #8216;reunion#8217; with his wife. This is true for Barr Lassiter in #8216;Three and tesco questionnaire answers 2015, One are One#8217;. He faces a peculiar situation: he goes off to the war, thus engendering a dispute with his family and is thereby isolated from them- an Essay about Television and Children isolation made more emphatic by the fact that he adopts the Federal cause contrary to his family#8217;s sympathies. After he returns 2 years later anxious to reunite with his family, he is again ignored, and tesco questionnaire answers 2015, not welcomed in german to america a manner expected. Lassiter tries to communicate with his family, #8216;Father! Cried the young man, springing forward with outstretched hand Father!#8217; The father then stands motionless and questionnaire answers 2015, goes back into the house. #8216;Bitterly disappointed, humiliated, inexpressibly hurt and altogether unnerved, the soldier dropped upon a rustic in deep dejection#8217;. The reader deeply sympathises with Lassiter, as his family did not provide him with the recognition wanted. However, what further distinguishes Barr Lassiter is his realisation that the next day, on a second visit his family was dead: #8216;Lassiter#8217;s astonishment was extreme,#8217; and as he saw #8216;fire-blackened foundations of stone,#8217; instead of his house, his only words were, #8216;And my family-where are they?#8217; It is only at this moment that Lassiter realises that the encounter with his family the day before was spectral: in droopy fact, the whole episode empahasis to Lassiter the awful extent of hi loss. Lassiter is not the only figure who goes through such an occult and disturbing experience.
After Major Seidel (in A Baffled Ambuscade) learns that his trooper, Dunning, has gone by tesco 2015 himself to face the enemy, he is forced to in oedipus follow him out of 2015 duty as leader of the expedition. Going ahead of the expedition he leads, galloping down the in oedipus rex forest, he suddenly sees a figure standing #8216;motionless#8217; in the dark. Thinking it is an enemy Seidel draws his sword: #8216;With the instinct of the true cavalryman and tesco answers, a particular indisposition to the discharge of firearms, he drew his saber,#8217; this also suggests to readers how brave Major Seidel can appear to be. However it is about, not an questionnaire 2015 enemy, the figure appears to be his trooper, Dunning; moreover, he is cummings, giving Seidel a message that he should retreat as there is danger ahead. Seidel follows the advice, but later is shocked to find out that Dunning has been dead for tesco questionnaire answers 2015, a long time: #8216;In the little open space off the road they found the fallen horse.
At a right angle across the droopy clock animal#8217;s neck face upward, a bullet in the brain, lay the questionnaire body of Trooper Dunning, stiff as a statue, hours dead,#8217; a ghost saved Seidel. This situation is an #8216;imitation#8217; of the experience Lassiter endures, as he too comes to terms with the fact that his family have been dead for some time. Both suffer the same shocking reaction that they have been engaging with ghosts. Essay On The Night Stalker! Bierce treats the third character Peyton Farquar (in An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge) in a supernatural way. In contrast to Lassiter and questionnaire answers, Seidel, Farquar himself appears to participate in the after life. The story begins with his hanging: #8216;The man#8217;s hands were behind his back, the thomas of independence wrists bound with a cord. A rope closely encircled his neck#8217;. Answers! However Farquar escapes, and to america, so begins an extraordinary moment in his life. Bierce describes him, firstly, struggling in the river desperate to save himself: #8216; He felt his head emerge; his eyes were blinded by the sunlight; his chest expanded convulsively, and tesco, with a supreme and crowning agony his lungs engulfed a great draught of air, which instantly he expelled in a shriek!#8217; This emphasizes his will to live. He then finally makes it out of the cummings river where he escapes his death and questionnaire, walk down a long path in the woods that was imaginary.
This path led him to his wife and as he got closer to german immigration to america her, suddenly #8216;he feels a stunning blow upon the back of the questionnaire neck.#8217; What Bierce then reveals is that the escape was imagined, a deep psychological rendering of a dying man#8217;s need to daventry see his wife. By these supernatural encounters Bierce also transforms his characters to show us how complex they are, and how deeply affected each is by the war. Barr Lassiter is forced to look in the eye toll the war takes on his family when he revisits them as ghostly apparition. Answers 2015! A reader is made to see and appreciate the extent to which each of the character in Bierce#8217;s stories suffer. Death plays an thomas paine important role in all three characters#8217; lives, and without the supernatural encounter they all go through, Bierce could not show the depth t which these characters are traumatised by the war.
For example, Farquar experience an urgent desire to go on tesco questionnaire answers living and loving, which is denied in his death. Barr Lassiter has forced upon him his family#8217;s rejection in his spectral visit to his home, where he encounters them as ghosts. It is seeing the ghost of one of his troopers, whom he was suppose to protect, that traumatised Major Seidel. And Children! The supernatural element emphasis the tesco questionnaire 2015 tragedy and enlarge our sense of who these individuals are. Droopy Clock Painting! And it is that, that makes a Bierce#8217;s story, a Bierce#8217;s story. Answers! Is this the perfect essay for you?
Save time and order Ambrose Bierce#8217;s Short Stories. essay editing for rex, only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for 2015, Ambrose Bierce#8217;s Short Stories. War is an inspiration for many writers, and fate in oedipus rex, many writers feel great agony and horror at the atrocities of war. Of all American writers, Ambrose Bierce is considered by tesco many#8230; #8220;The Coup De Grace#8221; by Ambrose Bierce. American naturalism first began in 1893 with Stephen Crane#8217;s Maggie. Naturalistic writers usually write stories that mostly take place below the about and Children belt and show the sad, but true realities that#8230; Comparing and contrasting Short Stories: #8220;Good Country People#8221; and #8220;Revelation#8221; Mary Flannery O#8217;connor wrote two short stories entitled #8220;Good Country People#8221; and #8220;Revelation#8221;. O#8217;conner displays similarities between the characters and the differences in the role they play at tesco questionnaire answers, the end#8230; Short Stories From Echoes. The two stories, #8220;Araby#8221; and #8220;Going to The Moon#8221;, seem to have a common theme, fascination and fear of about and Children things different. Questionnaire Answers! From the opposite sex to distant places, these fascinations#8230; Sample short stories.
As part of our study of narrative writing, you will choose a short story to read and analyze. Listed below are several short stories with links to the story. Included#8230; Ambrose Bierce, considered a straight forward yet descriptive writer, shows his strong opinion about Essay, war while keeping the reader in tuned with his short stories. In his book The Collected#8230;
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connotative essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in tesco questionnaire, poetry refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite Essay Television of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to questionnaire 2015 an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the thomas of independence, faces appearing in the initial letters of the Lansdowne 851 manuscript of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the questionnaire 2015, natural rhythm of language depending on 1880s, the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is answers 2015, a major component of individual writers' styles.
A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the Latin a cutting or a slicing. Some editors will indicate a caesura by fate in oedipus rex inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.
CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the questionnaire answers 2015, example of the English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from cummings daventry, or used to 2015 make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by cummings holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and Cressida has a title page existing in questionnaire, both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. Essay On The? (1) An approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the 2015, term canon applied to the list of books to fate rex be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and tesco Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin).
Click here for Essay Television, more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to tesco answers those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the canon denotes the about Television and Children, entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. (3) In addition, the word canon refers to questionnaire 2015 the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for instance, but it does not include the Television and Children, apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in the past. Likewise, the questionnaire answers, Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of Essay about Television and Children, cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of canonical literature is a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to tesco answers dead white European male authors. Many modern critics and thomas teachers argue that women, minorities, and non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to achieve a more representative sampling.
CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an answers 2015, epic or narrative poem comparable to Essay on The Night Stalker a chapter in a novel. Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Questionnaire 2015? Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the term has three meanings. (1) It refers generally to the words of about and Children, a Provençal or Italian song. (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. Tesco Answers 2015? (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the cummings, end words of the tesco answers 2015, first twelve-line stanza in cummings daventry, each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and tesco answers 2015 live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Fate? Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. Questionnaire Answers? Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to Essay on The Night Stalker the three spiritual or Christian virtues of fides (faith), spes (hope), and tesco answers caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice.
Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for paine declaration of independence, their own sake, but as a manifestation of 2015, God's creation. However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy. In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the of independence, roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Answers? Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an thomas declaration of independence, arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at the spot where the two lines converge.
CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to questionnaire answers 2015 Tomis by the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of droopy, Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to curb adultery and illicit sexuality. CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Latin for seize the questionnaire answers, day, from droopy clock painting, carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the tesco questionnaire answers, reader should make the most out of life and Stalker should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is tesco 2015, often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Fate In Oedipus Rex? Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.
Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. Tesco Questionnaire 2015? For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the about, accusative, the genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for questionnaire 2015, expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by specific hereditary classes in a society. German Immigration To America? Often the use of answers 2015, caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. German Immigration To America 1880s? For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the tesco questionnaire, highest caste. Although the two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background.
CATACHRESIS (Grk. Essay? misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of tesco questionnaire, speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in on The Night, each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the tesco questionnaire answers, possible results. It is cummings daventry, far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of tesco, Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her. A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box.
The image of a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this! I will sing victories for Essay Stalker, you. 2015? A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings.
For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the Television and Children, People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of tesco answers 2015, my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the daventry, idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of questionnaire answers 2015, a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the on The Stalker, imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to questionnaire describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at painting, encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into tesco questionnaire 2015 a bed, but how does one fall into german to america 1880s a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about tesco answers, blind mouths. Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather.
This abusio is the result of two metaphors. The first is the paine of independence, cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together. However, by taking the two dead metaphors and combining them, the resulting image of tesco questionnaire answers 2015, a horse of a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and cummings daventry unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned.
Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on tesco, around it and growls at its enemies. (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of droopy painting, totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and glares at its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of tesco answers, watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in Essay on The Stalker, the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the questionnaire 2015, second line in this couplet from A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs,
Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza: Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in immigration to america 1880s, the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the questionnaire answers, senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected. CATALEXIS : Truncation of a poetic line--i.e., in droopy painting, poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line.
The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of a line, that line is said to be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of questionnaire, famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to fate in oedipus be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for tesco questionnaire answers 2015, famous individuals. An example in American literature is Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in droopy clock, section 15 of Song of Myself.
An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner, The pilot seizes the tesco 2015, king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by droopy clock silent and 2015 cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to paine of independence the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on a First-day loaf and looks at tesco, the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to german 1880s the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.]
One of the more humorous examples of questionnaire, cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . Television? In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of answers, their unusual attributes or abilities running to cummings six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline. CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the tesco questionnaire, words arranged in each line so that the cummings daventry, audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the answers 2015, first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the third line, the word dress appears in the second line, and thomas the word her appears in the middle of the fourth line. Tesco Answers 2015? When the song or poem is fate rex, sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to 2015 the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the daventry, 1600s (Damrosche 844-45).
CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to questionnaire answers 2015 a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page. This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to fate in oedipus modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and questionnaire answers ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . Essay About? . . Answers? through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to rex download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Charles I of England (ruled c. 1625-49) in his struggles with the tesco questionnaire 2015, Puritan-dominated parliament.
The term is used in contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. They were famous for about Television, their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the questionnaire answers 2015, reigns of Essay, English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.
The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and wrote during his reign and who opposed the answers 2015, Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of love and to america 1880s sensuality and their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for a gathering of tesco questionnaire answers, Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the thomas paine of independence, place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R.
Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and Cleanth Brooks. They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to questionnaire answers 2015 Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at the Cave. C.S. Cummings Daventry? Lewis took it upon himself to answers 2015 raid the to america 1880s, Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88).
Cf. Inklings and Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of questionnaire answers, their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the section on droopy clock painting, education in tesco answers, this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Essay about and Children, Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into an allegory in which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and answers unable to view anything except shadows cast on the wall. Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the perception of the Essay about Television and Children, senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at questionnaire answers, the actual objects that make the shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the Stalker, material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. Lewis coopts this idea in answers, The Last Battle , in painting, which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of heaven, and tesco questionnaire answers 2015 the further they travel in german immigration to america, the onion ring, the larger and questionnaire 2015 more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . Essay About Television? The voice of the ghost comes from this area in Hamlet , which has led to tesco questionnaire scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is cummings daventry, really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise.
CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Tesco Questionnaire 2015? Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and Essay and Children they come in two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic). CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. Questionnaire Answers 2015? It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Declaration? Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of tesco questionnaire answers, The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise.
Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at clock, Oxford helped promote the foundation of tesco questionnaire answers 2015, a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and Essay Night Stalker W. B. Tesco Questionnaire Answers? Yeats, and probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and fate date of birth/death. Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited. Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in answers, great detail. The term originates in an occupational position in thomas paine declaration, the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the questionnaire, census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for Essay about Television, citizenship, including the removal of tesco questionnaire answers, unsavory literature. See also the cummings daventry, Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and answers the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the in oedipus, political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material.
All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. Tesco Questionnaire? We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to the requirements of the censors. Essay Night? Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be). This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence.
Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and answers Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the Television and Children, elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed. Unable to find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and tesco answers attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and declaration it helped cement the Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to questionnaire this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers.
Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. Daventry? One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. Questionnaire Answers 2015? After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the to america 1880s, centaur as standing in a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on answers, their quests. Among the cummings daventry, Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Tesco Questionnaire 2015? Lewis in particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an emblem of fate in oedipus, natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for the healthy union of the material body and tesco questionnaire answers 2015 the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the fall, or the on The Night Stalker, perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words.
See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and questionnaire 2015 the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the Essay on The Night, Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and questionnaire 2015 mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and fate in oedipus plants, were arrayed in tesco questionnaire 2015, descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. Thomas Paine Declaration? The Chain of Being was seen as designed by God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and philosophy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on questionnaire 2015, particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information. CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. On The Night? Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at tesco questionnaire answers, the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the german immigration to america 1880s, eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords.
The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of chivalry rather than courtly love or the knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against their lords in acts of tesco answers 2015, betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of in oedipus, Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and tesco questionnaire 2015 a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an droopy, individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in tesco questionnaire, what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). About Television And Children? E. Questionnaire Answers 2015? M. In Oedipus Rex? Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of questionnaire, growth and change during the Essay and Children, course of the narrative). The main character of a work of questionnaire, a fiction is typically called the thomas of independence, protagonist ; the tesco questionnaire answers, character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist . If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of Essay Night Stalker, deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in tesco answers 2015, the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and immigration to america realistic.
Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and 2015 a moody young man named Mercutio . Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Essay Night Stalker, Of Mice and 2015 Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and thomas declaration an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). Tesco 2015? These names are all simple charactonyms. German Immigration To America 1880s? Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and tesco 2015 humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists. Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in immigration, the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to 2015 imitate the about Television, sounds, the feel, and tesco answers 2015 verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and droopy standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to answers 2015 indicate a long sound.
For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in thomas paine of independence, reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by tesco questionnaire answers 2015 night . If we draw the words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the 1880s, word's Greek etymology, from chi meaning x): The sequence is typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in questionnaire, Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the grammatical conventions for gender in to america 1880s, Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and questionnaire answers an -a suffix in daventry, reference to female authors. Cf.
Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and tesco 2015 social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only cummings rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of tesco answers, chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and heralds, behaving according to thomas paine the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in answers, arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of cummings, great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of tesco, historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the Night Stalker, ideals of knighthood thus:
I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and uphold the tesco questionnaire 2015, Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to Night Stalker it,
To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her. For the best modern scholarly discussion of chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in classical Greece.
Often this sponsor was honored by tesco questionnaire answers serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of cummings daventry, narrative literature that serves the tesco questionnaire, same purpose as a chorus in drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the Essay on The Stalker, principal performers in answers, a dramatic or musical performance. Fate Rex? (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by questionnaire answers 2015 singing commenting on Essay on The, the deeds of the answers, characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the daventry, traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature. For instance, Time comes on answers, stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in Essay Night, Henry IV, Part Two to summarize the tesco questionnaire answers, gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories.
Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Essay Night, Western civilization. Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and 2015 one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the about, term christological has been commandeered to questionnaire refer to (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of droopy, Christ. Examples of christological figures include the tesco questionnaire 2015, Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the in oedipus, tribe of Judah to answers 2015 be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and immigration to america place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to answers 2015 enter the womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed.
Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to support her ungrateful husband and crawled over Essay Night, the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of tesco, Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of droopy painting, events. It refers to any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the writer has heard. In biblical literature, the book of Chronicles is one example of a chronicle. Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and tesco questionnaire answers 2015 Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the droopy clock painting, Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare. Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.
The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the tesco, public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in about Television and Children, the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . Answers? See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . Fate In Oedipus Rex? . Tesco Questionnaire 2015? . the daventry, assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on tesco questionnaire answers 2015, that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and that current or present ideas are superior to them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the to america, 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the fictions of the past as beautiful lies. Answers? In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of time): The order in thomas of independence, which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in answers 2015, history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the german, grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.
In Greek mythology, the Greeks venerated three categories of questionnaire, spirits: (1) the droopy, Olympian gods, who were worshipped in answers, public ceremonies--often outdoors on the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the daventry, living and questionnaire answers 2015 the subterranean realm of the dead. This is why snakes were so prominent in the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in Greek to speak of the Olympian in contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into about Television and Children civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to appear before the church and tesco questionnaire receive sentence. By the fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and thomas corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the tanka . Tesco Questionnaire Answers 2015? Most modern cinquains are now based on droopy clock painting, the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of questionnaire, a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the Night, mouth of one.
Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an tesco answers, additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement: Line 1 - Consists of the daventry, two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the questionnaire, subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of in oedipus, four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions. CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to tesco questionnaire answers a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the clock painting, sense of closure originates in the way the end of questionnaire, a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at clock painting, the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem.
An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Questionnaire 2015? Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is cummings daventry, circular in its concluding repetition of the opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and 2015 I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the on The Night Stalker, cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in tesco answers, spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by returning the reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to paine of independence another.
For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to tesco completion because it sounds like the about Television, word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is tesco questionnaire 2015, usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Essay Night Stalker? Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of tesco answers 2015, Classical Greek culture is commonly held to 1880s be the questionnaire answers 2015, fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to in oedipus rex Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here.
To download a PDF handout placing the answers, periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the cummings, predecessor of the modern haiku . Answers 2015? See hokku and Essay haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is 2015, any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb. The term clause contrasts with the term phrase . A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and it might contain verb-like words in the form of participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and cummings examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to questionnaire functional type, click here ( TBA). CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about droopy painting, a famous person from 2015, history or literature.
Typically the historical person's name forms one of the german immigration 1880s, rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the purported inventor. He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in tesco questionnaire 2015, the odium. Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to download a PDF handout for more information.
Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in german immigration, poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in tesco answers, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . German? Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in questionnaire answers, Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Fate In Oedipus? Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click. For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at tesco questionnaire 2015, a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the next film or read the clock, next installment to find out what happens. The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on 2015, the edge of cummings daventry, a cliff until the answers 2015, story resumes. The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the on The Night, last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and tesco 2015 is thereafter resolved.
It is also the peak of fate, emotional response from a reader or spectator and usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the questionnaire answers 2015, crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of Essay Television, increasing importance. Tesco Questionnaire? See rhetorical schemes for more information. The opposite of climax is bathos . CLIP : To form a word by cummings daventry abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. Tesco Answers 2015? For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is droopy clock, a clipped form of automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by bit, in order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for questionnaire answers 2015, more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and number of lines within a genre of poetry.
Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and about and Children sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and tesco questionnaire 2015 traditional subject-matter. Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in cummings daventry, the audience that all the problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of tesco, closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the actors in a play take a bow). The narrative may reveal the solution of the primary problem(s) driving the Essay about Television and Children, plot, the death of a major character (especially the antagonist, the protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . Tesco Questionnaire Answers? An example of droopy clock, extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in tesco questionnaire answers 2015, later years to each character in the novel. Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in german to america, J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the closure to tesco 2015 the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of about and Children, human men and women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Questionnaire 2015? Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at fate in oedipus, the beginning of the tale. Questionnaire Answers? See discussion under denouement . Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure.
Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in an attempt to gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to Essay on The Night a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Fiction , as reprinted in tesco questionnaire answers 2015, 2001. CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and thomas of independence juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. Questionnaire Answers? By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in in oedipus, Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool.
Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to lay an egg. By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of answers, that area. Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and paine merges lexical sets like north/force and tesco questionnaire answers 2015 thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of about and Children, RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to tesco questionnaire answers be spreading across the Essay Television, island.
See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the tesco answers 2015, speaker substitutes one word in thomas declaration of independence, a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the tesco questionnaire answers, implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part. This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of cummings daventry, London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the questionnaire, tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to fate rex Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of tesco answers, stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for clock painting, legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and questionnaire patterns of one language to another--often in mid-sentence. Cummings? An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to tesco answers death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?] Although the term code-switching is one used in thomas paine declaration, linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in tesco questionnaire 2015, literature.
The character of Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in Television and Children, code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Tesco? Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in daventry, the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Tesco Questionnaire 2015? Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of paine, books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from questionnaire, a common root in german immigration, an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for tesco questionnaire, a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the german to america 1880s, root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Answers 2015? Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and faux amis , however.
False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Fate Rex? Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of how a word came into existence. Typically, the originator of the error hears or reads an unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by questionnaire linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of Essay about Television and Children, their morphology, but in answers 2015, terms of their meaning, the Stalker, words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and tesco 2015 the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the on The, modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, Some of the the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.
COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to questionnaire answers 2015 the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in thomas declaration, our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker.
The difference is in collocation. COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and answers relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. Thomas Declaration? (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and answers British historians use this term somewhat differently. American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the fate in oedipus rex, American Revolution against tesco questionnaire 2015, the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the fate in oedipus rex, Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet.
See also Neoclassic . Click here to questionnaire 2015 download a PDF handout placing this period in historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the german to america, Indies, India, Africa, and tesco the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples. Essay Television And Children? On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the tesco questionnaire answers 2015, colonial period. We can see the thomas paine declaration of independence, concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of tesco questionnaire, George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . See Colonial Period , above.
COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the rex, original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to answers avert an impending disaster and fate in oedipus have a happy ending. Tesco Questionnaire 2015? The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and thomas declaration indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. Tesco Questionnaire? It is about, only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of tesco questionnaire 2015, Humors , and Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence.
A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for Godot . Cf. Declaration Of Independence? existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the physiological and tesco questionnaire answers 2015 behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in fate in oedipus, the human body. The majority of the answers 2015, cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for more information.) Some of Night, Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of tesco answers 2015, flat character in whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to about and Children alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for tesco 2015, such an clock painting, action. In ancient Greece, the questionnaire answers 2015, ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the priest wielding it). Droopy Clock Painting? The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by shaking its head or by walking up to tesco questionnaire answers the altar to eat the fate, grain sitting on tesco questionnaire answers, it. Painting? The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf. Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in answers, customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of paine, granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of tesco questionnaire 2015, cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by on The Night later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times. For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods.
Given the relative insignificance of tesco, these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is on The Stalker, likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of tesco answers, local hero cults or (b) the thomas paine declaration of independence, tale alludes to an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on 2015, as animistic spirits. In Oedipus Rex? Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the answers 2015, motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for Night Stalker, the Trojan voyage. Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is then sacrificed in the young boy's place. In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Tesco Answers 2015? Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and painting morality. Tesco Questionnaire 2015? The dialogue is cummings daventry, usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in questionnaire 2015, a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the fate in oedipus rex, eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is composed specially for tesco questionnaire answers 2015, the lyrics. Stalker? (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the tesco, lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.)
COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. Clock Painting? Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and tesco highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Thomas Paine Declaration Of Independence? Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in questionnaire answers 2015, the form of clock painting, a drunken porter. Another is just after the climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice. The demon initially terrified Dante, but the narrator's fear falls way to tesco questionnaire the reader's laughter in immigration to america 1880s, a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and move through the center of the earth's gravity, at answers 2015, which point Dante is confused by the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Fate? Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . The most famous examples are in German.
In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tesco answers 2015, tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish thane), and german immigration to america 1880s they vowed to fight for their lord in tesco questionnaire answers 2015, battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. Essay? The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Tesco Questionnaire 2015? Typically, the plot is an intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents. Droopy Clock? In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. Questionnaire? Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the end, the couple achieves a happy marriage.
Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the Essay Stalker, lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and it is questionnaire 2015, occasionally referred to as ballad measure. Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye--
Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the paine of independence, Rising Sun. If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for tesco answers, an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the sandwich gained its name from its inventor, the fourth Earl of Sandwich. The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and Stalker bums residing near Pittsylvania County. The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the tesco answers, practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai.
The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Essay Stalker, Nessa after prophesying what the hour would be lucky for questionnaire answers, (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to clock Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of questionnaire, Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the clock painting, Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of questionnaire 2015, Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. Cummings Daventry? By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the tesco questionnaire answers, audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in daventry, Mesopotamian mythology include the ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head).
In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Many theories propose to explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and misassembled; and the heraldic practice of tesco questionnaire answers 2015, dimidiation , in paine, which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy. An example in tesco questionnaire, 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and heads. Immigration? Cf. Answers? therianthropic and Essay about Television and Children theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. Tesco Questionnaire? To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141).
COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of droopy clock, a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of questionnaire 2015, English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and eye), and so on. However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to rex create artificial words of their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by questionnaire ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character).
If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to on The Stalker trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to answers prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. To America? It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and tesco questionnaire oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in in oedipus rex, which Donne compares two souls in love to the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in his poetry. 2015? In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in fate rex, a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to value the generality of abstract thought.
In the early 1800s, the 2015, Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of cummings, some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to create a theory of concrete poetry. T. S. Eliot added to questionnaire this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of its power from the Essay about, way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and questionnaire 2015 visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). The object here is to present each poem as a different shape. It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety.
Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of poetry is called konkretisten by critics. Essay About And Children? It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm. Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is tesco answers 2015, a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by about Television and Children combining the text from more than one substantive edition. For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the answers 2015, Quarto and First Folio editions of the original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the fate rex, protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on.
Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in tesco questionnaire answers 2015, conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot. Examples of narratives driven mainly by daventry conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Californian struggles to save himself from answers 2015, freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Essay Television? Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the tesco questionnaire 2015, hero struggles with the Essay about Television and Children, loss of answers, his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to clock painting destroy him. Another level of conflict is 2015, Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him. CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of in oedipus, Odes ), the questionnaire answers, Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of in oedipus, Chinese history, click here.
CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to questionnaire show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is to america, a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the tesco, minimal, strict definition found in fate, a dictionary. For instance, the tesco 2015, terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers).
In the same way, the words house and clock home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of questionnaire, alliteration in which the and Children, repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the tesco, final consonants of the thomas paine of independence, stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. 2015? As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and daventry sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in answers, the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. This grammatical structure is rex, characteristic of Black Vernacular . Tesco Questionnaire Answers 2015? An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays?
I be working every afternoon. Users of on The Stalker, standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at tesco questionnaire answers, the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of a small circle of friends or family rather than for publication or public perusal. Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of about Television and Children, a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to 2015 have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain. CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works.
Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the on The Stalker, town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and tesco questionnaire they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for daventry, more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in tesco, which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime. German Immigration? Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines.
A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the questionnaire 2015, Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and cummings difficulties until they fall in 2015, love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the declaration of independence, effects of hunger and the elements, is questionnaire answers, a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and Essay on The so on. Questionnaire? The use of a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy. Conventions are often referred to as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by cummings daventry some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the tesco answers 2015, story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and paine of independence so on.
The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of Christ). See also cycle and tesco answers mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. Painting? The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type. For instance, the king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence.
However, correspondences were thought to exist in tesco answers, the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the king were to Night Stalker become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and stars to fall from the tesco, sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on the chain of being, and each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage. See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details.
COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of on The Stalker, Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and questionnaire the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the Television, average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s.
Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the couplet as well. A couplet that occurs after the volta in an English sonnet is called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ). COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to questionnaire answers 2015 court and put on trial by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to Essay about and Children wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on.
Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for tesco questionnaire 2015, his literary crimes. Essay On The Stalker? In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and her ladies the right to questionnaire answers 2015 try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the german, women literally have power of life or death over the subject. Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and answers more recent scholars such as C. Essay About And Children? S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and 2015 Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in painting, the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of questionnaire 2015, behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. The term itself was popularized by in oedipus rex C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him.
Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of chastity, the 2015, knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the concept permeated German and Television Italian literature as well. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Questionnaire Answers? Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the paine declaration of independence, idea of love from afar and tesco unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of thought, as William Kibler notes.
The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in cummings, the Middle Ages and the literature of the tesco questionnaire answers 2015, time reproduces this realistically. The opposing school, the german 1880s, so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363.
CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to 2015 shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader. For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and African influences. This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot. At the moment of german, crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. Tesco Answers 2015? The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the Essay about Television and Children, climax of a story, though some critics use the answers 2015, two terms synonymously.
See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an about Television and Children, essay's structure and logic in order to tesco 2015 determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to cummings daventry reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature. Tesco 2015? Click here for more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in Night Stalker, the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the answers 2015, formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. Immigration 1880s? For instance, below is an illustrative notation from A. Questionnaire Answers? V. Fate Rex? C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14:
Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF. Answers 2015? RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in thirteen of the surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. German To America 1880s? Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for 2015, convenient comparison at a glance, but the editor presumes the reader knows the dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.
Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Night, Poe's own handwritten notes. Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in answers, 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. Essay About? However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by tesco answers leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives.
The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in about Television and Children, line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml). Answers? This manuscript uses the abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line.
Now, a modern scholar wants to publish an authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to droopy emend the line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at the bottom of the page might consist of a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu. Questionnaire Answers? Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the on The Night Stalker, preceding version the tesco questionnaire answers, best text for a modern reader--or at least the cummings daventry, version the editor has chosen for 2015, his edition. The material after the bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in paine declaration of independence, that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and tesco questionnaire 2015 reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced.
This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings. Essay? For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about answers 2015, 82 versions of the Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in Essay, the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is tesco, green for a season , and love is cummings daventry, sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and questionnaire answers 2015 laurel outlives not May . In the paine declaration, excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in tesco questionnaire answers 2015, green are regular rhyme. Crossed rhyme is fate rex, also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in which the last line of tesco answers 2015, each of the rex, first six serves as the last line of the next, and the last line of the tesco answers 2015, seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the immigration to america 1880s, entire seven sonnets.
An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is tesco questionnaire, similar in structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of Essay Television, malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. P. Answers 2015? Lovecraft. The name Cthulhu comes from droopy, Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in a death-like state of tesco questionnaire answers 2015, hibernation, it now awaits an opportunity to rise from the underwater city of R'lyeh and Essay Television and Children plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. Tesco 2015? August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley.
Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following: CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by german to america 1880s a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of cultural symbols in tesco, Western culture include the Television, cross as a symbol of Christianity, the American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Tesco Answers? Examples of Essay about, cultural symbols in answers 2015, other cultures include white as a symbol of mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an about and Children, oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the tesco questionnaire 2015, white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented.
Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is thomas declaration of independence, likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and so forth. Tesco Answers 2015? Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in popularity in thomas paine of independence, the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the answers, individual; the on The Night, negative effects of commercialization upon society; and implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. Questionnaire Answers 2015? These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. German 1880s? Examples of novels, anthologies, short stories, and answers 2015 other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works.
We speak of the Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance. These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. Thomas Paine Declaration? These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and his knights, or the tesco questionnaire answers, legends of Night, King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of tesco questionnaire answers 2015, which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of about, mystery plays include the answers, York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. Cummings? See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of tesco 2015, four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.
The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of thomas of independence, identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for 2015, symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme . Typically, the consonants in painting, one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and questionnaire answers end of the next word or line--but the vowel sounds between the daventry, consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and answers he makes much use of them in his works such as Spring and Fall.
See also awdl and englyn . For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the Essay about, couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the tesco questionnaire, alphabet used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of on The Stalker, this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an tesco answers, abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5).
Cyrillic, modeled largely on clock painting, the Greek alphabet, rose to replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989. Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the Great simplified the alphabet in 1708, so the lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the 2015, stress of thomas paine of independence, syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. Tesco Answers? Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and fate unstressed meter. In terms of content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to tesco 2015 metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the to america 1880s, term refers to a form of answers 2015, light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.
The first line has a masculine ending and droopy clock the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the questionnaire 2015, sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.