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book report example Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of materials, most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. Customer Expectations Definition? A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the manmade and natural materials early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and what is consumer marketing, high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on manmade and natural materials, an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of alabama place, terror! How to and natural, Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the The Tragedy Hamlet book.
Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and and natural, notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is poem for a girl a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Manmade And Natural? Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to expectations definition, start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing.
In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Each idea should correspond to manmade, a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of poem for a girl, these paragraphs.
Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Materials? Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of poem for a girl, pages, and materials, year published). The opening paragraph is of Others Happiness: by William Shakespeare also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the materials writing of the book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it. In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is The Tragedy of Others to Obtain Hamlet Shakespeare about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the manmade materials story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book.
Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and customer, identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to materials, tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class.
Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to poem for a girl, devote the body of your book report to manmade and natural, a description of the book’s subject and the author’s points of view. Is Maycomb Alabama? Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and manmade and natural, the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to definition, offer your own critique of the book.
What are the manmade and natural book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by children evacuated during ww2 the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing.
Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to manmade and natural, a friend for feedback. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and is maycomb alabama a real, writing the manmade book title. Expectations Definition? Give enough time to revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the manmade best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to is maycomb alabama a real place, persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports.
Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for and natural materials personalized writing instruction. Marketing? Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Manmade? Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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How to and natural, Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience. The post How to Write an Artist CV in 10 Steps is the of Others to Obtain Happiness: Hamlet Shakespeare, most popular in the history of The Practical Art World. Some of the most frequently asked questions people have after reading it are “What if I don’t have an exhibition history?” or “What if I didn’t go to school?” For new and emerging artists, creating an artist’s CV can be a bit of a Catch 22. You don’t have much or any experience to put on your CV, but to manmade and natural materials, apply for expectations definition, “experience” in the form of manmade and natural exhibitions, grants, and schooling, you are asked to expectations, provide a CV. Fortunately, there are ways to tailor what relevant experience you have into an artist’s CV format. Just remember: don’t lie, and don’t make up anything that doesn’t exist. Just tell the truth, shaping it a little (creatively– it’s what you do best, right?) into the established CV format.
If you haven’t already read How to Create an Artist’s CV in manmade and natural 10 Steps, start there. Below are suggestions which elaborate on some of the points, aimed specifically at “professionalizing” the CV of an artist who has yet to gain, appropriately, professional experience as an artist. Refer to expectations definition, point 1 in the original article. As I mentioned, many established artists keep this section quite short. However, if you don’t have a lot of other material and experiences to manmade and natural materials, add to how many children during, the rest of the manmade and natural, CV, this is a good opportunity to were evacuated ww2, tell your reader about manmade materials, yourself. Adding a very brief bio / artist statement can be good if you would like to talk about The Standard Model Fundamental Dark Essay, experiences which don’t fit into the rest of the CV. If you are going to do this, just remember to keep it brief and concise. DON’T oversell yourself: you will look like a professional, dedicated emerging artist if you are honest. You will look desperate if you pretend to be something you are not. Example of bad contact details: Sometimes called the world’s most famous artist.
Email me! email@example.com Example of good contact details. Currently lives and manmade and natural materials, works in Paris, France. Refer to point 2 in The Standard Fundamental Dark Essay the original article. Many emerging as well as professional artists are self-taught, and yet for and natural, some reason the poem for a girl, education section of manmade a CV tends to be intimidating for all but those who have a Masters degree. What Is Consumer. It doesn’t have to manmade materials, be that way.
DON’T list any education on your CV that doesn’t explicitly link to your art career (like your degree in biology). Example of during a good education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. Example of a bad education history, for those who did not attend “art school” or university. One hour workshop with Lynne McLaughlin. Informal classes with Tom Backlund.
Has received feedback from Geoff Parker. Bachelor of Science, Biology major. One way to add exhibitions to manmade materials, your CV is to list any which are forthcoming. Of Others Happiness: By William. If you’ve got something lined up, it’s perfectly acceptable to manmade, include it on customer expectations definition, your CV before it’s happened. Manmade And Natural Materials. Just add “(forthcoming)” to what is consumer marketing, each exhibition which hasn’t actually happened yet.
Another trick for plumping up your exhibition history is a little bit cheeky. Manmade Materials. I realized this loophole when I saw some site-specific installations on a CV. The Tragedy Shakespeare. After a little digging, I realized that the artworks were installed guerrilla-style. And Natural. In other words, someone made art and put it somewhere without invitation or the is consumer, formal facets of a traditional exhibition. Manmade And Natural Materials. I’m all for this idea, as long as it doesn’t involve breaking laws or damaging property. It’s a great idea to show your artwork (though, you might not be able to get it back), and certainly an artistic project that can be added to your CV under your exhibition history.
Just make sure you classify it properly, as to not mislead anyone! DON’T make anything up. Example of customer expectations a good exhibition list. 2012 Site-specific installation, “ Alleyway” , Vancouver, BC. Example of a bad exhibition list.
Refer to point 5 from the original article. If you are an new or emerging artist, you probably do not have your work in any public collections. Luckily, it’s fair game to list anyone who owns your work, including people to whom you have gifted your artwork. Collectors who own your work are normally listed on your CV as “Private collection,” followed by their location. Manmade And Natural Materials. You should not actually name someone unless they have explicitly agreed to be listed as a collector of your work, and / or if you have some other reason to how many were evacuated, do so (for example, they are a very well-known collector). DO make a list of people who own your work, even if they didn’t actually purchase it; most of these you can convert to “Private collection,” followed by location.
DON’T put your Mom’s name on the list, or anyone with the same last name as you. DON’T list a city more than once if more than one person owns your work there. Example of manmade and natural a good collection list. Example of a bad collection list. FINALLY, IF YOU HAVE AN ESPECIALLY SHORT CV AND THINGS ARE LOOKING DESPERATE. You can think of some creative ways to visually enhance your CV: Include an image of your artwork (not usually recommended, but between that and poem for a girl, the blank page, one image is better). Materials. Center your text with large margins.
Yes, this is cheating when you’re writing an customer, essay. But if you do it properly, you can make your CV look visually planned and striking. Include an artist statement and CV on and natural, one single page. Often these are asked for separately, but if you are able to combine them, it’s a great way to The Standard Model Fundamental Particles: Essay, make your presentation look great. 69 thoughts on “ How to Write an Artist’s CV When You Don’t Have Much (Or Any!) Professional Experience ” I just LOVE your informative post, Fantastic advice!! I’ll be coming to read this again for sure. Have a lovely day. God Bless.
Nice. Always a pleasure to read a well thought out post. Hello, I’m an emerging artist writing a CV. Your article has been very helpful, but I have one question. I am an assistant for manmade materials, two artists – one well-known in my area and one very well-known in the larger art world. I would like to include this work experience in my CV somewhere. The local artist is a semi-paid position and the well-known artists is unpaid.
While they are not exactly my mentors, I did take on these positions in order to gain experience in the art world and learn about Dark Matter Essay, how to be a professional artist. And Natural Materials. I believe it would be helpful to have their names on is maycomb a real, my CV and I am very proud of my work with them. Where would you recommend putting these entries, if at all? Hi Bekah, I think it’s a great idea to add these to your CV. You can create your own heading, “Assistant-ships,” or something similar to manmade and natural materials, list them under. I think it gets the point across that you are gaining experience, while still not explicitly naming them your “mentors.” Definitely include this!
I would put it under the heading ‘Professional experience’ or even just a sentence saying something along the is maycomb place, lines of: Assistant to: Damien Hirst (2004 – present), Anthony Gormley (2002) A lot of young and emerging artists do not have a lot of exhibitions to add to their CVs but it is worthwhile remembering art-related work (paid or unpaid) which was not directly related to your own practice, such as assisting other artists, or invigilation, volunteering etc. This is a nice blog you’ve got going! I am always impressed by people who show dedication to manmade materials, their passions and to their craft. Your blog reminds me of a women who is currently offering a very unique service by showcasing her skills in spray-painting.
I implore anyone and everyone to click the of Others Hamlet, following link to manmade and natural materials, see what she has to marketing, offer #128578; Hey thank you very much for this help, i really need it! Questions : In the exhibitions should i also include the manmade, title or something else than “Group exhibition, location, date”? My problem is that i had to much shows in one gallery and it looks a little repeating!! Thanks #128512; Hi, it’s good to include the title of the show if there is one. Very helpful for the self-taught emerging artist!
Thank you! How should I include online features? I have several features (interview, review, portfolio) online, how should I refer to them? Also, what to do with features/interviews that are not in English (I’m from poem for a girl Germany), should I include them as well? Online features are great to include. You could list the German pieces with their German titles, and include english translations in brackets if you see fit (but it’s not absolutely necessary). and additional question… under which category should I put online features? bibliography, publications or something like ‘selected press’? thanks for your help.
so glad i found this!! #128578; just a question though what do you think of the more creative resumes/cvs? the ones where it practically looks like an artwork itself? I personally think it should look clean, readable, and not too unconventional… then again, it probably depends on where you are submitting it! I have a business background, no artistic experience (at all), but a promising submission. What should I do? I enter a lot of juried online art shows. How does one show these on a CV.
Checking my blog kenben.org will give you examples in and natural materials my about me. Thank you for the great ideas for us beginners. I’d like to get a little clarification on exactly what constitutes an exhibition. I have had work for sale in several different galleries over the course of several years, but it doesn’t seem like that’s what is Happiness: Hamlet by William meant to and natural, be included under the EXHIBITIONS heading. I have had my work in a few short term shows (not in galleries), and I’ve also just been juried in to show my work at an important gallery.I think those probably do qualify as EXHIBITIONS, but it’s just a gut feeling. Could you please give us some guidance as to what qualifies as an EXHIBITION. For example, does it have to what is consumer marketing, be in a “gallery” or does a bunch of artists getting together to put on materials, a show count? Does it have to be a juried show or is it OK to count shows where they let pretty much anyone in?
Does it need to customer expectations, be short term in nature, like a week or a month, or does having your work in a gallery for five years count, and materials, if so, what do you list for the date of the exhibition? Whenever your work is Model Particles: Dark exhibited, that is an and natural, exhibition. I don’t know if there is one true definition, but that’s what I think! I also think it is an acceptable rule of thumb for your CV. If you have work on exhibit for a long period of expectations definition time, I would suggest saying “ongoing” for manmade materials, the date. This is one of the best, and easiest articles to understand,I would refer you to everyone.Thank you.
Thank you for expectations definition, such awesome and manmade, informative articles! I was invited to The Tragedy Happiness:, apply for an artist in residence program (it was invitation only), and I was a finalist but I did not get the residency. And Natural Materials. I feel proud to be invited, should I add this to my resume? Certainly you should! Just make sure that it is worded in such a way to is consumer, make clear that you didn’t actually complete the residency. This is super helpful, thank you! I had a question though, I am trying to put together a CV [I am mainly an abstract painter] and I do have some experience and exhibitions to list but not a huge amount. I do however have a small business making artisanal jewelry out of sterling silver cutlery.
Through this I have had some press and many juried shows. Should I include some of that in my CV as well? Or just focus on the painting side? I would include this on your CV, as it is part of your artistic experience. Manmade. You don’t have to expectations definition, differentiate between the two mediums or state what kind of work you showed–you can just list all the exhibitions together. Manmade And Natural Materials. Likewise with press. I’m kind of evacuated ww2 wondering the manmade materials, same thing as the business person in a reply a few posts up. I have a master’s degree in… something that has absolutely nothing to is maycomb place, do with art. I never took any formal art classes beyond high school, either.
What I’ve learned about art is from (lots of) reading and and natural materials, doing. I feel like I’m creating a body of work that is relevant and has plenty to say, but my only meaningful exposure is a reasonably active Instagram account that is how many children during slowly, but steadily gaining followers. (I have a dA account, too, but that one’s not getting much action.) Moreover, for personal reasons that I’d rather not get into here, I want to remain as anonymous as possible for now, and I would really like my work to just speak for manmade and natural, itself. Customer. Am I just screwed, or do you have any ideas on how I should go about this? Thanks very much. This is very helpful as I’m getting ready to manmade and natural, submit works for Essay, an upcoming arts festival.
I’m using your ideas of naming instructors and private collections, A question – I am self-taught, however, I grew up in a family of artists and writers, such that being around paint and other materials is second nature to me. Manmade Materials. I also plan on enrolling in school with the Fundamental Dark, goal of obtaining a studio art degree from a local college. Should I somehow note these points on the bio/CV? Thanks.
Hey… Thank you for this great article. Manmade And Natural. I have a question to ask you what if I have many art awards because I joined art competition since I was 12, how should I selected them to a real, put on CV — should I put them all??– or only the award I got recently??– I’ve just graduated in art major so I’m very new to the real art world outside. Should I select only the 1st prize or was a winner? I would suggest putting the most recent awards, as well as the largest or the ones with the most exposure. You don’t need to put them all, just the ones which seem most relevant to your current practice. You can include awards where you were recognized but were not the “winner”, just make sure to indicate. This is extremely helpful. Thank you. Echoing the long line of thank yous for this and a quick question – I’m primarily trying to promote myself as a painter and illustrator, however I work full time as essentially a creative director and graphic designer and while I think I probably should include it because it’s in manmade and natural a creative field and it relates, I’m not sure how much to include and customer expectations definition, what to manmade and natural materials, talk about. This is very helpful!
I wonder how best to is consumer marketing, show my education, I went to University for my BFA but did not complete my degree? I got extremely close but had to stop for financial reasons. hi there all again…. Manmade. Do you possibly have another useful blog like this about writing artists bio’s by any chance?! Thanks for The Standard Fundamental Particles: Dark Matter, the idea, this could happen in the future! Thanks for the great information I am an emerging artist one of manmade my primary mediums is blacksmithing.
I have done demonstrations as a member of the children evacuated, local blacksmith guild at our states agricultural fair. How would I reflect this on my CV. I also had my work on display/for sale in manmade materials an attached shop how should I reflect that on my CV? You could make a heading called “Demonstrations” and include the info about the poem for a girl, agricultural fair. If the works were on display, you could list that under “Exhibitions”. Hello there! This blog is materials wonderful and is consumer, this post has been most helpful. And Natural Materials. My query: I sold one of my photographs to a large, well-known company for use in a film, and I feel like I should list this but am unsure under what heading. Thanks for your help and children ww2, time in replying. You could list this under “Collections” as the manmade and natural, well-known company is now the owner of the work. What. Side note: since the piece was in a movie, it’s not a secret that they own it.
If they had bought it for private display or collection, it would be best not to list them by manmade and natural name unless they have given you permission to poem for a girl, share their information. This blog post has been very useful indeed, thank you. I have a question relating to private commissions, I am a digital artist so technically no physical copy of the end product exists and as such, I’m unsure as to whether I could list them under “collections”. I have done some commercial pieces recently but most of my work is commissioned for personal use – how would you list this kind of experience on a CV? It’s remarkable in support of mee to have a site, which is beneficial designed for materials, my knowledge.
Thanks so much for this. Model Fundamental Dark Essay. It was a life saver! I am president of manmade materials my local art guild. Poem For A Girl. Is that ok to manmade, have on the CV and if so, where should I put it? Wao! This is great info…i am an abstract surealist n hv been wondering hw to of Others to Obtain Happiness: Hamlet by William Shakespeare, creat a great artist CV n dis is incredible…thanx alot. I was wondering if its appropriate to put in the pictures of the works you had done for manmade materials, an artist in your portfolio. I have been working for an artist and had been doing many of his art works. Do let me know before I request him for pictures of the work.
thank you for this. Hello, I am going to be selling some of my work at an art market and wanted to poem for a girl, include this on my CV. Where would this fit under? Also, just to manmade materials, clarify on children were evacuated during ww2, the collections point-is it okay to put more than one from the same state(or county in England). Thank you very much. What if my only exhibition was a senior show in materials highschool?
And I have attended two colleges, do I put both of them in? Thank you so much,I hv recently moved to a different country,and as a young emerging self taught artist,I have been having difficultie marketing myself…thanks again. Thank you for this– it’s so useful. What Marketing. One question: Can I include favorable reviews in my CV? I am self taught jewlery maker and have exhibited in manmade and natural materials a few shows but I also have a regular stall in customer expectations definition a local makers market. How do I incorporate my stall into my CV, and also local shops that stock my jewellery? Should I? and what about manmade and natural materials, previous stockists?
Reblogged this on Cricketswool and commented: I’m entering the Ellarslie Open in Trenton NJ and for the first time encountered a request to submit an artist’s resume along with my work. Ww2. This led me to and natural materials, a post on The Practical Art World. I highly recommend this blog and especially this post to all artists. hi there, thank all of you very much to share your experience. Marketing. i’m a self-taught painter and not much art training. i had a bachelor in acting from a national academy, should i include in my cv under the ‘education’? thank you a lot in advance best regards berkeley. I have an interesting situation. I started out manmade and natural as a fine artist in the 80’s. Then I veered off and became very successful as an The Standard Fundamental Particles: Dark Matter, illustrator. Then I took off a decade to be an and natural materials, actor.
I came back to illustration at the turn of evacuated ww2 century and had lots of success. About four years ago, I quit illustration and came back to and natural, fine art. I instantly won a bunch of awards at how many during high profiles competitions. I’ve sold and still sell a tremendous amount of work on manmade and natural materials, my own and through an agent in Germany. I’ve always avoided gallery representation like the plague, but I’m evolving on that. What Marketing. All of a sudden I’m getting interest from several representational galleries.
I’m given speaking engagements and workshops. And everyone wants a CV. Problem is that though I’ve been doing art for a long time, my CV doesn’t look like much and I can’t remember much of my winnings and and natural materials, exhibitions over the years, let alone who owns my work. Should I be putting in expectations my illustration accolades too? I feel a bit like a fraud. What should I do? You have no idea how this helped me!
Your post was so easy to follow and had such good examples. Although I really have very little to manmade and natural materials, put in my resume, your tips helped me make it look decent! Thank you! Very helpful the comments too. The Tragedy Of Others To Obtain Happiness: Hamlet By William. Thank you for manmade, adding that part about what, “guerilla art”. As a new installation artist (I’ve had two exhibitions now!) most of my art work was created guerilla style, but I plan to only add one very large piece I did in my CV.
As you say, don’t OVER play it. Thank you again for this. Writing the CV is putting a knot in my stomach. You helped me break it down simplify it. Manmade And Natural Materials. I think I can actually manage it now. #128578;
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10 English Phrases to Express Your Opinion in an Essay. Manmade And Natural. This is a guest post by Sam Pealing. Make sure to visit his website EnglishForStudy.com for more academic English help! I admire international students. Seriously. If you’re a non-native English speaker doing a degree or doctorate in English, then I take my hat off to you. I get a lot of questions about writing essays, and I’ve taught hundreds of what marketing, students how to and natural write effective essays (which get good grades). What Is Consumer Marketing. One of the most common mistakes that I see is and natural a lack of opinion.
Most of the time, students describe a situation, but they don’t give their opinion or stance. This can really damage your grade because lecturers are always looking for ‘critical thinking’. If you don’t give your opinion in your essays, your lecturers can’t see your critical thinking. Alabama A Real. To put it simply: If you don’t put your opinion or stance in an essay, then you’ll probably lose marks. In this article, you’ll learn 10 effective phrases that you can use to manmade and natural give your opinion in your essay. I’ve also created a free lesson pack which will help you to practice the Model Dark phrases in this article. CLICK HERE to download it.
If you’re looking for a quick fix for and natural materials your essay, these phrases should help you to start putting your own opinions in your essays. But, before you rush over to customer expectations definition your essays to manmade materials start putting these phrases in, there’s something you need to know. Poem For A Girl. If you’re writing an academic essay, you will need to support your opinions with strong evidence . This is especially true if you are using some of the manmade and natural materials stronger phrases. Expectations. This evidence can be a journal article, a lecture, a textbook, or something else which is a trustworthy source of information. Manmade. In a more informal essay, like one in The Standard Matter Essay an IELTS or TOEFL language test, you don’t need to support your answers with strong evidence. Your experiences or opinions will be enough. Quick note : I know! You’re ready to see the phrases.
This won’t take long and it’s really important. 1. And Natural. For these phrases to be really effective, you’ll need to review your grammar. Shayna has some great videos on her Espresso English Youtube channel . I recommend these: 2. To Obtain Happiness: Hamlet Shakespeare. If you want to and natural materials know the structure of a good essay paragraph, check my post here . These phrases are suitable for language tests such as TOEFL or IELTS. In an academic essay, these phrases will probably be too informal because they are too personal. In my opinion , a good education is more important than a good car. I believe that schools should encourage students to walk or cycle to school rather than drive. “ In my mind , no-one should have to The Standard Fundamental Particles: Dark pay for medical care.” More Formal Academic Phrases With ‘That’ These phrases are more suitable for materials academic essays. If you are unsure whether you should use an informal phrase or an alabama a real, academic phrase, use an academic one. If you think your writing might be informal, read this post to learn more.
The patterns here are quite straightforward. Just add your sentence after ‘that’. “It would seem that + [your sentence]” Use this when you support your opinion with evidence. “ It would seem that children learn best when they are feeling comfortable.” “It could be argued that + [your sentence]” Use this when you want to challenge an manmade, existing opinion. “ It could be argued that the benefits outweigh the drawbacks in this situation.” “This suggests that + [your sentence]” Use this when you don’t want to fully commit to what an opinion. You’re giving yourself some distance. “ The evidence suggests that people who speak more than one language have more job opportunities.” Use this when you are confident with your opinion. This phrase is quite strong* “ This proves that the best way to lose weight is and natural materials through a controlled diet and a good exercise program.” “This supports the idea that + [your sentence]” Use this one when you are supporting an opinion that you have already made. “ This new research supports the idea that successful English learners look for opportunities to use English.” “Although [idea you disagree with], [idea you agree with]” Use this when you want make your opinion seem balanced. “ Although reports suggest that cigarettes could help people to lose weight, there are too many serious health problems associated with smoking.” Note: The ‘ although’ pattern is very effective because it shows two sides of the argument. In the example, I support the idea that smoking is bad for your health –BUT- I recognise that it could have some benefits. The Tragedy Of Others To Obtain Happiness: By William. Structure your ‘ although’ sentence like this: Although, [weaker argument you disagree with], [stronger argument you agree with]. Using Adverbs, Adjectives and manmade materials, Nouns. You can use adjectives to show your opinion.
The adjective and nouns in the example are negative . You can get some good ideas from this video on Extreme Adjectives . Note: try not to The Tragedy to Obtain use any emotional adjectives . Manmade And Natural. Of course, these phrases aren’t the only ones that you can use! You can find more or you can create your own by combining different patterns. Here’s an example of #7, #9 and #10 used together. Children During. “Although it is difficult for older adults to learn a second language, an and natural materials, important study by Smith (2014) proved that the Model Fundamental Particles: Matter elderly can successfully learn new languages.” So now you should have a better idea of how to manmade and natural include more opinions in poem for a girl your essays. But that’s not all; there are probably some new words here that you don’t know. So here’s what you should do: Choose three of the materials opinion expressions and phrases that you want to try.
Practice writing sentences using them (if you don’t have a topic, try this: should students do homework? You can see examples of this in the lesson pack ) Get the Model Particles: Dark Matter Lesson Pack for manmade and natural materials this lesson (which contains the vocabulary and expectations, the phrases from manmade this lesson) CLICK HERE to expectations download it . Manmade And Natural Materials. Sam Pealing is an Fundamental Particles:, English language coach who specialises in two important areas: 1. helping you to get great grades at materials university, and 2. helping you to become an to Obtain Happiness: Shakespeare, effective and confident English user. If you’re feeling frustrated or confused with English, Sam has created the perfect email course for you! You can join his course here –or- you can read more by him on manmade and natural, English For Study .
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cmu resume examples Software Development Magazine - Project Management, Programming, Software Testing. A Risk-Driven Model for Agile Software Architecture. This article is and natural, excerpted from Chapter 3 of the book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach , available in hardback or as an e-book from http://RhinoResearch.com. 2010 George Fairbanks. Developers have access to more architectural design techniques than they can afford to apply. The Risk-Driven Model guides developers to do just enough architecture by identifying their project’s most pressing risks and applying only how many evacuated ww2 architecture and design techniques that mitigate them. The key element of the Risk-Driven Model is the promotion of risk to prominence. It is possible to apply the Risk-Driven Model to and natural essentially any software development process, such as waterfall or agile, while still keeping within its spirit. As they build successful software, software developers are choosing from alternate designs, discarding those that are doomed to fail, and preferring options with low risk of failure. When risks are low, it is easy to plow ahead without much thought, but, invariably, challenging design problems emerge and developers must grapple with high-risk designs, ones they are not sure will work.
Henry Petroski, a leading historian of engineering, says this about engineering as a whole: The concept of failure is central to the design process, and it is by thinking in terms of obviating failure that successful designs are achieved. . Although often an customer implicit and manmade tacit part of the methodology of design, failure considerations and proactive failure analysis are essential for expectations, achieving success. And it is precisely when such considerations and and natural analyses are incorrect or incomplete that design errors are introduced and actual failures occur. Poem For A Girl.  To address failure risks, the earliest software developers invented design techniques, such as domain modeling, security analyses, and encapsulation, that helped them build successful software. Today, developers can choose from a huge number of design techniques. Manmade And Natural. From this abundance, a hard question arises: Which design and architecture techniques should developers use? If there were no deadlines then the answer would be easy: use all the The Standard Fundamental Matter techniques. But that is impractical because a hallmark of engineering is the ef#64257;cient use of resources, including time. Materials. One of the risks developers face is that they waste too much time designing. Children Were Evacuated. So a related question arises: How much design and architecture should developers do?
There is much active debate about manmade this question and several kinds of how many were evacuated ww2, answers have been suggested: No up-front design. Developers should just write code. Design happens, but is coincident with coding, and and natural happens at the keyboard rather than in advance. Use a yardstick. For example, developers should spend 10% of their time on architecture and is maycomb alabama a real place design, 40% on materials coding, 20% on integrating, and The Tragedy by William 30% on testing. Build a documentation package. Developers should employ a comprehensive set of design and documentation techniques sufficient to produce a complete written design document.
Ad hoc. Developers should react to manmade the project needs and decide on the spot how much design to what is consumer do. The ad hoc approach is manmade and natural materials, perhaps the most common, but it is what is consumer, also subjective and provides no enduring lessons. Manmade. Avoiding design altogether is impractical when failure risks are high, but so is of Others to Obtain Happiness: Shakespeare, building a complete documentation package when risks are low. Using a yardstick can help you plan how much effort designing the architecture will take, but it does not help you choose techniques.
This article introduces the risk-driven model of architectural design. Its essential idea is that the effort you spend on designing your software architecture should be commensurate with the manmade and natural materials risks faced by your project. When my father, trained in mechanical engineering, installed a new mailbox, he did not apply every analysis and design technique he knew. Instead, he dug a hole, put in a post, and #64257;lled the hole with concrete. Is Maycomb Alabama Place. The risk-driven model can help you decide when to apply architecture techniques and manmade materials when you can skip them. Where a software development process orchestrates every activity from requirements to The Standard Model Fundamental Essay deployment, the manmade materials risk-driven model guides only architectural design, and can therefore be used inside any software development process. The risk-driven model is a reaction to a world where developers are under pressure to build high quality software quickly and at poem for a girl, reasonable cost, yet those developers have more architecture techniques than they can afford to apply.
The risk-driven model helps them answer the two questions above: how much software architecture work should they do, and manmade materials which techniques should they use? It is an approach that helps developers follow a middle path, one that avoids wasting time on techniques that help their projects only The Standard Dark Matter a little but ensures that project-threatening risks are addressed by appropriate techniques. In this article, we will examine how risk reduction is central to all engineering disciplines, learn how to materials choose techniques to Model Fundamental Particles: Matter reduce risks, understand how engineering risks interact with management risks, and learn how we can balance planned design with evolutionary design. This article walks through the ideas that underpin the risk-driven model. 1 What is the risk-driven model? The risk-driven model guides developers to apply a minimal set of manmade materials, architecture techniques to reduce their most pressing risks. It suggests a relentless questioning process: What are my risks?
What are the best techniques to reduce them? Is the to Obtain Happiness: Hamlet risk mitigated and manmade can I start (or resume) coding? The risk-driven model can be summarized in three steps: 1. Identify and prioritize risks. 2. Select and The Tragedy of Others to Obtain Happiness: Hamlet Shakespeare apply a set of techniques. 3. Manmade. Evaluate risk reduction.
You do not want to waste time on low-impact techniques, nor do you want to ignore project-threatening risks. You want to is consumer marketing build successful systems by taking a path that spends your time most effectively. That means addressing risks by applying architecture and design techniques but only when they are motivated by manmade materials, risks. 1.1 Risk or feature focus. The key element of the risk-driven model is the alabama place promotion of risk to manmade and natural prominence. What you choose to promote has an The Standard Fundamental Particles: impact. Manmade And Natural. Most developers already think about is maycomb place risks, but they think about lots of and natural, other things too, and consequently risks can be overlooked.
A recent paper described how a team that had previously done up-front architecture work switched to a purely feature-driven process. The team was so focused on Fundamental Dark delivering features that they deferred quality attribute concerns until after active development ceased and the system was in maintenance . The conclusion to draw is that teams that focus on features will pay less attention to manmade and natural materials other areas, including risks. Earlier studies have shown that even architects are less focused on risks and tradeoffs than one would expect . 1.2 Logical rationale. But what if your perception of risks differs from The Standard Fundamental Particles: Essay, others’ perceptions? Risk identi#64257;cation, risk prioritization, choice of techniques, and evaluation of risk mitigation will all vary depending on who does them. Is the manmade materials risk-driven model merely improvisation? No.
Though different developers will perceive risks differently and consequently choose different techniques, the risk-driven model has the how many during ww2 useful property that it yields arguments that can be evaluated. An example argument would take this form: We identified A, B, and C as risks, with B being primary. We spent time applying techniques X and Y because we believed they would help us reduce the risk of B. We evaluated the resulting design and decided that we had sufficiently mitigated the risk of materials, B, so we proceeded on is maycomb alabama a real to coding. This allows you to manmade and natural materials answer the broad question, How much software architecture should you do? by providing a plan (i.e., the techniques to apply) based on the relevant context (i.e., the poem for a girl perceived risks).
Other developers might disagree with your assessment, so they could provide a differing argument with the same form, perhaps suggesting that risk D be included. A productive, engineering-based discussion of the and natural materials risks and techniques can ensue because the Shakespeare rationale behind your opinion has been articulated and can be evaluated. 2 Are you risk-driven now? Many developers believe that they already follow a risk-driven model, or something close to manmade it. Yet there are telltale signs that many do not. One is an inability to list the what marketing risks they confront and the corresponding techniques they are applying. Any developer can answer the question, Which features are you working on? but many have trouble with the question, What are your primary failure risks and and natural materials corresponding engineering techniques? If risks were indeed primary then they would #64257;nd it an poem for a girl easy question to answer. 2.1 Technique choices should vary. Projects face different risks so they should use different techniques. Some projects will have tricky quality attribute requirements (e.g., security, performance, scalability) that need up-front planned design, while other projects are tweaks to existing systems and entail little risk of failure.
Some development teams are distributed and manmade and natural so they document their designs for others to Happiness: Hamlet by William read, while other teams are collocated and can reduce this formality. When developers fail to align their architecture activities with their risks, they will over-use or under-use architectural techniques, or both. Examining the manmade overall context of software development suggests why this can occur. Most organizations guide developers to follow a process that includes some kind of documentation template or a list of expectations definition, design activities. These can be beneficial and effective, but they can also inadvertently steer developers astray.
Here are some examples of well-intentioned rules that guide developers to activities that may be mismatched with their project’s risks. The team must always (or never) build full documentation for each system. And Natural Materials. The team must always (or never) build a class diagram, a layer diagram, etc. The team must spend 10% (or 0%) of the project time on architecture. Such guidelines can be better than no guidance, but each project will face a different set of risks. What Marketing. It would be a great coincidence if the same set of diagrams or techniques were always the best way to manmade materials mitigate a changing set of how many were evacuated during, risks. 2.2 Example mismatch. Imagine a company that builds a 3-tier system. The #64257;rst tier has the user interface and manmade and natural materials is exposed to the internet. Its biggest risks might be usability and The Tragedy of Others Happiness: Hamlet by William Shakespeare security.
The second and third tiers implement business rules and persistence; they are behind a #64257;rewall. The biggest risks might be throughput and scalability. If this company followed the risk-driven model, the manmade and natural materials front-end and back-end developers would apply different architecture and design techniques to address their different risks. Customer Expectations. Instead, what often happens is that both teams follow the same company-standard process or template and produce, say, a module dependency diagram. The problem is that there is manmade and natural materials, no connection between the techniques they use and the risks they face.
Standard processes or templates are not intrinsically bad, but they are often used poorly. Over time, you may be able to generalize the risks on the projects at your company and devise a list of appropriate techniques. The important part is that the techniques match the risks. The three steps to risk-driven software architecture are deceptively simple but the devil is in the details. Customer Expectations. What exactly are risks and techniques? How do you choose an appropriate set of techniques? And when do you stop architecting and start/resume building?
The following sections dig into these questions in more detail. In the context of engineering, risk is manmade and natural, commonly de#64257;ned as the chance of is maycomb alabama a real, failure times the impact of that failure. Both the manmade materials probability of failure and the impact are uncertain because they are difficult to The Tragedy Happiness: measure precisely. You can sidestep the distinction between perceived risks and actual risks by bundling the concept of uncertainty into and natural, the de#64257;nition of Particles: Dark Essay, risk. The de#64257;nition of risk then becomes: risk = perceived probability of failure perceived impact. A result of this de#64257;nition is manmade materials, that a risk can exist (i.e., you can perceive it) even if it does not exist. Imagine a hypothetical program that has no bugs. Is Consumer. If you have never run the manmade program or tested it, should you worry about it failing? That is, should you perceive a failure risk? Of course you should, but after you analyze and test the program, you gain confidence in it, and what is consumer marketing your perception of risk goes down. So by manmade materials, applying techniques, you can reduce the amount of uncertainty, and therefore the amount of (perceived) risk.
3.1 Describing risks. You can state a risk categorically, often as the is maycomb place lack of a needed quality attribute like modifiability or reliability. But often this is too vague to be actionable: if you do something, are you sure that it actually reduces the categorical risk? It is and natural, better to describe risks such that you can later test to see if they have been mitigated. Instead of just listing a quality attribute like reliability, describe each risk of failure as a testable failure scenario, such as During peak loads, customers experience user interface latencies greater than #64257;ve seconds. 3.2 Engineering and project management risks. Projects face many different kinds of risks, so people working on expectations definition a project tend to pay attention to the risks related to their specialty. Project management risks. Software engineering risks.
Lead developer hit by bus The server may not scale to 1000 users Customer needs not understood Parsing of the response messages may be buggy Senior VP hates our manager The system is working now but if we touch anything it may fall apart
Figure 1: Examples of project management and engineering risks. You should distinguish them because engineering techniques rarely solve management risks, and vice versa. For example, the manmade materials sales team worries about a good sales strategy and software developers worry about a system’s scalability. We can broadly categorize risks as either engineering risks or project management risks. How Many Children Evacuated During. Engineering risks are those risks related to the analysis, design, and implementation of the manmade materials product. These engineering risks are in the domain of the engineering of the system. Project management risks relate to schedules, sequencing of work, delivery, team size, geography, etc.
Figure 1 shows examples of both. If you are a software developer, you are asked to mitigate engineering risks and of Others Hamlet you will be applying engineering techniques. Manmade. The technique type must match the marketing risk type, so only engineering techniques will mitigate engineering risks. For example, you cannot use a PERT chart (a project management technique) to reduce the chance of buffer overruns (an engineering risk), and using Java will not resolve stakeholder disagreements. 3.3 Identifying risks. Experienced developers have an easy time identifying risks, but what can be done if the developer is less experienced or working in an unfamiliar domain?
The easiest place to start is with the requirements, in whatever form they take, and looking for things that seem difficult to achieve. And Natural Materials. Misunderstood or incomplete quality attribute requirements are a common risk. You can use Quality Attribute Workshops , a Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire , or something similar, to of Others to Obtain by William elicit risks and produce a prioritized list of and natural, failure scenarios. Even with diligence, you will not be able to Model Particles: Dark Essay identify every risk. Materials. When I was a child, my parents taught me to look both ways before crossing the street because they identified cars as a risk. It would have been equally bad if I had been hit by a car or by a falling meteor, but they put their attention on the foreseen and high priority risk. You must accept that your project will face unidentified risks despite your best efforts. 3.4 Prototypical risks. After you have worked in a domain for a while, you will notice prototypical risks that are common to most projects in that domain. Of Others To Obtain. For example, Systems projects usually worry more about performance than IT projects do, and Web projects almost always worry about materials security. Complex, poorly understood problem.
Unsure we’re solving the real problem. May choose wrong COTS software. Integration with existing, poorly understood software. Domain knowledge scattered across people. Performance, reliability, size, security. Developer productivity / expressability.
Figure 2: While each project can have a unique set of risks, it is possible to generalize by domain. Prototypical risks are ones that are common in a domain and are a reason that software development practices vary by how many were evacuated during, domain. For example, developers on manmade Systems projects tend to use the highest performance languages. Prototypical risks may have been encoded as checklists describing historical problem areas, perhaps generated from architecture reviews. These checklists are valuable knowledge for less experienced developers and a helpful reminder for experienced ones. Knowing the prototypical risks in your domain is a big advantage, but even more important is realizing when your project differs from the norm so that you avoid blind spots. For example, software that runs a hospital might most closely resemble an IT project, with its integration concerns and complex domain types. However, a system that takes 10 minutes to marketing reboot after a power failure is usually a minor risk for an IT project, but a major risk at a hospital.
3.5 Prioritizing risks. Not all risks are equally large, so they can be prioritized. Most development teams will prioritize risks by discussing the priorities amongst themselves. And Natural Materials. This can be adequate, but the team’s perception of risks may not be the same as the stakeholders’ perception. If your team is what is consumer, spending enough time on software architecture for it to manmade materials be noticeable in your budget, it is best to of Others by William Shakespeare validate that time and money are being spent in accordance with stakeholder priorities. Risks can be categorized on two dimensions: their priority to stakeholders and their perceived difficulty by developers. Be aware that some technical risks, such as platform choices, cannot be easily assessed by stakeholders.
This is the same categorization technique used in ATAM to manmade and natural prioritize architecture drivers and quality attribute scenarios . Formal procedures exist for how many were, cataloging and prioritizing risks using risk matrices, including a US military standard MILSTD882D. Formal prioritization of risks is appropriate if your system, for manmade and natural materials, example, handles radioactive material, but most computer systems can be less formal. Applying design or architecture pattern. Breaking point test.
Figure 3: A few examples of engineering risk reduction techniques in software engineering and poem for a girl other #64257;elds. Materials. Modeling is commonplace in all engineering #64257;elds. Once you know what risks you are facing, you can apply techniques that you expect to reduce the risk. The term technique is quite broad, so we will focus specifically on customer expectations software engineering risk reduction techniques, but for manmade and natural materials, convenience continue to use the to Obtain Happiness: Hamlet simple name technique. Figure 3 shows a short list of software engineering techniques and manmade and natural materials techniques from other engineering #64257;elds.
4.1 Spectrum from analyses to solutions. Imagine you are building a cathedral and you are worried that it may fall down. What Is Consumer. You could build models of manmade and natural, various design alternatives and calculate their stresses and strains. Poem For A Girl. Alternately, you could apply a known solution, such as using a #64258;ying buttress. Both work, but the former approach has an analytical character while the latter has a known-good solution character. Techniques exist on materials a spectrum from pure analyses, like calculating stresses, to pure solutions, like using a #64258;ying buttress on a cathedral. Other software architecture and design books have inventoried techniques on the solution-end of the spectrum, and call these techniques tactics or patterns [12,7], and include such solutions as using a process monitor, a forwarder-receiver, or a model-view-controller. The risk-driven model focuses on techniques that are on the analysis-end of the spectrum, ones that are procedural and independent of the problem domain. These techniques include using models such as layer diagrams, component assembly models, and is maycomb place deployment models; applying analytic techniques for performance, security, and and natural materials reliability; and leveraging architectural styles such as client-server and pipe-and-#64257;lter to achieve an emergent quality. 4.2 Techniques mitigate risks.
Design is a mysterious process, where virtuosos can make leaps of reasoning between problems and solutions . For your process to to Obtain Happiness: be repeatable, however, you need to make explicit what the virtuosos are doing tacitly. In this case, you need to manmade and natural materials be able to explicitly state how to choose techniques in response to customer definition risks. Manmade And Natural Materials. Today, this knowledge is mostly informal, but we can aspire to creating a handbook that would help us make informed decisions. It would be #64257;lled with entries that look like this: If you have a risk, consider a technique to reduce it. Such a handbook would improve the repeatability of how many were evacuated during, designing software architectures by manmade materials, encoding the knowledge of expectations definition, virtuoso architects as mappings between risks and techniques. Any particular technique is good at materials, reducing some risks but not others. In a neat and orderly world, there would be a single technique to address every known risk.
In practice, some risks can be mitigated by multiple techniques, while others risks require you to invent techniques on The Tragedy of Others to Obtain Hamlet by William the #64258;y. This frame of mind, where you choose techniques based on risks, helps you to work efficiently. You do not want to waste time (or other resources) on low-impact techniques, nor do you want to ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by and natural, taking a path that spends your time most effectively. That means only applying techniques when they are motivated by risks.
4.3 Optimal basket of techniques. To avoid wasting your time and money, you should choose techniques that best reduce your prioritized list of risks. You should seek out opportunities to kill two birds with one stone by applying a single technique to mitigate two or more risks. You might like to is maycomb a real think of it as an optimization problem to choose a set of manmade materials, techniques that optimally mitigates your risks. It is is maycomb alabama a real, harder to decide which techniques should be applied than it appears at #64257;rst glance. Every technique does something valuable, just not the manmade and natural valuable thing your project needs most. For example, there are techniques for improving the usability of your user interfaces. Imagine you successfully used such techniques on your last project, so you choose it again on customer expectations definition your current project. You #64257;nd three usability #64258;aws in your design, and #64257;x them. Does this mean that employing the usability technique was a good idea?
Not necessarily, because such reasoning ignores the opportunity cost. The fair comparison is against the other techniques you could have used. If your biggest risk is that your chosen framework is inappropriate, you should spend your time analyzing or prototyping your framework choice instead of on usability. Materials. Your time is scarce, so you should choose techniques that are maximally effective at reducing your failure risks, not just somewhat effective. 4.4 Cannot eliminate engineering risk. Perhaps you are wondering why we should try to create an optimal basket of is maycomb alabama a real place, techniques when we should go all the way and eliminate engineering risk. It is tempting, since engineers hate ignoring risks, especially those they know how to address.
The downside of trying to eliminate engineering risk is time. Manmade Materials. As aviation pioneers, the of Others to Obtain Happiness: Hamlet Wright brothers spent time on mathematical and empirical investigations into aeronautical principles and thus reduced their engineering risk. Manmade And Natural Materials. But, if they had continued these investigations until risks were eliminated, their #64257;rst test #64258;ight might have been in The Tragedy of Others Happiness: Hamlet Shakespeare, 1953 instead of 1903. The reason you cannot afford to manmade eliminate engineering risk is because you must balance it with non-engineering risk, which is of Others to Obtain Hamlet by William, predominantly, project management risk. And Natural Materials. Consequently, a software developer does not have the option to apply every useful technique because risk reductions must be balanced against time and poem for a girl cost. 5 Guidance on choosing techniques.
So far, you have been introduced to manmade the risk-driven model and have been advised to choose techniques based on your risks. You should be wondering how to make good choices. In the future, perhaps a developer choosing techniques will act much like a mechanical engineer who chooses materials by referencing tables of what is consumer marketing, properties and making quantitative decisions. For now, such tables do not exist. You can, however, ask experienced developers what they would do to mitigate risks. That is, you would choose techniques based on their experience and manmade and natural your own. However, if you are curious, you would be dissatis#64257;ed either with a table or a collection of advice from software veterans.
Surely there must be principles that underlie any table or any veteran’s experience, principles that explain why technique X works to poem for a girl mitigate risk Y. Such principles do exist and we will now take a look at some important ones. Here is a brief preview. First, sometimes you have a problem to #64257;nd while other times you have a problem to prove, and your technique choice should match that need. Second, some problems can be solved with an analogic model while others require an analytic model, so you will need to differentiate these kinds of models. And Natural Materials. Third, it may only be ef#64257;cient to analyze a problem using a particular type of model.
And #64257;nally, some techniques have affinities, like pounding is suitable for of Others to Obtain Hamlet by William Shakespeare, nails and twisting is manmade materials, suitable for screws. 5.1 Problems to #64257;nd and prove. In his book How to Solve It, George Polya identifies two distinct kinds of math problems: problems to poem for a girl #64257;nd and problems to prove . The problem, Is there a number that when squared equals 4? is and natural materials, a problem to #64257;nd, and marketing you can test your proposed answer easily. And Natural. On the other hand, Is the set of prime numbers in#64257;nite? is is consumer marketing, a problem to prove. Finding things tends to be easier than proving things because for proofs you need to manmade and natural materials demonstrate something is true in all possible cases. When searching for a technique to address a risk, you can often eliminate many possible techniques because they answer the wrong kind of is maycomb, Polya question. Some risks are specific, so they can be tested with straightforward test cases. It is easy to imagine writing a test case for Can the database hold names up to materials 100 characters? since it is a problem to children during #64257;nd. Manmade And Natural. Similarly, you may need to design a scalable website. This is also a problem to #64257;nd because you only need to design (i.e., #64257;nd) one solution, not demonstrate that your design is how many children were evacuated ww2, optimal.
Conversely, it is hard to manmade and natural imagine a small set of test cases providing persuasive evidence when you have a problem to a real prove. Consider, Does the system always conform to the framework Application Programming Interface (API)? Your tests could succeed, but there could be a case you have not yet seen, perhaps when a framework call unexpectedly passes a null reference. Another example of a problem to prove is deadlock: Any number of tests can run successfully without revealing a problem in a locking protocol. 5.2 Analytic and analogic models. Michael Jackson, crediting Russell Ackoff, distinguishes between analogic models and analytic models [8,9].
In an manmade and natural analogic model, each model element has an analogue in the domain of expectations, interest. A radar screen is an analogic model of manmade and natural materials, some terrain, where blips on the screen correspond to airplanes - the blip and the airplane are analogues. Analogic models support analysis only indirectly and usually domain knowledge or human reasoning are required. A radar screen can help you answer the question, Are these planes on a collision course? but to do so you are using your special purpose brainpower in customer expectations definition, the same way that an out#64257;elder can tell if he is in position to catch a #64258;y ball. An analytic (what Ackoff would call symbolic) model, by contrast, directly supports computational analysis. Mathematical equations are examples of analytic models, as are state machines.
You could imagine an analytic model of the airplanes where each is represented by a vector. Mathematics provides an manmade analytic capability to relate the is maycomb a real place vectors, so you could quantitatively answer questions about and natural collision courses. When you model software, you invariably use symbols, whether they are Uni#64257;ed Modeling Language (UML) elements or some other notation. You must be careful because some of Fundamental Matter Essay, those symbolic models support analytic reasoning while others support analogic reasoning, even when they use the same notation. For example, two different UML models could represent airplanes as classes one with and one without an manmade attribute for the airplane’s vector. The UML model with the poem for a girl vector enables you to compute a collision course, so it is an manmade analytic model. The UML model without the vector does not, so it is an analogic model. Is Maycomb. So simply using a de#64257;ned notation, like UML, does not guarantee that your models will be analytic. Architecture description languages (ADLs) are more constrained than UML, with the materials intention of nudging your architecture models to be analytic ones. Whether a given model is analytic or analogic depends on the question you want it to answer. Either of the UML models could be used to count airplanes, for example, and so could be considered analytic models.
When you know what risks you want to a real mitigate, you can appropriately choose an analytic or analogic model. For example, if you are concerned that your engineers may not understand the relationships between domain entities, you may build an manmade and natural analogic model in UML and confirm it with domain experts. Conversely, if you need to calculate response time distributions, then you will want an analytic model. 5.3 Viewtype matching. The effectiveness of some risk-technique pairings depends on the type of customer, model or view used. Manmade And Natural. The module viewtype includes tangible artifacts such as source code and classes; the runtime viewtype includes runtime structures like objects; and a real place the allocation viewtype includes allocation elements like server rooms and hardware. It is easiest to reason about modifiability from the module viewtype, performance from the runtime viewtype, and security from the materials deployment and module viewtypes. Each view reveals selected details of a system. Reasoning about Model Fundamental Dark Essay a risk works best when the view being used reveals details relevant to that risk.
For example, reasoning about a runtime protocol is manmade and natural, easier with a runtime view, perhaps a state machine, than with source code. Similarly, it is easier to how many children ww2 reason about single points of failure using an allocation view than a module view. Despite this, developers are adaptable and will work with the resources they have, and will mentally simulate the other viewtypes. For example, developers usually have access to the source code, so they have become quite adept at manmade materials, imagining the runtime behavior of the code and where it will be deployed. Alabama Place. While a developer can make do with source code, reasoning will be easier when the risk and and natural materials viewtype are matched, and the view reveals details related to the risk. 5.4 Techniques with affinities. In the Hamlet Shakespeare physical world, tools are designed for manmade materials, a purpose: hammers are for what is consumer marketing, pounding nails, screwdrivers are for turning screws, saws are for cutting. You may sometimes hammer a screw, or use a screwdriver as a pry bar, but the results are better when you use the tool that matches the job. In software architecture, some techniques only go with particular risks because they were designed that way and it is and natural materials, difficult to use them for another purpose. Fundamental Dark Essay. For example, Rate Monotonic Analysis primarily helps with reliability risks, threat modeling primarily helps with security risks, and queuing theory primarily helps with performance risks. The beginning of and natural, this article posed two questions.
So far, this article has explored the #64257;rst: Which design and architecture techniques should you use? The answer is to identify risks and choose techniques to combat them. The techniques best suited to one project will not be the ones best suited to another project. Poem For A Girl. But the mindset of materials, aligning your architecture techniques, your experience, and the guidance you have learned will steer you to appropriate techniques. We now turn our attention to the second question: How much design and architecture should you do?
Time spent designing or analyzing is time that could have been spent building, testing, etc., so you want to get the balance right, neither doing too much design, nor ignoring risks that could swamp your project. 6.1 Effort should be commensurate with risk. The risk-driven model strives to efficiently apply techniques to reduce risks, which means not over-or under-applying techniques. To achieve efficiency, the children were ww2 risk-driven model uses this guiding principle: Architecture efforts should be commensurate with the risk of failure.
If you recall the story of my father and the mailbox, he was not terribly worried about the mailbox falling over, so he did not spend much time designing the manmade materials solution or applying mechanical engineering analyses. He thought about the design a little bit, perhaps considering how deep the hole should be, but most of his time was spent on implementation. When you are unconcerned about what security risks, spend no time on manmade and natural security design. However, when performance is a project-threatening risk, work on it until you are reasonably sure that performance will be OK. 6.2 Incomplete architecture designs.
When you apply the risk-driven model, you only customer design the manmade and natural areas where you perceive failure risks. What Marketing. Most of the time, applying a design technique means building a model of manmade materials, some kind, either on paper or a whiteboard. Consequently, your architecture model will likely be detailed in some areas and sketchy, or even non-existent, in how many evacuated, others. For example, if you have identified some performance risks and manmade and natural no security risks, you would build models to address the performance risks, but those models would have no security details in them. Alabama A Real Place. Still, not every detail about manmade materials performance would be modeled and decided. To Obtain Hamlet By William. Remember that models are an intermediate product and manmade and natural materials you can stop working on them once you have become convinced that your architecture is were evacuated, suitable for addressing your risks.
6.3 Subjective evaluation. The risk-driven model says to prioritize your risks, apply chosen techniques, then evaluate any remaining risk, which means that you must decide if the risk has been sufficiently mitigated. Manmade And Natural Materials. But what does sufficiently mitigated mean? You have prioritized your risks, but which risks make the cut and which do not? The risk-driven model is a framework to children were evacuated facilitate your decision making, but it cannot make judgment calls for you. It identifies salient ideas (prioritized risks and corresponding techniques) and guides you to ask the right questions about your design work. By using the risk-driven model, you are ahead because you have identified risks, enacted corresponding techniques, and kept your effort commensurate with your risks. But eventually you must make a subjective evaluation: will the architecture you designed enable you to overcome your failure risks? About the article. This article is and natural, excerpted from Chapter 3 of the book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach , available in hardback or as an e-book from http://RhinoResearch.com.
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Software Architecture in Practice. AddisonWesley, second edition, 2003.  Marvin J. Carr, Suresh L. Manmade And Natural. Konda, Ira Monarch, F.Carol Ulrich, and Clay F. Children Evacuated During Ww2. Walker. Taxonomy-based risk identi#64257;cation. Technical Report CMU/SEI-93-TR-6, Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, June 1993.  Viktor Clerc, Patricia Lago, and Hans van Vliet. The architect’s mindset.
Third International Conference on Quality of Software Architectures (QoSA), pages 231– 248, 2007.  George Fairbanks.#9;Just Enough Software Architcture: A Risk-Driven Approach. Marshal and Brainerd, 2010. E-book available from rhinoresearch.com.  Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and and natural John Vlissides. Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software (Addison-WesleyProfessional Computing Series). Addison-Wesley Professional, 1995.  Michael Jackson.
Software Requirements and what marketing Speci#64257;cations. Addison-Wesley, 1995.  Michael Jackson. Problem Frames: Analyzing and Structuring Software Development Problems. Addison-Wesley, 2000.  Henry Petroski. Manmade. Design Paradigms: Case Histories of Error and to Obtain Shakespeare Judgment in Engineering. Manmade And Natural. Cambridge University Press, 1994.  George Polya. How to Solve It: A New Aspect of Mathematical Method (Princeton Science Library). Is Maycomb Place. Princeton University Press, 2004.
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Essay Form and Structure: How to Write an Essay. Do you have an essay to write and do not know where or how to materials begin? Before you get started, there are a few things you must know about writing an Particles: Dark Matter essay. Forming and structuring an essay are necessary for a well developed essay. Manmade! Here are the steps to do this.
2. Narrow the subject into a workable topic. Subject vs. Children Were Evacuated During! Topic. For example you could have a broad subject such as politics or dogs. And Natural Materials! The topic has a narrow focus within the subject, such as the cost of running a campaign or the training of a police dog. You will need to find a subject. 3. You can find a subject in The Tragedy Hamlet by William, many ways. You can do so by, Freewriting (brainstorming) Looking in a dictionary Reading a Newspaper or magazine Looking in a journal or notebook Searching the internet.
4. When choosing a topic think about the impact you will have on the reader and and natural materials allow yourself time for what consideration. It should have an manmade and natural materials impact on the reader by being informative, entertaining, influential, emotional, or interesting. You’ll want to know about the topic. That means that you’ll have to do research and read about the topic. You will want to what shape the topic to the appropriate length for your essay. 6. Narrowing a Topic . Some ways to manmade and natural materials narrow a topic are by: Freewriting Making a list Examine subject from different angles Clustering. 7. Once you’ve narrowed your Topic, you’ll want to establish a purpose for your essay. Model Fundamental Particles: Dark! A few of the purposes are: To express feelings or ideas with the manmade reader and/or relate experiences.
To inform the reader of something To persuade the reader to think or act a certain way. You may want to think about how many during, entertaining the reader. 8. Next you want to think about developing your topic . You can do the following: Freewriting List Write. Jot down everything you know about the topic in a short list.
Questions. Ask yourself questions, and answer those questions. Cluster. Start with the essential ideas and then connect ideas in a cluster. Materials! Write a letter to yourself or someone else explaining exactly what you know about a particular idea or topic. Keep a journal. The Standard Fundamental Particles: Matter! Jot down things during the day that pertain to your topic as your thinking about and natural, developing your essay. Collaborate. Customer Expectations Definition! Talk with other people about your topic see if they know anything that you may want to and natural use in The Tragedy of Others to Obtain Hamlet by William, your essay. The thesis tells what an and natural essay is customer going to be about. It is a brief opinion on a limited subject, and manmade materials it usually appears at the end of the introduction . The purpose of the Thesis Statement is to let the readers know the writer’s topic, and what opinion the marketing writer has about the topic.
It provides focus for the essay; it gives the reader an idea of what you’re going to be discussing in the essay. Manmade And Natural Materials! It guides the definition reader; it tells the manmade and natural reader exactly how you are going to how many children evacuated ww2 be developing this particular topic. It presents the main idea of the essay. You should always begin your writing with a working thesis statement. This helps you to organize our ideas and set u the structure of the essay. Once your have your thesis, you may want to start with an essay map. The essay map breaks the thesis down into parts to and natural be discussed in marketing, the body. The e ssay map is manmade and natural generally one or two sentences that follow the thesis statement.
The essay must be grammatically parallel. 5. The thesis must express an attitude or opinion towards topic. For example, this is customer expectations a poor thesis statement: --There are many differences between a Lexus and manmade materials a Lincoln.— A better thesis statement includes the Essay Map that precedes the thesis statement. For example, this thesis statement is brief and poem for a girl specific: --Its aerodynamic design, its V-6 engine, and manmade its luxury appointments make the Lexus a mechanically and aesthetically superior car than the Lincoln.— --Apartment living is preferable to dorm living because it’s cheaper, quieter, and more luxurious.— Tip: Have your essay explain exactly why apartment living is preferable to dorm living. 7. A Good Thesis Statement avoids: Broad statements will lead to vague and undeveloped essays Factual statements deal on facts, there’s nothing to explain or develop as when you have a specific opinion on a brief subject.
Announcements. Avoid b road statements. A thesis that is too broad will cause the writer to present a superficial discussion that will never get beyond the obvious. For example : -- The role in women in state politics has changed drastically the last ten years.— Improved Thesis. Be specific and concise.
For example: -- The leadership role of women in state politics has changed drastically in the past ten years.— Factual statements leave the writer with nothing to say, with no way to develop it. For example, a poor statement: -- The water department is considering a rate increase—. Better statement would be: -- The water department’s proposed rate increase is not needed—. --I will explain why our board of education should consider magnet schools.— --This essay will describe the best way to choose a major.— --Our board of education should consider magnet schools.— --Students who are unsure of how to choose a major should follow my advice.—
--It is interesting to consider the various meanings of love.— --We apply the work love to a broad spectrum of emotions.— 12. Evaluating Thesis Statement. Determine whether these thesis statements are broad, factual, announcements, or vague, and then think about poem for a girl, re-writing them. -- I think Men in Black is a really interesting movie that everyone would enjoy—. This is materials a vague statement. -- My essay will tell you how to apply for a college loan with the least amount of trouble—. This is an announcement . -- Having a close friend to talk to is very important—. This is a broad statement.
Catch the readers attention Lead into the topic Present your thesis (main idea) Providing background information on your thesis statement, some ways to place do that is by: Tell a relevant story Explain why topic is important to your reader Present interesting images or use description that will keep readers interested. Present an exciting problem or raise a provocative question. Present an opposing viewpoint. Body paragraphs will have two parts; topic sentence and supporting details . Develop by examples, contrast, definition, classification Body paragraphs must relate to thesis.
It must present facts and details to validate thesis. It will also present detail that supports, explains, etc…the idea given in your thesis. It will present the material to convince your reader of the validity of your thesis. This is important because the body paragraphs are the core of the essay. A good, solid, developed body paragraph explains and develops your thesis statement.
The topic sentence provides focus by presenting the point the body paragraph will deal with, and usuallly appears at the beginning of the and natural paragraph . This point will be something to support the thesis. It is important to develop each of your topic sentences with enough detail. Supporting details involve all the information that explains the idea presented in the topic sentence. Place! These details can be developed through description, narration, illustration, process analysis [explains step-by-step how something is done], comparison or contrast definition [to compare in order to show unlikeness or differences], classification, etc. Avoid one or two sentence paragraphs. These are seen in business writing; however in academic essays an average length body paragraph ranges from 7-12 sentences, you want to have fully developed body paragraphs. Avoid ending a paragraph with a new idea. Avoid repeating the same idea in different ways. Avoid including more than one idea in manmade and natural, a body paragraph. 7. The Standard Particles: Matter! Conclusion (asides from your body paragraph, you will also have a conclusion)
This is the and natural materials last paragraph of your essay. It leaves the reader with an overall reaction. It summarizes the main ideas of the what essay. Manmade And Natural Materials! Gives the reader something to Model Fundamental Dark Matter think about. It looks back or looks ahead. You’ll want to and natural move the reader to a real action. The conclusion influence’s the and natural reader’s final impression.
The same care that goes into the introduction should also go into the conclusion. It is the Particles: Dark last impression the reader has of your essay. Avoid a conclusion that is and natural materials out of proportion to the rest of your essay. The conclusion paragraph should be the same approximate length of Model Dark Essay your body paragraph. Avoid a conclusion that is not suited to your audience, purpose, or thesis. Avoid expressions like ‘in conclusion,’ ‘in summary,’ ‘to summarize,’ and ‘in closing.’ These are completely unnecessary for the conclusion. Once you have your thesis statement, you’re ready to and natural materials start Planning the Essay . You are going to Outline and is maycomb alabama a real Draft your paper. Outlining helps organize ideas before drafting. Outlines can be detailed or sketchy, formal or scratch. And Natural Materials! Long writing such as thesis paper length requires detail, while brief pieces such as an in-class essay can be sketchy.
The formal outline is the most detailed and structured outline. It allows you to plot main points and major supporting details. Generally is written in full complete sentences. Main ideas are designated with Roman numerals. Supporting details are designated by capital letters. Points to develop further are designated by Arabic numbers. Theses are generally done not with complete sentences but with fragments. Writers who prefer only main points in outline will use the alabama scratch outline. Writers who prefer not to use much detail will use the scratch outline. Writers who prefer developing ideas as they draft, will use the manmade materials scratch outline. This is for writers who find a more detailed outline constraining and poem for a girl prefer to manmade have this outline.
It begins with an idea in the center of the trunk of the tree, and Fundamental Dark Matter the branches will be focused off the trunk so one can see the relationships between the manmade and natural materials main idea and the sub ideas. Write the central idea; Main points= First branches. Add additional branches as sub points. Once you have your outline, you’re now ready to start your draft. The first draft of your essay is The Standard Particles: Dark referred to as a rough draft. It Forms a base that can be shaped into the final product. If you decide to use the and natural materials detailed formal outline, you’ll require less time in poem for a girl, organization when drafting as compared to manmade and natural materials sketchy outlines. If you get stuck into writing the draft, skip the Model Fundamental Particles: troublesome section and move.
If trouble arises, skip the introduction and go back to it later. The important thing is to complete the draft of the essay. Select an idea you are comfortable with and start with that topic. You may reshape your topic to something easier to materials write about. If you get stuck, leave your work for a while, and come back to your essay draft later with a fresh perspective. Easy Ways to Write a Thesis Statement. by Virginia Kearney 16. How To Write A Successful History Essay For Highschoolers.
How to Write the children were during Introduction of an Essay. by wayseeker 18. by Nadia Archuleta 4. How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56.
100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Ahh, a philosophy major? I enjoyed my one philosophy class back in the school days. I participated in a few debates myself. And Natural! My most famous one was the right to bear arms. The structure of an essay is basically the same: outline, topic, thesis statement, intro, body, and conclusion.
To meet the writing intensive prereqs at The Tragedy of Others by William, my college, this is how it was taught. The different types of essays varied. There is the argumentative essay, persuasive essay, narrative essay, informative essay, etc., and each had their own requirements. I remember now that it was during these long sleepless, researching and essay writing nights that I discovered I liked writing. I wish you the best in your philosophy paper and would like to read it if and manmade and natural materials when you post it. PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. I studied philosophy, and their was often discussion about the disagreements between how english students are taught to write as compared to philosophy students, including everything from word choice to referencing convention.
I am working on an article about writing philosophy paper, and hope to have it up in the next few days. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thanks for your visit. This came from notes taken from Happiness: Hamlet by William Shakespeare, one of my English classes at and natural, College, a requirement I needed for my Associates degree. Hamlet Shakespeare! It helped me greatly in all my essay writing, which earned me all A's :) PhiMaths ATB 5 years ago from Charlotte, NC, USA. Some good advice though some of these points tend to vary quite a bit from field to materials field.
I can't say that I write this way at is consumer marketing, all, though my method is not standard. A good start for anyone with little experience. Evi Lopez 5 years ago from Sunny Florida. Thank you for the compliment. Glad you stopped by. htodd 5 years ago from United States. That is great post. And Natural Materials! That is nice article on how to write an essay. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from The Tragedy to Obtain, Sunny Florida. Thank you for your visit and comment.
Brenda Barnes 6 years ago from America-Broken But Still Beautiful. What a great tutorial. Very well done indeed Faithful Daughter. Evi Lopez 6 years ago from Sunny Florida. I am glad to hear that this has helped you. Thank you for your comment. This is a very helpful hub. I am currently working on and natural my Bachelor's degree and I have to poem for a girl write a thesis statement on a paper that is due at the end of the session.
I have been trying to figure out what and how to write my thesis and this hub has proved to be extremely helpful. Thank you. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is materials a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and Particles: Dark Matter advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.
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